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Chapter 1 Introduction

Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)


It is a combination of separate applications: Computer aided design (CAD) Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) Computer aided engineering (CAE) Robotics Manufacturing resource planning (MRP-II) Material requirements planning (MRP)

Chapter 1 Introduction
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering tasks. It includes computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided analysis (CAA), computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), computeraided manufacturing (CAM), material requirements planning (MRP), and computer-aided planning (CAP).

The objective of CIM is to streamline the manufacturing processes and to integrate them with other business functions (such as accounting, financing, distributing, marketing).

1.1 PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


Product cycle and CAD/CAM system

1.1 PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


Definition: A collection of people, equipment, and procedures organized to accomplish the manufacturing operations of a company Two categories: Facilities Factory and equipment in production and the way equipment is organized (plant layout) Manufacturing support systems A set of procedures used by a company to manage production and to solve technical and logistics problems in ordering materials, moving work through the factory, and ensuring that products meet quality standards

1.1 PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


Architecture and interaction Portions of the whole system are automated and computerized.

Direct labor people are responsible for operating facilities.


Professional staff people are responsible for manufacturing supporting systems.

1.1.1 Facilities

Facilities include the factory, production machines and tooling, material handling equipment, inspection equipment, and computer systems that control the manufacturing operations
Plant layout The way equipment is physically arranged in the factory Manufacturing systems Logical grouping of equipment and workers in the factory Production line Individual work cell, stand-alone workstation and worker

1.1.1 Facilities Manual work systems

One or more workers perform one or more tasks without the aid of powered tools.

Production tasks require the use of hand tools.

1.1.1 Facilities Worker-machine systems

A human worker operates powered equipment, such as a machine tool or other production machines. Workers and machines are combined to take advantage of their relative strengths and attributes.

1.1.1 Facilities Worker-machine systems Relative strengths and attributes of humans and machines
Relative Strengths of Humans
Sense unexpected stimuli Develop new solution to problems Cope with abstract problems Adapt to change Generalize from observations Learn from experience

Relative Strengths of Machines


Perform repetitive tasks consistently Store large amounts of data Retrieve data from memory reliably Perform multiple tasks simultaneously Apply high forces and power Perform simple computations quickly

Make difficult decisions based on incomplete data Make routine decisions quickly

1.1.1 Facilities Automated systems

A process is performed by a machine without the direct participation of a human worker. Automation is implemented using a program of instructions combined with a control system that executes the instructions.

1.1.2 Manufacturing Support Systems

Functions: To operate the production facilities efficiently, a company must organize itself to design the processes and equipment, plan and control the production orders, and satisfy product quality requirements.
These functions are accomplished by manufacturing support systems which are people and procedures. Most of these systems do not directly contact the product (management, materials ordering,etc.), but they plan and control its progress through the factory.

1.1.2 Manufacturing Support Systems Manufacturing support


It involves a cycle of information-processing activities that consists of four functions: Business functions
Sales and marketing, order entry, cost accounting, customer billing

Product design
Research and development, design engineering, prototype shop

Manufacturing planning
Process planning, production planning, materials requirement planning (MRP), capacity planning

Manufacturing control
Shop floor control, inventory control, quality control

1.1.2 Manufacturing Support Systems Information processing cycle

1.2 AUTOMATION IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Two categories

Two categories of automation in production systems: 1. Automation of manufacturing systems in the factory 2. Computerization of the manufacturing support systems The two categories overlap because manufacturing support systems are connected to the factory manufacturing systems
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)

1.2 AUTOMATION IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Computer integrated manufacturing

1.2.1 Automated Manufacturing Systems

Examples: Automated machine tools Transfer lines Automated assembly systems Industrial robots that perform processing or assembly operations Automated material handling and storage systems to integrate manufacturing operations Automatic inspection systems for quality control

1.2.1 Automated Manufacturing Systems Three basic types of automation

1.2.1 Automated Manufacturing Systems Fixed automation

A manufacturing system in which the sequence of processing (or assembly) operations is fixed by the equipment configuration

Typical features: Suited to high production quantities High initial investment for custom-engineered equipment High production rates Relatively inflexible in accommodating product variety

1.2.1 Automated Manufacturing Systems Programmable automation

A manufacturing system designed with the capability to change the sequence of operations to accommodate different product configurations
Typical features: High investment in general purpose equipment Lower production rates than fixed automation Flexibility to deal with variations and changes in product configuration Most suitable for batch production Physical setup and part program must be changed between jobs (batches).

1.2.1 Automated Manufacturing Systems Flexible automation

An extension of programmable automation in which the system is capable of changing over from one job to the next with no lost time between jobs

Typical features: High investment for custom-engineered system Continuous production of variable mixes of products Medium production rates Flexibility to deal with soft product variety

1.2.2 Computerized Manufacturing Support Systems

Objectives of automating the manufacturing support systems:


Reduce the amount of manual and clerical effort in product design, manufacturing planning and control, and the business functions Integrate computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) in CAD/CAM CIM includes CAD/CAM and the business functions of the firm.

1.2.3 Reasons for Automation and CIM

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

To increase labor productivity To reduce labor cost To mitigate the effects of labor shortages To reduce or remove routine manual and clerical tasks To improve worker safety To improve product quality To reduce manufacturing lead time To accomplish what cannot be done manually To avoid the high cost of not automating

1.3 MANUAL LABOR IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 1.3.1 Manual Labor in Factory Operations The long term trend is toward greater use of automated systems to substitute for manual labor. When is manual labor justified? Some countries have very low labor rates and automation cannot be justified. Task is too technologically difficult to automate. Short product life cycle Customized product requires human flexibility. To cope with ups and downs in demand To reduce risk of product failure

1.3.2 Labor in Manufacturing Support Systems

Product designers who bring creativity to the design task Manufacturing engineers who Design the production equipment and tooling Plan the production methods and routings Equipment maintenance Programming and computer operation Engineering project work Plant management

1.4 AUTOMATION PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES Three approaches

1. The USA Principle 2. Ten Strategies for Automation and Process Improvement 3. Automation Migration Strategy

1.4.1 USA Principle

1. Understand the existing process Input/output analysis Value chain analysis Charting techniques and mathematical modeling 2. Simplify the process Reduce unnecessary steps and moves 3. Automate the process Ten strategies for automation and production systems Automation migration strategy

1.4.2 Ten Strategies for Automation and Process Improvement

1. Specialization of operations 2. Combined operations 3. Simultaneous operations 4. Integration of operations 5. Increased flexibility 6. Improved material handling and storage 7. On-line inspection 8. Process control and optimization 9. Plant operations control 10. Computer-integrated manufacturing

1.4.3 Automation Migration Strategy

1. Phase 1 Manual production Single-station manned cells working independently Advantages: quick to set up, low-cost tooling 2. Phase 2 Automated production Single-station automated cells operating independently As demand grows and automation can be justified. 3. Phase 3 Automated integrated production Multi-station system with serial operations and automated transfer of work units between stations (Production line)

A typical automation migration strategy