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Department of Mechanical Engineering S Mechanical Engineering ME1202 FLUID MECHANICS & MACHINERIES 3 TWO MARK QUESTIONS Module I (Introduction)

1. Define fluid? A fluid isFluid a substance having property to flow easily. Example: liquid, vapour, gas. 2. Define fluid mechanics? mechanics is aabranch of science which deals

with property and behaviour of fluids at rest and inkinematics? motion. 3.Define fluid of statics ? in motion The study fluids at rest is called fluid statics . called 4.Define fluid The is study fluids whereof pressure forces are notis considered is fluid kinematics. 5.What the SI unit of density ? The SI unit of density kg/m 3 . Example: Density of water is 1000 kg/m 3 . 6.Define specific volume? 3 It is the ratio of volume to the mass of a fluid. It is denoted by m .Its unit is /kg. specific = volume of fluid Mass of fluid =V/m 3 /kg 7.m Define gravity with respect to density? It is the ratio of density of a fluid to density of a standard fluid. It is denoted by s. i.e, s = density of liquid density of water s = density of resisting gas density of to airits 8.Define viscosity? It is defined the property of liquid to its flow corresponding adjacent layers. 9. oil Which one of theas following has high viscosity, (i) water or (ii) lubricating oil? Lubricating has high viscosity. 10. Define poise ? Poise is the other name of unit of viscosity in CGS system which dyne-sec/cm 2 fluid . 11.Give the classification of fluids? Classification of fluids are, (i)equals Ideal fluid (ii) Real (iii) Newtonian fluid (iv) Non Newtonian fluid (v) Ideal plastic fluid.

12. What is real fluid?

A fluid which has

viscosity is a real fluid. All fluid in practice are real fluids. 13.What is non Newtonian fluid? A

real fluid in which shear stress is not proportional to rate of shear strain. dy t .du du = t = Shear stress = viscosity of the fluid

change in velocity dy = change in perpendicular distance. 14.What is compressibility? Compressibility is the

property of fluid which undergoes change in volume under various pressure conditions. compressible fluid? 15. Define A liquid is considered

to a compressible fluid only when there is a change in volume of liquid that occurs under large pressure variation . 16. Define compressibility? It is also

defined of reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity (k). i.e, compressibility = 1/k . k=

compressive stress / volumetric strain 17.Define capillarity? It is the phenomenon of rise or

fall of liquid surface relative to out side liquid surface 18.Give the types of gas laws? The types of 19.

gas laws are, (i) Boyles law (ii) Charles law

Give the equation for capillarity fall in an glass tube. The equation for the capillarity fall is h = 4scos gd metre.

20. Give some properties of fluid?

Some properties of fluids are density, specific weight, viscosity, surface tension and capillarity fluid dynamics? 21. Define

The study of fluid in motion

where pressure forces are considered is called as fluid dynamics. 22. Define density or mass density? Density is the ratio mass of a fluid to its volume it is

denoted by .
3

m\v kg/m =

23. Define specific weight or weight density ?

Specific weight is defined as the ratio of weight of fluid to its volume .

Its unit is N/m 3 . i.e, w = W/V N/m 3 24.Define specific gravity with respect to weight density? It is the ratio of specific weight of fluid to specific weight of a standard fluid . i.e, s = specific weight of liquid (for liquids) specific weight of water i.e, s = specific weight of gas (for gasses) specific weight of air 25.Define dynamic viscosity? The shear stress required to move one layer with unit velocity over another layer at unit distance .It is known as dynamic viscosity .It is denoted as 26.Give the other names of dynamic viscosity ? The other name of dynamic viscosity are (i) absolute viscosity and (ii) co efficient of viscosity . Its unit is Ns/m 2 . 27.Give the units of viscosity in (i) MKS (ii) CGS and (iii) SI systems? The units of viscosity in (i) MKS system is kgf-sec/m 2 . (ii) CGS system is dyne-sec/cm 2 . (iii) SI system is Ns/m 2 . 28. Give equivalent values for poise in SI units and CGS unit system? Equivalent value in SI unit, one poise =1/10 Ns/m 2 CGS system, one poise = dyne sec. / cm 2 . 29.What is cause for viscosity? The causes for the viscosity are (i) inter molecular force of cohesion and (ii) moment of molecules being exchanged . 30.Define ideal fluid? A fluid which is incompressible and has no viscosity is called as an ideal fluid . It is an imaginary fluid . 31. Define Newtonian fluid? A real fluid in which shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. t = . du/ dy 32. Define ideal plastic fluid ? A fluid whose shear is more than yield value and its shear stress is directly proportional to shear strain is called as ideal plastic fluid. 33.What is an incompressible fluid? A liquid is considered to be incompressible only when there is a

change in volume of a liquid that occurs under smaller pressure variation.

34.Give some example of surface tension ? Some examples of surface tension are , (i) coins when placed over liquid gently floats and gives a spherical shape (ii) molten lead particles while descending spherical shape (iii) falling droplet of rain water gives spherical shape 35. Give some examples of capillarity? Some examples of capillarity are 1) Rise of shape in tree. 2) Rise of kerosene through wick. 36. Give the equation for capillarity in a glass tube? The equation for capillarity is h=4cos / wd 37. Define vapour pressure? When evaporation takes place within enclosed surface the partial pressure created on the liquid surface by the vapour molecules is called as vapour pressure 38. Define Boyles law? Boyles law for a given quantity of gas constant temperature pressure is inversely proportional to its volume. It is denoted as P 1/v at constant t :pv= a constant V 1/p at constant t 39.Define Avogadros law? Avogadros law states that equal volume of gases at the same temperature and pressure contains equal number of molecules. It is given by pv=nRT Where r gas constant N Avogadro number 40.Define surface tension. It is defined as the tangential force per unit length acting at right angles on either side of the surface. It is denoted by s. Its unit is N/m.

41.Give the equation for the effect of surface tension on a liquid droplet. The equation is given by P = 4s d where P = pressure intensity inside the droplet. s = surface tension of liquid. d = diameter of droplet. 42.Give the equation for effect of surface tension on a hollow bubble. The equation is P = 8s/d where P = pressure intensity inside the droplet. s = surface tension of liquid. d = diameter of droplet. 43. Give the equation for effect of surface tension on a liquid jet. The equation is P = 2s/d 49. Give the equation for capillarity fall in an glass tube. The equation for the capillarity fall is h = 4scos metre. gd The causes for viscosity are, 1.inter molecular force of cohesion and 2. moment of molecules being exchanged. 48.What is an incompressible fluid? en there is a change in volume of a liquid that occurs under smaller pressure variationA liquid is considered to be incompressible only wh. where P = pressure intensity inside the droplet. s= surface tension of liquid. d = diameter of droplet. 44.Define capillarity. It is defined as the phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid surface relative to outside liquid surface. 45.Define Charles law. Charles law for a given quantity of gas at constant pressure, the volume varies directly with absolute temperature. v a T at constant P. 46.Give the values for angle of contact for (1) mercury and glass tube (2) water and glass tube. The values for the angle of contact for, (1)mercury and glass tubes = 128 (2) water and glass tubes = 0

47.What are the causes for viscosity? Module VI (Positive Displacement Machines) Reciprocating pump. 1) Define pump? It is defined as the hydraulic machine in which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy, which is mainly in the form of pressure energy. 2) What is the main parts of reciprocating pump? 1.A cylinder with a piston, Piston rod, connecting rod and a crank. 2.Suction pipe, Delivery pipe. 3.Suction valve and 4.Delivery valve. 3) What is the slip in reciprocating pump? Slip is the difference between the theoretical discharge and actual discharge of the pump. Slip= Qth-Qact. 4) Why negative slip occures in reciprocating pump? If actual discharge is more than the theoretical discharge the slip of the pump will be negative. Negative slip occurs only when delivery pipe is short, Suction pipe is long and pump is running at high speed. 5) How will you classify the reciprocating pump? The reciprocating pump may be classified as, 1.According to the water in contact with one side or both sides of the piston. 2.According to the number of cylinders provided. Classification according to the contact of water is (1) Single acting (2)Double acting. According to the number of cylinders provided they are classified as, 1.Single Cylinder pump. 2.Double cylinder pump. 3.Triple cylinder pump. 6) What is single acting pump and double acting pump? If the water is in contact with one side of the piston the pump is known as single acting pump, On the other hand if the water is in contact with both sides of the piston the pump is called double acting pump. 7) Define indicator diagram? The indicator diagram for a reciprocating pump is defined as the graph drawn between the pressure head in the cylinder and the distance traveled by the piston from inner dead center for one complete

revolution of the crank. 8) Define ideal indicator diagram? It is defined as the graph between pressure head in the cylinder and stroke length of the crank under ideal condition is known as ideal indicator diagram. 9) What is an air vessel? An air vessel is a closed chamber containing compressed air in the top portion and liquid at the bottom of the chamber. At the base of the chamber there is an opening through which the liquid may flow into the vessel or out of the vessel.

10 ) W ha t is th e pu rp os e of an air ve sse l fit te d in th e pu m p? 1.T o ob tai na co nti nu ou s su pp ly of liq ui d at a

un ifo rm rat e. 2. To sa ve a co nsi de ra ble am ou nt of wo rk in ov erc o mi ng the fri cti on al res ist an ce in the su cti on an d del ive ry pi pe

s, an d 3. To ru n the pu m p at a hi gh sp ee d wi th ou t se pa rat io n. 11 ) W ha t is th e wo rk sa ve d by fit tin g a air ve

sse l in a sin gle ac tin g, do ub le ac tin g pu m p? W or k sa ve d by fitt in g air ve sse ls in a sin gle act in g pu m p is 84 .87 %, In

a do ub le act in g pu m p the wo rk sa ve d is 39 .2 %. 12 ) De fin e co eff ici en t of dis ch ar ge of re ci pr oc ati ng pu m p? It

is de fin ed as the rat io of act ual dis ch arg e to the or eti cal dis ch arg e of rec ipr oc ati ng pu m p. cd = Qa /Q th. 13 ) De fin e ce nt rif ug al

pu m p? It is de fin ed as a de vic e, wh ich co nv ert s me ch ani cal en er gy in the hy dr aul ic en er gy by me an s of ce ntr ifu gal for ce act in

g in the cyl in der . 14 ) W ha t is pr im in g? Pri mi ng is a pr oc ess of fill in g up wa ter in the ca sin g an d su cti on pi pe of the ce ntr

ifu gal pu m p for the re mo val of air bef or e sta rti ng it. 15 ). W ha t is Di sc ha rg e th ro ug h a Re ci pr oc ati ng Pu m p in Pe

r se c? Fo r Si ng le act in g Di sc ha rge (Q )= A L N/ 60 W he re A = Ar ea of the Cy cli nd er in m L= Le ng th of Str ok e in m. N =S

pe ed of Cr an k in RP M Fo r Do ub le act in g Q =2 A L N/ 60
2

16 ). W ha t is th e W or kd on e by Re ci pr oc ati ng Pu m p

Pe r se c.? W or kd on e = g A L N( hs +h )/6 0 (fo r sin gle act in g) Fo r Do ub le act in g: W or k do ne = 2 gA L N( hs


d

+h )/6 0

W he re
d

= De nsi ty of W ate r in kg /m
3

A = Ar ea of the Cy cli nd er in m
2

L= Le ng th of Str ok e in m N =S pe ed in rp m h, h

=S uct io n an d De liv er y he ad in m
sd

17 ). W ha t is th e Pr ess ur e he ad du e to ac cel er ati on in th e Su cti on & De liv

er y Pi pe ? hf
2

=4 fl( A/ a* r sin ) / 2g d W he re f= Co eff ici ent of fri cti on .A = Ar ea of pis to n in m 2. a = Ar ea of pi pe in

m 2. = An gu lar sp ee d r= Ra di us of cra nk

19 ). W ha t is th e rel ati on be tw ee n W or k do ne of a Pu m p an d Ar ea of In di ca to r Di ag ra m ? W or k do ne

by the pu m p is Pr op ort io nal to the are a of the In dic ato r dia gr am . 20 ). W ha t is th e W or k do ne by th e Pu m p pe r se

c du e to ac cel er ati on an d fri cti on in th e su cti on an d de liv er y Pi pe s? Fo r sin gle act in g W = g A L N( hs +h d+ 0.6

7h fs +0 .67 hf d)/ 60 Fo r Do ub le act in g W =2 g A L N( hs +h d+ 0.6 7h fs +0 .67 hf d)/ 60 W he re hfs , hf d =l os s of he ad du e to

ac cel era tio n in the su cti on an d del ive ry Pi pe. 21 ). W ha t is th e M ea n Ve loc ity of Si ng le ac tin g re ci pr oc ati ng pu m

p ? v= A r/3 .14 a W he re = An gu lar vel oci ty in ra d/s ec r =R adi us of the cra nk in m A an da = Ar ea of cyl in de r an d Pi pe in

m
2

ModuleIII (Flow Conduits) Through Circular VISCOUS FLOW, TURBULENT FLOW& FLOW THROUGH PIPES 1) What flow do you meant by viscous ? A flow is said to be viscous if the Renolds number is less than 2000 (or) flows layers ie. Rthe <2000 . in 2) What is Hagen poiseuilles formula ? P 1 -P 2 / g e = h The expression = 32 U L / f gD 2 is known as poiseuille formula . Hagen Where P 1 -P 2 / g = Loss of U = pressure Averagehead velocity = Coefficient of viscosity D = Diameter of pipe = Lengthrelation of pipe 3) L Derive betweenthe Umax and U ? / p U Umax / Umax = 4) (U kinetic = 2 / x )R Define energy correction factor? 2/ p (- energy / x ) R 2 Kinetic factor is the defined as the ratio of kinetic of actual the flow per sec energy based on velocity across a section to theper kinetic energy of the flow sec based on average velocity across the same section. It is denoted by ( a ). K.E per sec based on Average velocity . K. E factor a) = K.E per sec on (actual velocity 5) based Define momentum correction factor : / per It is definedof asthe theflow ratio of momentum sec based on actual velocity to the momentum of the flow per sec based on average velocity across the section . It is denoted by ( ) = on Momentum per sec based actual velocity Momentum Per sec based on average velocity 6) Give expression for thethe loss head due to friction inof viscous flow ? Loss of head due to friction In viscous flow f =16 Re Where f =/ Coefficient friction between of pipe and fluid = Renolds number Re 7) Differentiate Laminar & Turbulent Flow : Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow 1) A if flow is said to be flow laminar Renolds 1) A said to be turbulent if is

number is less than 2000 is known as Laminar flow. Renolds number is greater than 4000 is known as Turbulent flow . 2) Laminar flow is possible only at low velocities and high viscous fluids . 2) Is the flow is possible at both velocities and low viscous fluid . 3) In

such type of flow fluid particle moves in laminas or layers gliding smoothly over the adjacent layer . 3) In that type of flow

fluid particle move in a zig zag manner . 8)

What is the expression for head loss due to friction in Darcy formula ? hf
2

= 4fLV

2gD

Where

/
L =

f = Coefficient of friction in pipe

Length of the pipe D = Diameter of pipe V = velocity of the fluid

9) What are the factors influencing the frictional

loss in pipe flow ? Frictional resistance for the turbulent flow is i. Proportional to v n where v varies from 1.5 to 2.0 . ii. Proportional to the density of fluid . iii. Proportional to the area of surface in contact . iv. Independent of pressure . v. Depend on the nature of the surface in contact . 10) What are the factors to the determined when viscous fluid flows through the circular pipe ? The factors to

the determined as i. Velocity distribution across the section . ii. Ratio of maximum velocity to the average velocity . iii. Shear stress distribution . iv. Drop of pressure for a given length . 11) Give the equation for average velocity : equation for average velocity is given as U = The

p (- / x 2 )
Radius

R Where R =

of the pipe 12) Give the formula for velocity distribution: The formula for velocity distribution is given as U =

(- p / x ) (R 2 2

-r ) Where R = Radius of the pipe = Radius of the fluid element 13) What do you understand by the terms a) major energy losses , b) minor energy losses losses : Major energy This loss due to r

friction and it is calculated by Darcy weis bach formula and chezys formula .

Minor energy losses :- in pipe . iii.This is due to i.. Sudden expansion in pipe . Sudden contraction Bend pipe iv. to obstruction pipe . ii. 14) How will the loss of in head due toDue friction in pipes? in Darcy weis-bach h f you 2 =determine 4fLV 2gD Where h f = in/pipe Loss head due to friction . D = Diameter of fpipe = .Coefficient friction . of L = Length of the pipe V = Meanof velocity Chezys for formula V = Cdue mi Where of i flow = h ./ l f 15) Give an expression loss of head to sudden enlargement of the pipe :he = (V 1 -V 2 2 ) pipe / 2g .2-2 V Where of flow h = Loss 1-1 of head due enlargement of e = Give Velocity at section V 1 to = sudden Velocity of flow at section 2 16) an expression for at loss of head due to Loss sudden contraction : - for h ccontraction 2 =0.5 V / Where h= of head due to sudden . 2g V = Velocity outlet of pipe. c 17) Give an expression loss of head at the entrance of the pipe : h i 2 =0.5V / 2g where h i of = Loss of head at entrance of pipe . V = Velocity of liquid at inlet and outlet the pipe . 18) Derive the expression for drop of pressure for a given length of a pipe :P Where 1 -P 2 = 32 UL / gD 2

P 1 -P is drop of pressure .

19) Give expression


0

for co efficient of friction in terms of shear stress :- f = 2 Where v =


0

v 2

= Shear stress volume of pipes f = coefficient of friction

20) Give an expression for loss of head due to an obstruction in pipe

Loss of head due to an obstruction = V 2 Where a = Max area of obstruction Velocity of liquid in pipe liquid at section 1-1 gradient line [HGL] [TEL] a) Hydraulic gradient line :-

/ 2g ( A/ C c 2

(A-a ) -1 )

A = area of pipe V = A-a = Area of flow of 21) Define the terms a) Hydraulic b) Total Energy line Hydraulic gradient

line is defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure head and datum head of a flowing fluid in apipe with respect the reference line . Total energy line :Total energy line is defined as the line b)

which gives the sum of pressure head , datum head and kinetic head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect to some reference line . 22) What is sypon ? where it is used :_ Sypon is along bend pipe which is

used to transfer liquid from a reservoir at a higher elevation to another reservoir at a lower level . Uses of sypon : 1. To carry

water from one reservoir to another reservoir separated by ahill ridge . 2. To empty a channel not provided with any outlet sluice . What is the intensity of pressure rise due to water hammer ?
Water hammer in pipe is given by closed gradually pipe is assumed rigid . suddenly and pipe is elastic . P = LV/ t = When the valve is

23)

= V vKP = when the valve is closed suddenly and = V v / 1/K + D/ Et = when valve is closed

24) What is meant by hydraulic mean It is the ratio between area of flow
Hydraulic mean depth m =

depth ? or hydraulic radius :to the wetted perimeter of pipe .


A/ P = p / 4 d / p d = d /4
2

m= d /4 25) What does the rise due of to water hammer in pipe pipes depends on? It pressure depends Velocity flow of waterproperties in . The length of the . Time taken on to close What the valve . condition Elastic of the material ofpipe the pipe . through 26) is the for maximum power transmitted a nozzle ? hf = H / 3 It states that power transmitted through nozzle is maximum when loss of head due to friction in pipeare is one third of the total head supplied at the inletin of flow pipe . through 27 ) What the basic educations to solve the problems branched pipes? Continuity equation . ii. formula . iii. Darcy weisbach i. equation . 28 ) What is Bernoullis Dupuits equation ?3 /d 3 5 = L / d 5L= 1 /d 1 5 +L Where of the pipe 1 L 2 /d 1, d 2 Length and L 2,5 1 d =+L Length and of diameter of 2 diameter L 3, 2 d = Length and diameter the pipe 3the pipe 3

Mo dul e-II (Fl uid Flo w Co nce pts and Bas ic Eq uati ons ) 1)
Defi ne forc ed vert ex flow ? Give exa mpl e? It is defi ned as that type of verte x flow in whic h som

e exter nal torq ue is requ ired to rotat e the fluid mass . Exa mple . 1.A verti cal cylin der cont ainin g liqui d whic h is rotat ed abou t its centr al axis with a cons tant angu lar velo city. 2.Fl ow of liqui d insid e the

impe ller of a cent rifug al pum p. 2) Defi ne free vert ex flow ? Give exa mpl es? Whe n no exter nal torq ue is requ ired to rotat e the fluid mass ,that type of flow is calle d free verte x flow . Exa mple .

1.Flo w of liqui d thro ugh a hole prov ided at the bott om of a cont ainer . 2.A whir lpoo l in a river . 3) Wri te the equ atio n of moti on for vert ex flow ? dp= (v
2

/r)dr gd z This the equa tion of

varia tion of pres sure of a rotat ing fluid in any plan e. Whe re rRadi us of elem ent. pPres sure varia tion. dens ity of liqui d. gAcc elera tion due to grav ity. 4) Wri te the equ atio n of forc ed

vort ex flow ? Z=( 2 2r )/2g Whe re Ang ular velo city. rRadi us of para bola. zHeig ht of para bola. gAcc elera tion due to grav ity. 5) Wri te the equ atio n of clos ed cyli ndri cal vess els? Z=(

2 2r )/2g Volu me of air befo re rotat ion= Volu me of clos ed vess elVolu me of liqui d in vess el. Volu me of air after rotat ion= Volu me of para bolo id form ed. 6) Wh at are the forc es pres ent

in a flui d flow ? FgGrav ity forc e FpPres sure forc e FvForc e due to visc osity Ftforc e due to turb ulen ce. FcForc e due to com pres sibil ity. 7) Give the Eule rs equ atio n of moti

on?

(d p/ ) +g dz +v dv =0 8) W ha t ar e th e as su m pti on s m ad e in de riv in g Be rn ou illi es eq ua tio n? 1. Th e flu id is ide al 2. Th e flo w is ste ad y. 3. Th e flo w is inc o m pr ess ibl e. 4. Th e flo w is irr ota tio nal . 9) W ha t is be rn ou illi es eq ua tio n for re al flu id ? (p 1 1 2 / g )+ (v / 2g ) +z 1 =( p 2 22 / g) + (v / 2g ) +z 2 +h wh ere hl is the los s of en er gy (p/ g )Pr ess ur e en er gy. (v 2/ 2g )= Ki net ic en er gy. zDa tu m en er gy. l 10 ) St at e th e ap pli ca tio n of Be rn ou illi es eq ua tio n ? It ha s the ap pli

cat io n on the fol lo wi ng me as uri ng de vic es. 1. Or ifi ce me ter . 2. Ve nt uri me ter . 3. Pit ot tu be. 11 ) De fin e ve nt ur im ete r? A ve nt uri me ter is a de vic e us ed for me as uri ng the rat e of flo w of a flu id flo wi ng thr ou gh a pi pe. It co nsi sts of thr ee pa rts ,T he y are sh ort co nv er gi ng pa rt , an d thr oat a div er gi ng pa rt. 12 ) W rit e th e ex pr ess io n for ra te of flo w th ro ug h ve nt ur im ete r? Di sc ha rge thr ou gh ve nt uri me ter is giv en by Q =c actu al d a 1 a 2 (2 gh )^ 1/2 1 2 /(a 22 -a 1/2 )^ W he re cd Co eff ici ent of ve nt uri me ter a1 are

a of inl et a2 are a of thr oat . hdif fer en ce in pr ess ur e he ad s at the inl et an d at the thr oat . gac cel era tio n du e to gr avi ty. 13 ) W ha t pu rp os e ori fic e m ete r is us ed ? De fin e it? It is a de vic e us ed for me as uri ng the rat e of flo w of a flu id thr ou gh a pi pe. Or ifi ce me ter co nsi st of a fla t cir cul ar pla te wh ich ha s a cir cul ar sh ar p ed ge d ho le cal led ori fic e me ter . 14 ) St at e m o m en tu m eq ua tio n an d Im pu lse m o m en tu m eq ua tio n? Th e m o me nt u m eq uat io n sta tes tha t net for ce act in g on

a flu id ma ss in eq ual to the ch an ge in m o me nt u m pe r se co nd in dir ect io n. Th is is giv en as F= d( mv )/d t Th e im pu lse m o me nt u m eq uat io n is giv en by F.d t= d( mv ) 15 ) St at e m o m en t of m o m en tu k m eq ua tio n?

Th e m o me nt of m o me nt u m eq uat io n sta tes tha t the res ult ant tor qu e act in g on a rot ati ng flu id is eq ual to rat e of ch an ge of m o me nt of the m o me nt u m. M ath em ati cal ly it is giv en as. T= pq (v 2 r 2 -v 1 r ) 1 16 ) De fin e pit ot tu be an d giv e its wo rk in g pr in ci pl e? Th e pit ot tu be co nsi st of a gla ss tu be be nt at rig ht an gle s.I t is ba se d on the pri nci ple tha t if the vel oci ty of flo w at a po int be co me s zer o the pr ess ur e the re is inc rea se d du e to co nv ers io n of ki net ic en er gy int o pr ess ur e en er gy. 17 ) De riv

e an eq ua tio n for th e re sul ta nt for ce ex ert ed by a flo wi ng flu id on a pi pe be nd ? F =P Q( v x 1 -v 2 co s ) +P co s. F =P Q( -v y 2 sin )P 2 1 A A 2 2 -P 2 A sin . Re sul tan t for ce =( F x 2 +F y 2 )^ 1/2 2 An d the an gle ma de by the res ult ant for ce wi th ho riz on tal dir ect io n is giv en by 18 ) St at e Be rn ou illi es th eo re m ? It sta tes tha t in a ste ad y ide al flo w of an inc o m pr ess ibl e flu id the tot al en er gy at an y po int of the flu id is co nst ant . Th e tot al en er gy co nsi sts of pr ess ur e en er gy, Ki net ic en er gy an d po ten tia l en

er gy. 19 ) Gi ve th e ex pr ess io n for ac tu al vel oci ty in pit ot tu be ? (v 1 ) =c (2 gh )^ v 1/2 c -C oeff ici ent of pit ot tu be. (v v ) act Ac tua l vel oci ty. (2 gh )^ 1 1/2 -T he ori tic al vel oci ty. 20 ) W ha t ar ra ng e m en ts sh ou ld be ad op te d to fin d th e vel oci ty at an y po int in a pi pe by a pit ot tu be ? Th e arr an ge me nts to be ad op ted are (1) Pit ot tu be alo ng wi th ve rti cal pie zo me ter tu be. (2) Pit ot tu be co nn ect ed wi th pie zo me ter . (3) Pit ot tu be an d ve rti cal pie zo me ter co nn ect ed wi th a dif fer ent ial Utu be ma no me ter . 21

) W ha t ar e th e ty pe s of flu id flo ws ? Th e flu id flo w is cla ssi fie d as, (1) St ea dy an d un ste ad y flo w. (2) Un ifo rm an d no nun ifo rm flo w. (3) La mi na r an d tur bu len t flo w. (4) Co m pr ess ibl e an d inc o m pr ess ibl e flo w. (5) Ro tat io nal an d irr ota tio nal flo w. (6) On e,t wo an d thr ee di me nti on flo w.

22 ) Di ffe re nti at e ste ad y an d un ste ad y flo w? St ea dy flo w Un ste ad y flo w. 1.S tea dy flo w is de fin ed as tha t ty pe of Un ste ad

y flo w is tha t ty pe of flo w in flo w in wh ich the flu id ch ara cte ris tic s wh ich the vel oci ty. pr ess ur e at a po int lik e vel oci ty, pr ess ur e

etc at a po int do ch an ge s wi th ti me . no t ch an ge wi th ti me 2. (d v/ dt
) (0,0,

) =0 (d v/ dt ) =/ 0 23 ) Di ffe re nti at e un ifo r


0

m an d no nun ifo r m flo w?


) (0,0, 0

Un ifo rm flo w No nun ifo rm flo w. 1.I t is de fin ed as tha t ty pe of flo w It is de fin ed as tha t ty pe

of flo w in wh ich in wh ich the vel oci ty at an y giv en the vel oci ty at an y giv en ti me ch an ge s wi th ti me do es no t ch an ge wi th res pe ct

res pe ct to ti me . to sp ac e. 2. (d v/ dt
) t=co nsta nt

=0 (d v/ dt) =/ 0 24 ) Di ffe re nti at e la mi na r an d tu rb ul en t flo w?


t=co nsta nt

La mi na r flo w. Tu rb ula nt flo w. 1. La mi na r flo w is de fin ed as tha t ty pe It is de fin ed as tha t ty pe of flo w in wh ich of flo w in wh

ich the flu id pa rti cle mo ve the flu id pa rti cle mo ve s ina zig za g wa y alo ng we ll de fin ed pat h or str ea ml ine an d all the str ea ml ine are str

aig ht an d pa ral lel. 2. Re yn ol ds nu m be r< 20 00 Re yn ol ds nu m be r> 40 00 . 25 ) De fin e c m pr ess ibl e flo w? Co m pr ess ibl e

flo w is tha t ty pe of flo w in wh ich the de nsi ty of the flu id ch an ge s fro m po int to po int . (e g) Fl ow of ga sse s thr ou gh ori fic e no zzl

e an d ga s tur bi ne. 26 ) De fin e in co m pr ess ibl e flo w? In co m pr ess ibl e flo w is tha t ty pe of flo w in wh ich the de nsi ty is co

nst ant for the flu id flo w. (e g) Su bs on ic aer od yn am ics . 27 ) De fin e ro tat io na l flo w? Ro tat io nal flo w is tha t ty pe of flo w in wh

ich in wh ich the flu id pa rti cle flo wi ng alo ng str ea ml ine s, als o rot ate ab ou t the ir ow n axi s. 28 ) De fin e irr ot ati on al flo w? It is tha

t ty pe of flo w in wh ich the flu id pa rti cle wh ile flo wi ng alo ng str ea ml ine s,d o no t rot ate ab ou t the ir ow n axi s. 29 ) De fin e on e

di m en sio na l flo w? On e di me nti on al flo w is tha t ty pe of flo w in wh ich the flo w pa ra me ter su ch aa s vel oci ty is a fu nct io n

of ti me an d on e sp ac e co or di nat e on ly, sa y X. U =F (x) ,V =0 ,w =0 . 30 ) De fin e tw o di m en sio na l flo w?

It is tha t ty pe of flo w in wh ich the vel oci ty is a fu nct io n of ti me an d tw o rec tan gu lar sp ac e sa y X an d Y. u= F1 (X ,Y ),

V =F (X ,Y ) an d w =0 .
2

31 ) W ha t is th re e di m en tio na l flo w? A thr ee di me nti on al flo w is tha t ty pe of flo w in

wh ich the vel oci ty is a fu nct io n of ti me an d thr ee m ut ual ly pe rp en dic ula r dir ect io ns. U =F
1

(X ,Y, X) ,v =F
2

(X ,Y, Z), w =F (X

,Y, Z). U, v, w are vel oci ty co m po ne nts in X, Y, Z dir ect io n res pe ctl y.
3

32 ) W ha t is tot al ac cel er ati on of th re e di m en

sio na l flu id flo w? If a, ax ,a are the tot al ac cel era tio n in x,y ,z dir ect io ns. Th en ay
z

=d u/ dt =u . ( u/ x ) +v. ( u/ y ) +w . (

u/ z ) + u/ t. ax =d v/ dt =u . ( v/ x ) +v. ( v/ y ) +w . ( v/ z ) + v/ t. ay =d w/ dt =u . ( w/ x ) +v. ( w/ y ) +w . (

w/ z ) + w/ t
z

33 ) De fin e loc al ac cel er ati on ? It is de fin ed as the rat e of inc rea ce of vel oci ty wi th res pe ct to ti me at a

giv en po int in a flo w fie ld. 34 ) De fin e co nv ect ive ac cel er ati on ? It is de fin ed as the rat e of ch an ge of vel oci ty du e to the ch

an ge of po siti on of flu id pa rti cle in a flu id flo w. 35 ) De fin e vel oci ty po ye nti al fu nc tio n? It is de fin ed as a sc ala r fu nct io

n of sp ac e an d ti me su ch tha t its ne gat ive de riv ati ve wi th res pe ct to an y dir ect io n giv es the flu id vel oci ty in tha t dir ect io n.I

t is de no ted by F. U = - F/ x ,v =F /y ,w =F /z . U, v, w are the vel oci ty in x,y ,z dir ect io n. 36 ) M en tio n th e pr op ert ies

of po te nti al fu nc tio n? 1.I f vel oci ty po ten tia l exi sts ,T he flo w sh ou ld be irr ota tio nal . 2.I f vel oci ty po ten tia l sat isf ies the lap lac

e eq uat io n,I t re pr es ent s the po ssi ble ste ad y inc o m pr ess ibl e irr ota tio nal flo w. 37 ) De fin e str ea m fu nc tio n It is de fin

ed as the sc ala r fu nct io n of sp ac e an d ti me , su ch tha t its pa rti al de riv ati ve wi th res pe ct to an y dir ect io n giv es the vel oci

ty co m po ne nt at rig ht an gle s to tha t dir ect io n.I t is de no ted by 38 ) M en tio n th e pr op ert ies of str ea m fu nc tio n? 1.I f str

ea m fu nct io n exi sts ,it n is a po ssi ble ca se of flu id flo w wh ich ma y be rot ati on al. 2.I f str ea m fu nct io n sat isf ies lap lac e eq uat

io n, It is a po ssi ble ca se of an irr ota tio nal flo w. 39 ) W ha t is eq ui po te nti al lin e? A lin e alo ng wh ich the vel oci ty po ten tia l

F is co nst ant is cal led eq ui po ten tia l lin e.

40 ) Gi ve th e rel ati on be tw ee n str ea m fu nc tio n an d vel oci ty po te nti al fu nc tio n? u= F / x an d v= F / y

u= / y an d v= / x u= F / x= / y an d v= F / y = / x He nc e F / x = / y F / y = / x

1. W ha t is flo w ne t? A gri d ob tai ne d by dr aw in g a se rie s of eq ui p m en t lin es an d ste a m lin es is cal le d

a flo w ne t. Th e flo w ne t is an im po rt an t to ol is an aly sis tw o di m en sio na l. irr ot ati on al flo w pr ob le ms . 2.

W ha t ar e th e ty pe s of m oti on of flu id pa rti cle ? i. Li ne ar tr an sla tio n or pu re tr an sla tio n. ii. Li ne ar De fo r

m ati on . iii. A ng ul ar De fo r m ati on iv. Ro tat io n. 3. W ha t ar e lin ea r tr an sla tio n? It is de fin ed as th e m ov e

m en t of a flu id ele m en t in su ch a wa y th at it m ov es bo dil y fr o m on e po sit io n to re pr es en ts in ne w po

sit io n by a b & c d ar e pa ral lel. 4. W ha t is lin ea r de fo r m ati on ? It is de fin ed as th e de fo r m ati on of a

flu id ele m en t in lin ea r di re cti on w he n th e ele m en t m ov es th e ax es of th e ele m en t in th e de fo r m ati

on po sit io n an d un de fo r m ati on po sit io n ar e pa ral lel bu t th eir le ng th s ch an ge s. 5. De fin e an gu lar de fo r

m ati on ? It is de fin ed as th e av er ag e ch an ge in th e an gle co nt ai ne d by tw o ad ja ce nt sid es. Le t s & s is th e

ch an ge in an gle be tw ee n tw o ad ja ce nt sid es of a flu id ele m en t. Th e an gu lar de fo r m ati on =1 /2 *( S 1 +S

) . 6. De fin e ro tat io n of flu id ele m en t? It is de fin ed as th e m ov e m en t of a flu id ele m en t in su ch a wa

y th at bo th of
2

ro tat e in sa m e di re cti on . It is eq ua l to 1/ 2( v/ x - u / y ) for a tw o_ __

_d im en sio na l ele m en t x, y pl an e. =1 /2( u / x - u / y ) z =1 /2( w / y -

v / z ) x =1 /2( u / z - w / x ) 7. De fin e vo rte x flo w m en tio n its ty pe s? Vo rte x flo

w is de fin ed as th e flo w of a flu id al on g a cu rv ed pa th or th e flo w Of a ro tat in g m as s of flu id is kn ow n as

vo te x flo w. i. Fo rc ed vo rte x flo w. ii. Fr ee vo rte x flo w. 8. De fin e fre e vo rte x flo w? W he n no ex ter na l to rq ue is

re qu ire d to ro tat e th e flu id m as s th at ty pe of flo w Is cal le d fre e vo rte x flo w. 9. De fin e for ce d vo rte x flo w?

Fo rc ed vo rte x flo w is de fin ed as th at ty pe of vo rte x flo w in w hi ch so m e ex ter na To rq ue is re qu ire d to ro tat e

th e flu id m as s. Th e flu id m as s in th e ty pe of flo w ro tat es at co ns ta nt A ng ul ar vel oci ty w .T he ta ng en tia l

vel oci ty of an y flu id pa rti cle is giv en by v= co sr.


y

10. Gi ve th e eq ua tio n of m oti on for vo rte x flo w? Pr ess ur e ac tin g PS A on th e fa ce A B. Pr ess ur e for ce( P+ p / r r ) S A on th e fa ce cd . ce nt rif ug al for ce m v 2 /r ac tin g in th e di re cti on aw ay. Fr o m ce nt er O No w th e m as s of th e ele m en t= m as s de nsi ty *v ol u m e = * A * r Ce nt rif ug al for ce = * A * r *v 2 / r Eq ua l th e for ce s in th e ra di al di re cti on we get (P + p/ r r ) A p

A =p A r2 v /r p / r r A =p A r2 v /r Ca nc ell in g A , r on bo th sid es we get p / r =p v 2 /r 11. W ha t ar e th e for ce s pr es en t in th e flu id flo w? a) Gr avi ty for ce (F ) b) Pr ess ur e for ce (F g ) c) Fo rc e du e to vis co sit y( F p ) d) Fo rc e du e to tu rb ul en ce( F v ) e) Fo rc e du e to co m pr ess ibi lit y( F t ) 12. W ha t ar e th e as su m pti on s m ad e in th e de vi ati on of Be rn ou lli s eq n? i Th e flu id is id eal ie, vis

co sit y is ze ro ii Th e flo w is ste ad y. iii Th e flo w is in co m pr ess ibl e. iv Th e flo w is irr ot ati on al. 13. St at e Be rn ou lli s th eo re m ? It sta tes th at in a ste ad y,i de al flo w of an in co m pr ess ibl e flu id, th e tot al en er gy at an y po int of th e flu id is co ns ta nt. It is wr itt en as, P/ w +v 2 o / 2g +z =c on sta nt. 14. W ha t is Ve nt ur im ete r? M en tio n its pa rts ? Ve nt ur im ete r is a de vic e us ed for m ea su ri ng th e ra te of flo w of a flu id flo wi ng th ro ug h a pi pe . Pa rts : i A sh

or t co nv er ga nt pa rt. ii Th ro at. iii Di ve rg an t pa rt. ] 15. W ha t is Or ifi ce m ete r?

Or ifi ce m ete r is a de vic e us ed for m ea su ri ng th e ra te of flo w of flu id th ro ug h a Pi pe .It is a ch ea pe r de vic e as co m pa re d to Ve nt ur im ete r.I t wo rk s on th e sa m e pr in ci pl e of Ve nt ur im ete r. 16. W ha t is pit ot tu be ? Pit ot tu be is a de vic e us ed for m ea su ri ng th e vel oci ty of flo w at an y po int in a pi pe Or a ch an ne l. 17. W ha t is m o m en tu m eq ua tio n It is ba se d on th e la w of co ns er va tio n of m o m en tu m or on th e m o m en tu

m pr in ci pl e It sta tes th at, th e ne t for ce ac tin g on a flu id m as s is eq ua l to th e ch an ge in m o m en tu m of flo w pe r un it ti m e in th at di re cti on . Ex pr ess io n: Th e for ce ac tin g on th e flu id m as s m is giv en by F= m *a W he re F= for ce m = m as s of flu id a =a cc 18. W ha t is im pu lse m o m en tu m eq ua tio n? F= m *a Bu t a= dv /dt F = m *d v/ dt =d /dt (m v) F= d( m v)/ dt F .dt =d (m v) Th is is im pls e m o m en tu m eq ua tio n. St at e m en t:

It sta tes th at th e im pu lse of a for ce F ac tin g on a flu id m as s m in a fh or t int er va l of ti m e dt is eq ua l to th e ch an ge of m o m en tu m d( m v) in th e di re cti on of for ce. 19. St at e m o m en tu m of m o m en tu m eq ua tio n? It sta tes th at th e re sul tin g to rq ue ac tin g on a ro tat in g flu id is eq ua l to th e ra te of ch an ge of m o m en t of m o m en tu m. 20 .G ive th e ex pr ess io n for Be rn ou lli s eq ua tio n of re al flu id ? P 1 21 / g + V / 2g +Z 1 =P

2 22 /

g + V / 2g +Z 2 +h W he re / g =P re ss ur e he ad at se cti on 1 V P 1 21 / 2g =V elo cit y he ad at se cti on 1 re he ad at se cti on 2 V 2 2 / 2g =V elo cit y he ad at se cti on 2 Z =d at u m he ad at se cti on 2 h 2 L 2 =l os s of en er gy be tw ee n se cti on s 1 & 2