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Sustainable architecture Sustainable architecture is architecture that utilizes environmentally conscious design techniques.

Sustainable architecture is framed by the larger discussion of sustainability and the pressing economic and political issues of our world. Rickettsial Fever:: Rickettsial Fever is an acute febrile, zoonotic disease spread by bite of ticks or mites. Usually diagnosed in children. What is radio activity ? what is radiation Although this topic is included in every science book but concept of radioactivity is very important both from paper 1 and paer 2 point of view (half life ). Unstable atomic nuclei will spontaneously decompose to form nuclei with a higher stability. The decomposition process is called radioactivity. The energy and particles which are released during the decomposition process are called radiation. When unstable nuclei decompose in nature, the process is referred to as natural radioactivity. When the unstable nuclei are prepared in the laboratory, the decomposition is called induced radioactivity. There are three major types of natural radioactivity: 1. Alpha Radiation Alpha radiation consists of a stream of positively charged particles, called alpha particles, which have an atomic mass of 4 and a charge of +2 (a helium nucleus). When an alpha particle is ejected from a nucleus, the mass number of the nucleus decreases by four units and the atomic number decreases by two units. For example:
238 92U

42He + 23490Th

The helium nucleus is the alpha particle. 2. Beta Radiation Beta radiation is a stream of electrons, called beta particles. When a beta particle is ejected, a neutron in the nucleus is converted to a proton, so the mass number of the nucleus is unchanged, but the atomic number increases by one unit. For example:
234 90

0-1e + 23491Pa

The electron is the beta particle. 3. Gamma Radiation Gamma rays are high-energy photons with a very short wavelength (0.0005 to 0.1 nm). The emission of gamma radiation results from an energy change within the atomic

nucleus. Gamma emission changes neither the atomic number nor the atomic mass. Alpha and beta emission are often accompanied by gamma emission, as an excited nucleus drops to a lower and more stable energy state. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation also accompany induced radioactivity. Radioactive isotopes are prepared in the lab using bombardment reactions to convert a stable nucleus into one which is radioactive. Positron (particle with the same mass as an electron, but a charge of +1 instead of -1) emission isn't observed in natural radioactivity, but it is a common mode of decay in induced radioactivity. Bombardment reactions can be used to produce very heavy elements, including many which don't occur in nature. Lunar eclipse :

Lunar eclipses occur when Earth's shadow blocks the suns light, which otherwise reflects off the moon. There are three types, with the most dramatic being a total lunar eclipse, in which Earths shadow completely covers the moon. The last lunar eclipse was on Nov. 28, 2012. The next lunar eclipse is on April 25, 2013. It will be a partial eclipse, visible from Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. But a month later, on May 25, a penumbral eclipse will be visible from the Americas and Africa. Throughout history, eclipses have inspired awe and even fear, especially when total lunar eclipses turned the moon blood-red, an effect that terrified people who had no understanding of what causes an eclipse and therefore blamed the events on this god or that. Below, youll find the science and history of lunar eclipses, learn how they work, and see a list of the next ones on tap. Endosulfan Off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally, Because of its threats to human health and the environment, a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan was negotiated under the Stockholm Convention in April 2011. The ban will take effect in mid-2012, with certain uses exempted for five additional years. Although classified as a yellow label (highly toxic) pesticide by the Central Insecticides Board, India is one of the largest producers and the largest consumer of endosulfan in the world. BIO DIVERSITY HOTSPOTS INITIATIVE OF CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL

A seminal paper by Norman Myers in 1988 first identified ten tropical forest "hotspots" characterized both by exceptional levels of plant endemism and by serious levels of habitat loss To qualify as a hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5 percent of the world's total) as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat. SOUTH ASIA

Eastern Himalaya, India Indo-Burma, India and Myanmar Western Ghats, India

INDIAN INITIATIVES: The Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) has designated the entire hill range as an Ecologically Sensitive Area.The panel, in its report, has classified the 142 taluks in the Western Ghats boundary into Ecologically Sensitive Zones (ESZ) 1, 2 and 3. What is Gadgil Panel?

2010: Environment ministry created this panel Full name: Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel Chairman=Prof. Madhav Gadgil (he was Ex-Chairman, Centre for Ecological Sciences, in Indian Institute of Science) To study the ecological and environmental problems of Western Ghats and give recommendations. Gadgil submitted his report in 2011. Here are his observations and recommendations.

Ecologically Sensitive Zones (ESZ)

Environment Protection Act 1986 (EPA)=Union Government can designate an area as ecologically sensitive zone and then Government can prohibit/regulate Development in this region. Using this power, many ecologically sensitive zone have been setup. E.g. Mahabaleshwar-Panchgani region in Mahrashtra. But all of them face common problems:

1. Over bureaucratization =corruption. For example a farmer would need to pay bribe get clearance to dig well/bore in his own farm. 2. little or no meaningful participation by the local community.

The Western Ghats has thousands of endemic species of flowering plants, fish, frogs, birds and mammals. Therefore, entire Western Ghats should be designated as Ecologically sensitive zones. Gadgil recommends that entire Western Ghat should be divided into 3 zones (actually 4) Highest protection must be given to them Intermediate Moderate control and protection. Protected Areas= existing Wild Life Sanctuaries and National Parks.

1. Zone 1 2. Zone 2 3. Zone 3 4. PA

final demarcation of the Zones should be done by Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA). And that too, after taking extensive inputs from local communities and local bodies, namely, Gram Panchayats, Taluka Panchayats, Zilla Parishads, and Nagarpalikas Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA)?

Madhav Gadgil Panel recommended for this. WGEA will have jurisdiction over the Western Ghat districts in six states (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu). WGEA will be a statutory authority appointed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Hierarchy

Western Ghats Ecology Authority State Western Ghats Ecology Authorities

Union In 6 states

District Ecology Committee

In districts under Western Ghat Structure

1. Chairman A retired judge of the Supreme Court, preferably from the Western Ghats region. 2. Experts from biology, law, science, sociology etc. 3. Representative from tribal group. 4. Civil society representatives. Functions 1. conservation, sustainable development and Eco restoration of the Western Ghats 2. Environmental Impact Analysis and Clearance process in Western Ghats. 3. Its recommendations will be ordinarily binding. (just like National Board of Wildlife whose decisions are rarely tampered with and by and large have been approved even by the Supreme Court of India.) 4. WEGA will decide location of industry, land use planning in Western Ghats. 5. Prevent activity having negative environmental, social and ecological impact on Western Ghats. 6. Can issue directions to the state government or agencies to prevent any negative impacts on the Western Ghats. 7. Authority shall also be the final authority for demarcating the areas under the Ecologically Sensitive Zones #1, 2 and 3. 8. Power to levy fines and other punitive measures 9. Right to call for files, records, evidences etc. under Civil Procedure Code. Zonal recommendations As we saw earlier: Gadgil recommended Western Ghats to be divided into three ecologically sensitive zones. Here theyre: Ecologically Sensitive Zone (ESZ) Zone #1 Zone #2 Zone #3

Donot give new licenses for mining.


Where mining exists, it should be phased out in 5 years.

Existing mines should be under strict regulation and social audit.

Allow New mining license only IF scarce minerals not available on the plains. Existing mines should be under strict regulation and social audit.

Polluting Industry (Red/Orange) Non polluting

Donot allow new industries.Exisiting industries must switch to zero pollution by 2016 else close them down.

Allow new industries but with strict regulation + social audit.

Allow but with strict regulation + social audit

industry (green/blue) River projects/dams No river projects higher than 3 meters. Not higher than 15m Any height allowed but with detailed environmental impact assessment. Existing= with strict regulation + social audit.New plants=only if theyve zero pollution.

Power plants

Donot allow new power plants.


No new railway lines and major roads, except where it is highly essential (e.g Goa), Avoid new highways, Expressways

Allowed but only with strict regulation + social audit.


waste management, traffic, water and energy use=strictly regulate. (recall Tiger tourism article). General recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. Promote organic agricultural practices Give money for sequestration of carbon in soils. Donot allow any Genetically Modified crops in Western Ghats. Phase out use of chemical pesticides/ weedicides in the coming years. Instead of giving subsidies for chemical fertilizers, give the farmers subsidies for biogas, organic agriculture etc. Donot allow monoculture plantation of exotic species like eucalyptus. Encourage planting of endemic species; Extraction of medicinal plants with strict regulations


5. 6. 7. 8.

Animal husbandary

9. Promote cattle breed that can withstand adverse agro climatic conditions of Western Ghats. 10. Donot allow weedicides in cash crop areas alongside the roads. Because almost all plants coming under the weed category are rich cattle fodder. 11. Donot allow introduction of any invasive alien species. 12. Donot allow dynamite and other explosives to kill fish; 13. provide fish ladders at all reservoirs 14. monitor and control trade in aquarium fishes. 15. Make river clubs in every school. 16. Teach agri-stuff in schools. 17. Use them for impact assessment for all new projects such as dams, mines, tourism, and housing. 18. Prepare hydrological data base of rivers



Sci-Tech and IT


20. eco-friendly building material and construction methods, 21. Minimise the use of steel, cement and sand 22. Green Building certifications of 23. Eco Housing, GRIHA codes. 24. Donot allow filling of marshes/ wetlands. 25. plastic bags in shops, tourist spots should be phased out. 26. Generate awareness about reasonable and adequate vs luxury and wasteful energy consumption (for example excessive lights and Air conditioners in malls, hotels etc.)


Food Chain

For example, plants are eaten by insects, who are eaten by frogs, these frogs are eaten by fish, who are eaten by human beings. Plant > insect > frog > fish > human. This sequence is known as Food chain. What is Trophic Level?

Each step in the food chain is called a Trophic level. In this food chain: Plant > Insect > Frog > Fish > human= five steps. The trophic level to which an organism belongs, indicates how far it is away from plants in the food chain. green plants (producers)= trophic level I herbivores (primary consumers)= trophic level II carnivores (secondary consumers)=trophic level III top carnivores (tertiary consumers)= trophic level IV Herbivores (deer, cow etc.) are always @second trophic level. Higher trophic levels are made up of carnivores. An organism cannot always be assigned to one specific trophic level. E.g. man (omnivore), so he is both a herbivore (@2nd trophic level) and as a carnivore he can be (@>2ndtrophic level) Type of Food Chains

1. 2. 3. 4.

Food Chain 1. Grazing

Description Starts with green plants.e.g. Grass> grasshoppers> birds> hawks. Also starts with green plants but here smaller organisms depending on larger organism. e.g. Grass> cow> lice.

2. Parasitic

3. Detritus* /saprophytic

Starts with dead plant/animal/ waste material> decomposers.

*Detrius = dry leaves, dead plant, animal remains, dead skin cells, other organic waste (urine, excreta). Ecological Pyramids

You already know about the food chain: grass > Grasshoppers >birds >hawk. Each step or level is known as Trophic level. If we draw these trophic levels in a verticle fashion, a pyramid is created. This pyramid is known as Ecological pyramid. The Autotrophs (green plants) = base of the pyramid The top carnivores (lion tigers) = tip (apex) of this pyramid. Types of Pyramids

1. Pyramid of numbers, 2. Pyramid of biomass 3. Pyramid of energy or productivity

Food Web

Food Chain:> Grass> grasshopper >frog > fish > man Food chain assume the isolated linear line. But in real life, frog could be eating other insects apart from grasshopper. Fish could be eating smaller fishes apart from frog. So there exists an interconnected Network of (Food Chain + Food Chain + Food chain). This interconnected network of food chains = food web. Why is Food web important?

Suppose in a jungle, the deer species is wiped out due to some human poaching/ diseases / natural disaster.

Then its predators (lion,tiger) can feed on other animals such as fox, wolf, crane, peacock etc. until deer population grows again. Thus, food web= help living organism survive in case of minor or major setbacks in their food chain. food web=provides stability to the ecosystem. Energy Flow in the Ecosystem

So far you know what is food chain and what is food web. You also know what is Trophic level. (each step in a food chain). When energy is passed from one tropic level to next trophic level, some part of energy is wasted. So energy declines as we move up in the chain/ web / pyramid. Why?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Because some energy is wasted as body heat. No herbivore (deer, cow) can entirely digest and absorb the plant nutrients. Some energy is wasted while capturing the prey. (e.g. Tiger chasing a deer.) Some energy remains trapped e.g. Tiger only eats the flash of a deer. He doesnt eat the skin, hair, bone and teeth of a deer. So the energy stored in the skin, hair, bone and teeth of a deer =not moved up in the food chain. However this energy is later utilized when scavenger (hyena) comes into picture. Because Hyenas stomach acid is so powerful, it can digest the skin, hair, bone, teeth and other remnants of a deer corpse. 2nd law of themodynamics

When energy changes from one form to another, some of the energy is Lost. Suppose a jungle receives 1000 calories worth Sunlight everyday. Most of the sunlight is not absorbed; some is reflected back to space. Out of the sunlight that is absorbed, only a small portion is utilized by green plants Out of which the plant uses up some for respiration, therefore only 100 calories are stored as energy rich materials.

Now a deer, eats the green plant containing 100 cal of food energy. The deer uses some of it for its own metabolism and stores only 10 cal as food energy. A tiger eats the deer gets an even smaller amount of energy. Thus usable energy decreases from sunlight to producer(green plant) to herbivore(deer) to carnivore(tiger). Therefore, the energy pyramid will always be upright. Connection: Trophic level vs Energy flow

The loss of energy (explained in previous para) limits the number of trophic levels in the ecosystem. Hence trophic levels are seldom more than five. This also explains why the steps in a food chain are limited to four or five. Energy=Unidirectional

Movement of Energy is Unidirectional (one-way). Because initial Solar energy trapped by an autotroph (plant) does not go back to Sun. Similarly, energy that passes from herbivore (deer) to carnivore (lion) does not pass back to herbivore (deer). This unidirectional (one-way) and continuous energy flow=prevents the collapse of Ecosystem. (otherwise, if lion ate deer and another rabbit ate lion then what will happen hahaha!) Nutrients/Material=Cyclic

The Movement of nutrients/materials is cyclic. e.g. grasshopper eats grass and dies. Its body is decomposed and again absorbed by some other plant/grass. In other words: The Decomposers break down the fecal matter, excretory products and dead bodies of all plants and animals into inorganic materials.

And this inorganic material is again reused by autotrophs (green plants). Ok here is a question? If you want to make the movement of nutrients unidirectional then what should be done? Ans. Eliminate the decomposers.

Entry of DDT and other pesticides, damages this smooth cycle of nutrient movement. Lets check how: DDT and Biomagnification

DDT=dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane. It is a broad spectrum pesticide (meaning it can kill variety of insects, not just one or two.) It lasts for a relatively long time (nearly 20 years) after one application. DDT is cheap to produce, been extensively used across world. Problem: DDT cannot be metabolized (digested) by any living organism.

Suppose DDT was sprayed on water. There are millions of planktons in the water. Each of them absorbed 5ppm of DDT. Since they cannot digest DDT, it remains unprocessed in their body. A fish eats 8 such planktons, so it gets 8 x 5 =40 ppm of DDT in its body. A bird eats 50 such fishes, so bird gets 40 x 50 =2000 ppm of DDT in its body. So the amount of DDT keeps increasing as we move up in the food chain. This phenomenon is known as bio magnification. Bio magnification is bad because it produces variety of diseases in the species + its offsprings (babies) via teratogenesis. Teratogenesis = formation of defective embryo.

To sumup

Biomagnification is a man-induced process. Biomagnification occurs with non-degradable chemicals/substances/pollutants only. For example Pesticides, anti-knocking agents used in internal combustion engines, paints, artificial perfumes etc. Biomagnification doesnt occur with degradable chemicals/substances for example sugar, tea, cheese, milk etc. because they can be digested by (some) living organisms. Biotic Potential.

Unlimited food + ideal environmental conditions =a species can produce offspring @ maximum rate. This is known as Biotic potential. It can be high or low, depending on how many offspring (children) can a species produce in ideal conditions.

Biotic potential




Bacteria, insects, mice, rabbits larger species like elephants, tigers and humans

produce a large number of offspring in a short time.


Gestation period is long. So they produce only a few offspring species during their lifetime, even if ideal food and environment conditions are given. Carrying Capacity

It means the maximum population that an environment can support and sustain. When the carrying capacity is reached, birth rates equal death rates and the population should maintain a steady state equilibrium. Interspecies relations Species A Enjoys Enjoys Enjoys Enjoys Species B Enjoys Neutral Harmed Harmed

Interaction 1. Mutualism 2. Commensalism 3. Predation 4. Parasitism

Example Bees and flowers (pollination) Orchid plant growing on a mango tree. Tiger eating deer. Tapeworm in human digestive tract.

5. Competition



Jungle Deers vs domestic goats grazing in same area. bread mold Penicillium secretes penicillin and it destroys other bacteria.

6. Amensalism



Btw, whats the difference between

Predation vs Parasitism Predation Tiger killing deer. done only for food. Prey (deer) killed immediately Predator is (usually) big in size. Predators biotic potential is usually very low. (tiger, lion etc.) Mock questions Q1. Correct statements about Bio magnification 1. It is a natural phenomenon occurring since stone-age. 2. It is associated with biodegradable chemicals. 3. Bio Magnification protects biodiversity. a. b. c. d. Only 1 and 2 Only 2 and 3 Only 1 and 3 None. Parasitism Tapeworm in human digestive tract. Done for food + shelter. Host not killed immediately Smaller. Parasites biotic potential is usually higher.

Q2. Correct statements In an ecosystem, 1. The flow of energy is cyclic 2. The flow of nutrients is unidirectional a. b. c. d. Only 1 Only 2 Both None

Q3. Correct Statements about Trophic levels: 1. 2. 3. 4. a. b. c. d. Each step in a food chain is called a Trophic level. Carnivores always occupy trophic level 1 or 2. Herbivores always occupy trophic level 3 or above. Every species can be assigned a single unique trophic level. Only 1 and 2 Only 1 and 3 Only 1, 2 and 3 Only 1

Q4. Which among the following is/are example(s) of bio magnification? 1. Tiger kills a cow. A (Human) poacher poisons the corpse of cow. Tiger comes back and eats it. Tiger dies. 2. A factory discharges untreated chemical affluent into a pond. A Man regularly eats fishes caught from the pond. Man gets cancer after some years. a. b. c. d. Only 1 Only 2 Both None

Q5. An ecosystem would collapse: 1. If flow of energy is not unidirectional. 2. If flow of nutrient is not cyclic. a. b. c. d. Only 1 Only 2 Both None

Q6. The usable energy decreases as we move up in the food chain. Which among the following explains this phenomenon? a. b. c. d. Newtons third law of motion. Einsteins law of general relativity. Second law of thermodynamics. None of above.

Q7. When an ecosystem has reached its carrying capacity It means. a. b. c. d. Birth rate = death rate Birth rate < death rate Birth rate > death rate Birth rate greater than or less than death rate

Q8. Which among the following is/are example(s) of commensalism? 1. 2. 3. 4. a. b. c. d. An orchid growing on a eucalyptus tree Tapeworm in the intestinal tract of a child. Plasmodium in Human blood. Bees drinking nectar of a flower. Only 2 and 3 Only 1 and 4 Only 1, 2 and 4 Only 1

Q9. Correct statement: a. b. c. d. Biotic potential of tigers is higher than rabbits. Biotic potential of rabbits is higher than tigers. Both equal None of above.

Q10. If one species benefits by harming another species. It may be 1. Parasitism 2. Predation a. b. c. d. Only 1 Only 2 Either 1 or 2 None.

1.d2.d3.d4.b5.c6.c7.a8.d9.b10.c Mock Questions Q1 Which of the following is incorrectly matched 1. Migrantwatch 2. Chromatophores 3. Seasonwatch UN project of Tracking human migration patterns. found in Plant leaves, help in photosynthesis. Project to build database of flowering, fruiting patterns in various seasons.

a. Only 1 b. Only 1 and 2

c. Only 3 d. All of them Q2. Which of the following is correctly matched 1. Two-horned Rhino 2. Two-humped Camel India Mongolia

a. b. c. d.

Only 1 Only 2 Both None

Q3. Which of the following is correctly matched 1. Hedonic Scale 2. Bergmanns Rule It stipulates that animals at colder regions have higher bodymass. Associated with Marketing research.

a. b. c. d.

Only 1 Only 2 Both None

Answers:c,b,d Electric car : basic points to remember Hybrid car talks about electric car as well Electric car is powered by electric motor and not gasoline engine Electric motor gets power from controller which derives power from batteries.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VULTURE CENSUS-PANNA TIGER RESERVE, MP Just note this fact for any mcq BIS HALLMARKING The BIS hallmark is a hallmarking system for gold as well as silver jewellery sold in India certifying to the purity of the metal. It certifies that the piece of jewellery conforms to a set of standards laid by the Bureau of Indian Standards, the national standards organization of India

Government of India' has identified BIS a sole agency in India to operate this scheme. BIS hallmarking Scheme is voluntary in nature and is operating under BIS Act, Rules and Regulations. It operates on the basis of trust and thus it is desirable that aspect of quality control are in built in the system responsible for managing quality. The BIS Hallmarking Scheme has been aligned with International criteria on hallmarking (Vienna Convention 1972). As per this scheme, licence is granted to the jewellers by BIS under Hallmarking Scheme. code letter `A' was approved by BIS for year 2000, `B' being used for the year 2001 and `C' for 2002 and 'J' for 2008 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vechur Cow The Vechur cow, acknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records as the smallest in the world (90 cm in height), is in the news again after a scientific analysis of its milk confirmed medicinal properties. It is an indigenous breed of Kerala. valued for the larger amount of milk it produces relative to the amount of food it requires,also saved from extinction. Train Protection And warning system (TPWS) (imp for mcq) TPWS is not to be confused with timed train stops that accomplish a similar task with different technology. Train protection system deployed across the entire UK passenger railway network, as well as in Victoria, Australia is now installed in few lines of Indian railways. It automatically activates brakes on any train that has passed a signal at danger or is overspeeding. It is fitted at selected sites, including some lines where automatic train protection(ATP) is installed. Unlike ATP, it does not aim to stop trains at or before a signal that is at "danger" - it aims to stop the train before the point at which a collision with another train could occur, excluding rear-end collision with a train in front. Ansaldo STS (Union Switch & Signal) has delivered what it calls is the nations first Train Protection Warning System on the Chennai-Gummudipundi line in the Southern Railway sector of Indian Railways SILICOSIS

Silicosis, one of the oldest occupational diseases, still kills thousands of people every year, everywhere in the world. It is an incurable lung disease caused by inhalation of dust containing free crystalline silica.Silica dust is released during operations in which rocks, sand, concrete and some ores are crushed or broken. Work in mines, quarries, foundries, and construction sites, in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, and abrasive powders, and in masonry workshops is particularly risky.Sandblasting is one of the high-risk operations for silicosis. Open source software:

Open-source software (OSS) is computer software with its source code made available and licensed with an open-source license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change and distribute the software for free to anyone and for any purpose. Opensource software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open-source software is the most prominent example of open-source development and often compared to (technically defined) user-generated content or (legally defined) open-contentmovements What is DNA profiling?

It involves collection of a few skin cells, muscle tissues, a hair root or a tiny amount of blood or saliva etc. body fluids. Then, DNA strands are extracted from the sample. DNA profiling is useful for solving crimes, confirming if people are related to each other, paternity testing, identifying dead bodies, missing persons etc. Why DNA profiling?

DNA profiling = best method to identify a person. DNA can be collected from body fluids, hair or even from a wine glass or spoon you just used. An individual gets 50% of ones DNA from each of ones parents= can be be used to identify parents, siblings and relatives of an individual. Can help to trace people who are suspected of committing a crime. Can exonerate (free) the suspects who are innocent. An individual punished by the court can demand DNA testing to prove his innocence. Real life Application: Pune Blast

Delhi police has taken blood samples of Indian Mujahideen operatives of Pune Blast. On the other side, Pune Police has collected DNA samples from the apartment in Pune where they were living prior to the blast. Example toothbrushes and shoes used by the operatives and even strands of hair. This is a common method adopted by the police forces in the US and other countries to prove a suspects involvement in a crime. Salient Features of DNA profiling Bill

provides for a national database of DNA profiles. ThisDNA database will be used for

1. crime detection 2. as an evidence in judicial proceedings for admissibility of evidence

Bill legalises collection and analysis of the DNA samples for 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Repeat offenders, suspects, missing persons, unknown deceased persons volunteers for forensic purposes.

DNA profiling in cases related to murder miscarriage (abortion), dowry deaths sexual assault paternity suits (like N.D.Tewari) etc.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Using these profiles, Bill creates indexes within every databank including: crime scene indexes, suspects index, offenders index, missing persons index, unknown deceased persons index, volunteers index etc. This will help searching particular entery very quickly. The DNA profile of an individual will be deleted if that person were to be acquitted after the trial. DNA profiles can be shared with other countries for cases related to terrorism, narcotics, illegal human organ sale etc. Anti-Arguments

While the DNA profiling bill aims to modernize the crime detection and conviction, the experts give following arguments against the bill. Doesnt increase crime-detection When UK police created DNA database, did not help to solve more crimes, despite millions of profiles being added to the database. Misuse for Caste identification

DNA can reveal very personal information about an individual, including medical history, family history and location. This database could be used to create DNA databases of different caste populations of India. The Working group of 11th Five Year plan said DNA profiling technology could be used to study Human population of different castes in India. caste is an immutable genetic trait. It ignores the fact that individuals change their caste and that caste is not uniformly passed on in marriage. the experts and NGOs fear that in long term, such caste DNA database could be misused, for example




1. Asking every person for DNA test, before granting him/her caste certificates. 2. Instead of conventional population survey, Government could use DNA profiles for Extrapolating statistics and then increase/decrease reservation for a particular category in particular state. 3. Excluding a particular caste or a group of people from reservation benefits. 4. Screening potential suspects on basis of caste. Can be used to brand certain individuals and communities as people with criminal traits, just like Britishers had branded certain tribes of Northern and Central India as criminal tribes in past. 5. knowledge of an individuals exact social background can damage the institution of an arranged marriage.

Furthermore, using caste for forensic purposes and to develop DNA databases could far too easily be abused and result in the profiling of individuals, and identification errors.

ROBOTIC TARGETING SYSTEM Use of Robotics to treat Cancer Patients.Used By Oncologists Android Android is also an operating system developed by Google. Basically it was started by some other company which was taken by Google. Google improved the operating system and made it a open source platform. It was widely adapted over the world. As it is open source it is so popular amongst the smartphones. Android OS can also be used on tablet PCs. Android is based on linux and offers you a great deal of customization in widgets and over millions of apps. Most of them are free of cost and can be installed on your phone just by clicking on install tab of the respective app in the Google Play Store app. Which comes along with the android Phone. Android versions in chronological order (Android 1.5 Cupcake, Android 1.6 Donut, Android 2.0/2.1 Eclair, Android 2.2.x Froyo, Android 2.3.x Gingerbread, Android 3.x Honeycomb, Android 4.0.x Ice Cream Sandwich, and the latest one Android 4.1.x Jelly Bean.)

No description needed Red list : The Red list of threatened species, prepared by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), has listed 132 species of plants and animals as Critically Endangered, the most threatened category, from India.

Gardasil and Cervarix

names of the new HPV vaccines made by GlaxoSmithKline.

The Health activists say it is not properly tested, theyve filled PIL in supreme court. their arguments

1. Though both vaccines are claimed to prevent cervical cancer, the truth is cervical cancer takes twenty or more years to develop. The vaccines have just not been around that long to prove their efficacy! 2. neither of these vaccines had been studied to determine their potential to cause cancer

Vomiting Larry

Vomiting Larry Larry is a humanoid simulated vomiting system designed by British scientists. It is being use to how norovirus spreads.

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP)

Polio is a disease caused by a virus. But AFP can also arise for other reasons, including infection by non-polio pathogens. No child in India has been diagnosed with polio for nearly two years now and all the indications are that the virus responsible for it is no longer circulating here. However, the countrys polio surveillance system has indicated a sharp increase during recent years in the number of non-polio AFP cases.

most of the countrys non-polio AFP cases occur in just two States Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. cases of children with non-polio AFP were not being monitored by either the polio eradication programme or the larger state health care system. As a result, there is no clear picture of what was causing the AFP, the kind of diseases these children displayed, or how many of them were seriously affected


Autopsy=examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death. Previously, doctors would use scalpel, cut the chest open and examine tissues. Often, relatives of the dead donot agree for autopsies because of the disfigurement caused by such cutting and incisions. Now scientists have come up with a non-invasive technique for conducting autopsy. This is called Virtopsy(=virtual autopsy). Here, doctor examines the corpse in 3-D via computer screens.


Virtopsy combine the images from high-powered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and surface scans of dead bodies. Combined, the devices are referred to as a virtobot.

The technique allows the detection of injuries such as lesions and blows often undetectable during a traditional autopsy, as well as air pockets, heart attacks and even cancer. The method has already allowed the discovery of haemorrhages and fractures that were not picked up during conventional autopsies.

Health communication

It means generating awareness among population regarding a particular disease. In India, two most successful examples of Health communication =polio + HIV #1: Polio

Polio messaging for example was built on simple idea two drops that could save your childs life. This message was everywhere from print, TV and radio from the more urban and semi-urban audiences and on roadsides, on the back of buses and lorries and in small village fairs. A host of agencies worked together to develop this multipronged strategy It was led by communication professionals. (and not doctors) This helped in creating multiple strategies to engage diverse audiences. #2: HIV

HIV was perhaps Indias most complex disease communication exercise Because our Indian society has deep-rooted double standards, limited womens rights and a complete lack of conversation on sexuality and sexual diversity. So talking about HIV may have been impossible. But Government took help of external agencies, communication professionals. thus HIV campaign used every possible medium and celebrities to transmit messages on prevention, on treatment and on stigma.


Finally, public health authorities need to take up public health communications as a priority. (because prevention better than cure.) Health communication needs to be managed by communication professionals and not doctors. Public health communication must be multi-pronged, regionally suitable and easy to absorb.


In USA, this award is given to young statisticians below 40 years. Dr. Nilanjan Chatterjee won the COPSS for his overall contribution to the field of genetics and biostatistics. He found that Smoking causes lung cancer, but smoking alone does not determine who will develop lung cancer. A person may have some good genes that reduce the risk of lung cancer. So what might be important to know is what kind of genetic background a person may have to know if he is prone to lung cancer.


It is a submerged continent in the Indian Ocean, recently found. lies under Mauritius and extends more than 1,000 km northwards till Seychelles. First scientists found crystals called zircons on Mauritian beaches. Zircons are resistant to erosion or chemical change and some of the ones they found were almost two billion years old, much older than any of the regular soil or sand samples found on nearby islands. Scientists thought such old crystals could only belong to a submerged continent. they consulted satellite data which can help detect submerged land masses. this continent Mauritia may have existed as an archipelago, a cluster of islands squeezed in between Madagascar and the Indian subcontinent.

Study of this continent can help us in better exploration of oil and gas in the oceans.

DNA as a storage device

Scientists are working to use DNA as a storage device. (like how computer can store information in form of 0 and 1). Similarly DNA could also save information using its 4 bases ACTG Problems


DNA is a long-lived, stable and easily synthesized storage hard drive. While the current electronic storage devices require Data reading, writing speed is active and continued aintenance and regular slow and expensive at the transferring between storage moment. media DNA based storage needs no active maintenance. Just store in a cool, dark and dry place!


myocardial infarction= when heart tissue is destroyed, it blocks the oxygen supply to heart muscles. When cells of heart do not receive oxygen= they get permanently damaged. Such damaged heart cells cannot regenerate, thus a thick scar develops in heart. This is where Hydrogel can help. Hydrogel is derived from a pigs heart. The basic function of the gel is to provide a scaffold (platform) for new heart cells to form. Thus hydrogel can the damaged heart recover and function like a healthy one.

Saliva functions
The function of saliva (watering in mouth) is to 1. destroy pathogenic bacteria, 2. help in swallowing the food 3. serve as a solvent for the molecules that stimulate taste buds

aid speech by facilitating movements of lips and tongue. It also helps to neutralize gastric acid when there is regurgitation (reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth) reduces heart burn In humans, the sight, smell and even thought of food causes salivationThis is because the salivary secretion is conditioned. Ivan Pavlovs classical experiments of conditioned reflex: A bell was rung just before the meat was placed in the dogs mouth, and this was repeated a number of times until the animal would salivate when the bell was rung even though no meat was placed in its mouth. Salivation by humans on the sight, smell or thought of the tasty food is, therefore, a conditioned reflex.

Banana peel

Banana peel stays yellow for a much longer time when it is covering the fruit, but when we remove it, peel turns black in a few minutes. Why? Blackening of the banana peel is due to the presence of an enzyme, which is oxygen dependent. As soon as we peel the banana the inner portion, the inner skin, gets exposed to atmospheric oxygen much more than when it is still covering the fruit. Inner skin is thin compared to outer layer. While peeling, inner-skin cells get damaged and liberate chemicals known as amines. This leaked out amines come into contact with enzymes present closely in the inner skin. This results in immediate oxidation in the presence of atmospheric oxygen = peel turns black. But this enzymatic reaction needs a little warmer conditions. That is why in summer and hot conditions even the outer skin

turns brown, black faster compared to that in cooler environment. Not only banana, fruits like apples, grapes and vegetables like potato, raw banana also turn brown, black on peeling due to the presence of that enzyme Since bananas are tropical fruits the cells get damaged due to chill injury when we refrigerate them unlike apples which are temperate fruits which can be stored in the fridge safely.

Bio-inspired technology

It is new branch of science and technology. It learns from the properties and behaviour of plants and animals, particularly their modes of defence and offence Then it attempts to produce new technological products, inspired by these properties. For example

Lizard : Adhesives

A household lizard can run effortlessly on the ceiling, defying gravity and without dropping off to the floor. Because the palms of lizard, contains millions of tiny hairs. These hairs attach to the surface through very weak attractive forces called the van der Waals interaction. The force of each hair is negligible, but put together thousand and millions of them, and that adds up to considerable strength. If you shave of these hairlets, lizard will become not be able to climb walls. After understanding this phenomenon, scientists have been able to make tape-based adhesives (like Post It).

Velcro: Maroolimatthai

Cocklebur flowers plant is found in Madurai region of Tamilnadu. Locally known as Maroolimatthai. This plant has a number of small ball-like flowers Each of them has lots of short pin-like hairs all around, which stick to your socks and clothes. A swiss scientist studied this structure designed Velcro, the hook-and-loop fastener.

Porcupin: Surgical Patches

Porcupin is a large rodent. It carries as many as over 30,000 quills on the back surface of its body. The quill has an unique structure, it allows for easy penetration into the skin and beneath, but extremely painful during its removal or extraction. The tip of quill is very sharp hence enables easy penetration. But when it has to be removed by pulling it out, each of the barbs resists by opening up (a bit like an umbrella), adhering to the skin, damaging it. Now scientists are creating synthetic quills using polymers. Such a biomimetic or bio-inspired polymer patch would be useful for the development of mechanically interlocking tissue adhesives or needles, trocars and surgical staples.

Space related Asteroid Mining + Space Station

NASAs plan for Asteroids?

NASA scientists are planning to capture a 500,000 kg asteroid, and transform it into a space station for astronauts to refuel at on their way to Mars. This technology would also open up the possibility of mining other asteroids for their metals and minerals. Some asteroids are full of iron which could be used for in the making of new space stations Others asteroids are made up of water which could be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen to make fuel NASA plans to accomplish this in next 10-12 years. Asteroids Comets

Small rocky or metallic body that orbits the Sun. Most asteroids are found between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter in a wide region called the asteroid belt. It is because of their small size and large numbers relative to the major planets that asteroids are also

small icy body in space that sheds gas and dust. A Comet appears generally as a bright head with a long tail. The length of the tail grows in size as it approaches the sun.

called minor planets.

(because Suns heat coverts the ice directly into gas without melting). The tail of a comet is always directed away from the sun Halleys comet, appears after nearly every 76 years. Meteroites


A meteor is usually a small object that Occasionally enters the earths atmosphere. At that time it has a very high speed. The friction due to the atmosphere heats it up. It glows and evaporates quickly. Hence known as Shooting stars.

Some meteors are large so that they can reach the Earth before they evaporate completely. The body that reaches the Earth is called a meteorite

Comet and its tail

Mercury Messenger

Mercury is the innermost planet in the Solar System.

NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft has reported presence of water-ice on Mercury.


GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) mission. It is NASAs first planetary mission to carry cameras fully dedicated to education and public outreach.


MoonKAM= Moon Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students. The MoonKams captures images of the moons surface and sends them to the students for study.

Ebb and Flow, Sally Ride

Two NASA spacecraft Ebb and Flow, equippped with MoonKAMs and orbitting around Moon since 2011 under GRAIL mission. But they did not have sufficient altitude or fuel to continue science operations. Hence NASA team crash-landed them on Moon in Dec 2012. The place where they crash landed is named after Sally K. Ride, Americas first woman astronaut.

Science-Tech LiquiGlide

Ketchup wont stick inside bottle anymore!

A coating material for any type food containers glass, ceramic, metal and plastic. It is super-slippery and non-toxic hence you can easily pickout last drop of honey, fruitjam, ketchup or oil from the insides of food containers. No scraping, rinsing of bottles required. And the compound is safe enough to eat. Other applications

Keep ice off the wings of an airplane Help easy flow in oil and gas pipelines where insides of pipes sees buildup of organic compounds that clog supply networks. For cosmetics: can pour last drop of expensive lotions out.

Plastic light bulb

a new kind of light bulb that uses plastic polymers and nano materials to generate light It is more energy-efficient than current fluorescent lights and is easier on the eye. It doesnt produce humming sound like those fluorescent tubes.

Nuke Desalination plant

Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant (NDDP) located at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu. It is the worlds largest hybrid seawater desalination plant coupled to an existing nuclear power plant. Principle:

when the pressure drops, the boiling point of seawater also drops. The excess heat generated from nuclear reaction causes seawater to flash evaporate into pure water vapour. The water vapour is then condensed to produce distilled water.

MakerBot Replicator

Using makerbot, you can print your own 3D toys!

desktop-size 3-D printer. Instead of using ink, it spreads ultra-thin plastic layers, each melting into the layer below to create a 3D-object.

Switchblade Drone

Its a kamikaze (suicide bombing) type drone. The person controlling it uses a real-time video feed from the drone to crash it into a precise targetsay, a sniper and its tiny warhead detonates on impact.

Element 113

Japan has created three atoms of the highly unstable superheavy element 113. This element is yet nameless, but it has an enormous nucleus containing 113 protons and 165 neutrons.

Biology Biological Plough Redgram

Pigeonpea, commonly known as redgram, arhar or tur, It is leguminous plant. it is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and thereby restores nitrogen content in the soil. Its deep rooting system helps in extracting nutrients and moisture from deeper soil layers thus making it suitable for rainfed condition. Deeper rooting system of the crop also helps in breaking the tough dry soil and it is also called as biological plough.

Handheld Dental X-ray

Genuine Handheld X-ray sets are very expensive. But now Chinamade Cheaper products are in the market. But they do not have adequate shielding in the X-ray tube. And leads to accidental leakage radiation. In India, use of such medical X-ray instruments need approval from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. (AERB) Use of radiation generating equipment not approved by AERB is a violation of the legal provisions and will attract action under the appropriate provisions of the Atomic Energy Act 1962

Why skin itching during wound healing?

Histamine =chemical mediator involved in the allergic reactions.

Histamine dilates blood vessels to facilitate the entry of immune cells onto the wound site to ward off infection. But It also acts on the nerve endings causing itching. Itching can also be caused due to allergy for the ointments/ medications applied When new skin that is formed is devoid of the normal oil glands .This dryness also provokes the nerve endings causing itching.

OraQuick Home

Oraquick-Detect HIV @Home

Its the first Do It Yourself testkit for detecting HIVthe same one that health professionals use but without the trip to a doctors office or the need to wait days for results.

Parkinsons disease

is caused by loss of the neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine (known as dopaminergic neurons). Researchers have now derived dopaminergic neurons from bone marrow stem cells in monkeys to cure it.

Dogs in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

Mudumalai tiger reserve = Tamilnadu. Issue: Domestic dogs from surrouding villages are hunting small birds and mammals near forest edges. Why problem? 1. Lower prey availability for wild carnivores like tigers and leopards 2. These dogs may also be spreading rabies and other diseases to wild animals 3. Mudumalai, also has large populations of the endangered wild dog or dhole. 4. They eat infected carcasses hunted by domestic dogs=spread of disease. 5. Training village dogs to procure wild meat is a criminal offence under the category of poaching. But the larger harm that goes unnoticed is that it indirectly threatens the survival of non-target animals.


New onion variety for North India. Developed by National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation (NHRDF), Nashik. This foundation => established by National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd (NAFED)

ENCODE, GPCR, LNT, Disease in Dish, RNTCP & other

Antibiotic resistance

It is the ability of certain microorganisms to withstand attack by antimicrobials drugs Main factor for the rise and spread of resistant microbes= Overuse and misuse of antimicrobials drugs. The spread of drug resistance is faster in India due to many reasons lack of infection control practices in hospitals, absence of antibiotic policy, sanitation issues in the community etc.

Super-spreading of Dengue

Super spreading means, one infected person passes on a disease to lots of others, This is an important factor driving dengue transmission in places. Since mosquitoes are concentrated in only a couple of homes in each locality, an infected individual in those houses or in their immediate vicinity was likely to get bitten and pass on the virus to a large number of mosquitoes, who then pass it on to many other humans mosquito Aedes aegypti carries the virus for Dengue.

Humanised mice

It is engrafted with human liver cells. Itll help research liver-to-blood stage infection of Malaria.

RNTCP (Revised National TB Control Programme)

Meant for 2012-2017 It aims to involve private sector into the fight against Tuberculosis. Nearly one lakh new multidrug resistant (MDR) TB cases are estimated to occur every year. The only way of reducing mortality and morbidity is by engaging the private sector

Q. Why does the immune system in females not attack sperms (foreign bodies) that enter the female body?

human immune system is that it can differentiate self from others. This allows the body to fight off any foreign cells which it encounters. That is why it is difficult to transplant organs without suppressing the immune system However, when it comes to reproduction, the human body not only ignores the sperm, but also fails to recognise the foetus (which has half of its material from a foreign donor) as a foreign body

Studies have confirmed the presence of markers on the surface of the human sperm These markers on the sperm are universally recognised by any womans immune system, and trick the immune system into believing that the sperm is harmless. That is why reproduction can occur between any two people.

Spicy food and Tears

Why are tears produced in our eyes when we eat something which is spicy or spicy over our limits? When we eat food the sensory nerve endings on our tongue are stimulated. This nerve also serves as the sensory nerve to the surface of the eye and face. When we eat very spicy food the sensory nerve endings on the tongue are irritated and an overload of noxious stimulus is carried to the eyes as well, hence tears.

G-proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs)

Human cells have these receptors It enables them to sense chemical substances hormones, poisons and drugs in their environment. 2012 Noble Prize in Chemistry is given for this topic.

Pineapple itching

Why do we get an itching sensation in our mouth when we eat too much of pineapple? Pineapple, botanically, is not a single fruit berry. It is a collection of individual fruits (each fruit, marked on the surface by the nearhexagonal demarcation) Pineapple contains a proteolytic (protein hydrolyzing) enzyme When we have eaten the pineapple, this enzyme temporarily stays on the tongue and interiors of the mouth and starts attacking the proteinous muscle parts of the tongue and the mouth while sensitizing the nerve endings there. These neurological signals, when transmitted to the brain, make us feel the pricking and itching sensation.

Blank Slate Cells / Reprograming Cells / Disease in Dish

Terms associated with stem cell research done by Gurdon and Yamanaka (they got Noble-2012 for it). Once created, these blank slate cells can be used for developing into other cell types. For example, Skin cells can ultimately be transformed into brain cells. This Reprogramming allows scientists to create particular kinds of tissue they want to study, like lung tissue for studying cystic fibrosis, or brain tissue for Huntingtons disease. By reprogramming cells from patients with a particular disease, they can create new tissue with the same genetic background, and study it in the lab. That can give new insights into the roots of the problem. In addition, that approach allows them to screen drugs in the lab for possible new medicines. (more discussed in earlier guest article by Mr.Manikandan)

ENCODE project

ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements, which was started in 2003. The goal is to find all functional elements in the human genome. Until recently, the majority view has been that much of the DNA is junkDNA that is never transcribed and has no biological function and only 1% of the DNA is actually responsible for everything. But ENCODE project has found that not one per cent but more than 80 per cent of the genome has an active role or function.

Single-dose drug cure for malaria

Scientists claim to have discovered a drug that could cure all strains of malaria with a single oral dose and also block transmission of the deadly parasite from person to person. Will be made from synthetic molecule from the aminopyridine class.

HIV drops in India

HIV which causes AIDS was detected in India nearly 25 years back. Though more than 2 million people are affected by the virus, India is said to be one of the few countries which has actually made significant reductions in HIV infections.

India had witnessed a sharp decline in the number of new HIV cases a 56 per cent drop in the past 10 years, because of the National AIDS control Programme. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) =Used for HIV treatment.

Linear No Threshold (LNT) concept

means that harmful effects of radiation increase with radiation dose and even small radiation doses can cause some finite harm. Some scientists challenge the validity of LNT concept. They say, in low dose radiation we would be fine, and would not have any cellular damage. (then it leads to debate on mobile phone radiation etc. we already saw it in an earlier article.)

Tobacco law & WTO

Australia enacted worlds toughest law on cigarette promotion, meaning tobacco companies will be prohibited from displaying their logos on cigarette packs that will instead feature images of cancerriddled mouths, blinded eyeballs and sickly children. But Australia faces a potential challenge to its laws through the World Trade Organization, Three tobacco growing countries Ukraine, Honduras and the Dominican Republic making official requests for consultation on plain packaging. Consultations are the first stage of the WTOs dispute resolution process.

What is Blue Moon?

Blue moon is the second full moon in appearing in the same month. By the way Blue Moon is just a term used to describe the second moon, otherwise, the date of a full moon, all by itself, doesn't affect the moon's color. So, second moon in the same month, will be pearly-gray, as usual and not of blue color.

Cloud Computing: Meaning, Advantages, Disadvantages

What is Cloud Computing?

Situation 1

I am looking for a house. My first constraint, being a middle class man, obviously is money. The House owner here is ready to give his house on rent to me. But demands more than my budget. And this is a house which can accommodate more than 4 persons. Now we both came to a deal: I shall share the house with 3 other persons. They shall share the rent. Now the deal is both economical and efficient in the usage of the living space. Situation 2

I want a cycle, I want it to be the latest, the best, but only for a month. Here came the cycle salesman. He gave me a fair deal, a decently modern cycle which I can own for myself just for 1 month after which I have to give him back his cycle with usage charge for his service. These transactions are pretty common in our daily life. Do you understand these? Then you have understood CLOUD COMPUTING only thing, replace the house and the cycle with hardware and software.

Definition of Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing provides the infrastructures (both software and hardware) as services on a semi permanent (rented) basis you dont add physical assets (server computers, Air conditioners, special IT staff to maintain those server rooms etc.) instead you are provided with great flexibility and choice in your purchase is known as Cloud computing.

Based on different computing resources, services include Type Purpose Provider(Eg)

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Entire systems (virtual machines) will be provided to the users. Users can access the systems through Amazon internetService providers charge based on the resource allocated In this model entire system along with the operating systems, software is provided. This one is more commonSoftware created by service provider. End users use these services on a subscription basis Google App Engine

Platform as a service (PaaS)

Software as a service (SaaS)

Yahoo, Gmail

Storage as a service (STaaS)

Storage is provided getting rid of maintaining separate storage devices.

Windows Skydrive

Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing


Cons No responsibility of creation, maintenance of systems. Easy implementation and economical. Flexibility in hardware and software i.e., pay as you use. Easy up-gradation to match current technology. Efficient usage of resources. Location independence i.e., accessible from anywhere.

Data security. Need for high speed internet connection (Essentially a big constraint for a country like ours). Universal standardization required which makes interoperability among providers difficult as of now. Dependent on service providers even for trivial applications.

What is Shale Gas?

Shale gas is natural gas formed from being trapped within shale formations. Shale gasan unconventional source of methane, like coalbed gas (in coal seams) and tight gas (trapped in rock formations) It is Colourless, odourless, lighter than air. In Europe shale gas isnot used because of green rules and limited property rights. But In America, use of Shale Gas has already started and In future, it will give a spur to the domestic manufacture of anything needing large amounts of energy.