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ON YOGA TEXTS

S. RAMASWAMI
There are many fascinating works on yo ga in agrah a r a m s a n d c e r t a i n h o u se h o ld s. Th ey are llga s u r g so f y o g i c i n t or m a tio n .e xp6?ienc es and i n s t r u c l i o n sw ? i t te n b y d iffe r ent y ogis , m u n i s a n d s i d d h a s . Th e y co n ta in i n struc t ions a b o u t m a n y u n k n o w n a n d le sr kn own ( G u p t a a sa n a sr , aS & n a s thBrapy . m e d i t a t i v o t e c h n i q u e s, e tc. Excopt for a few, many havs not seen the l i ght ot t he da y . A c c o r d i n g t O my Ach a r ya -wh o hims e l f h a s d o n e c o n s i d e r a b ler e se . arch on t hes ea n c i e n tw o r k s a n d h a s e vo lve d hi s y ogapadd h a t h i - i t w i l l b e v e r y r e wa r d in g for a researchworker in yoga. The present day leachings of a few asanss. assorted meditations etc,, only touch lhe surfaceol ons of the brilliant facts of our sncint horitsge^ PU B T I S HEDW O R K S O N Y O G A Ouite a few of the texts haw however ben sdited and pfinted. The most prominent o f t hem al l a r e p a r h a p s r h a Pa ta n ,a la Yoga Dars ana a , n d H a t h a y o g a p r a d e e p ika of Swa t marama , T h e r o a l e m a n y o lh e r le ss kn own work s a n d a b r i e f d e scr ip r io n o f som6 of thoil is attompted in this write up. A v ery im p o r t a n t t e x t u s efu l fr o m a ll asp oc ls .inc lu d i n g t h a r a p y ( c h i k itsa ) is yo g a rahas y rof s ag e N a t h a m u n i , a d e sce n d e n t of the g reat Nat h a g r o u p o f y o g t s . ln a ch a p te r on "S arira A ad h a r y a m " , h e g r v e s p r a ctica l g yn a e co lo g ica l h in ts, w hi ch mav be ol i nlerest. ,, Pssclsanam Yog.nidrl srrbhrpin::r".rTT Matsvendraasa nam nt"tn" " "i,l'Jn"nniillt,, A le w a sa n a sa r e speci fi ed as effecti v a s g a r b h a n ir o d h a ka , ot those that prevent co n ce p tio n , T h e p o sturos monti oned al e Pa a sa a sa n a m a, p o stu re that requi res tw i sting th sDin6and encircling the bent knses with th g a r m s f.r o ma d i ffi cul t posi ti on cal l ed Urkstaasanam. lt resembles to me Sri M a r ka n d a ya h u g g in g Si val i ngam. Y ogani d r a is a h ig h ly co m p licatedexerci se, so al so garbhapindasanamwhich producss a tremon d o u s p r e ssu r eo n th e pel vi c regi on and the abdomgn, Matsyndraasanam, a vetv gtacefu l a n d m a je stica sa n a , r6qui restw i sl i ng 8nd co n tr a ctio no f th e p e lvic muscl es,uterusand a detinit6 positive prossure exerted by the e m b e d d e d h e e l. T h e s e posturesaccordi ng to Sr i Na th a m u n p i r e ve ntconcapti on,(possi bly they prevent embedding of tho ovum) lf done daily, Evidently these a16 con(raindicatd for prgnent woman, who desire pregr r sn cyto Co n tin u e . T h E seasanas A re to b6 d o n e with e xp e r t g ,r id anco consi deri ng the co n d itio n o f th o in d ividual . Theseare fai rl y complica?edpostufes,rsquiringproctice from e a r ly a g e a n d a s a m a ssmethodof contracepto in wr ll b e o f little u se ,

Shou l d a s a n ap r 8 c l i c ab e to ta !lya b a n d o ned durin g p r e g n a n c y T N o , acco r d in g to Sr i Nat ham u n ia n d m y A c h a l y a He h a s so m e s pec lf t cpo s t u r e s t h a t h e l pt h a h o a lth yg r o wth of f oelus . Dwipsth Bsddhalon" t"O.*l:ir""J - P!.valarna Strsha Seryasnsa Pavanaoyoamaihi ""tT#",1: ;

It has been ths custom to racommsnd to p r e g n a n t wo m en (bari no compl i cated ca se s)to d o r e g u larhousehol d w ork so that ch ild b ir th co u ld b e normaland w i thout tears. Na th a m u n i h a s th is to say about nol mal d e live r y. Aadvam Jrtlra BhgrsYt
Vivrithihl Konlm P!nch!kam Sitrll Nasdik. Sudhch! Sulhagrosrva Hctutsha

Parvataana, th posterior stretching posturo, Barldhakona,an extsnsion of Mahatho fivo kona Asanas Firstly Jatarapravrithi mudra, Desk posture and Padmansanam. (e-g. Trikona, Upavishtakone, Urdhwakona, it could be observed, holp lo strtch Parsvakona,Eaddhokona otc.) to be done. t he m us c l e s o f t h e p e l v is, th e a b d o . Then Sitali ptanayama and Nadi Sodhanam inen and a l s o t h e l o w b ack- wh ich is I shoul($3ractised to help nomral dlivsry. t rouble ar e al o r w o m n c a r r yin g - a n d h e lp These axercisos help strsnglhen the in t he pro g r e s so f p r e g n a n cy. lt co u ld b e muscles of abdominal and perinaal regions obsrvd bv yoga practitionets that lheso and othars which help lo beat down ol pos t ut esa r e e n l i r e l yo p p o s e dto Ih OSO m e n - the tim6 of delivery. t iolredf t , r g a r b h a n i r o d h a , A g o o d stin t o f Praanayamapractice (Sitali, nadisodhana. Yoga encompassesa varioty of di3cipliUjjayi) also is to be done by the garbhini, ne3 and therspy is:certsinly ono ot them, pos s iblya s i t h e l p s i n m e etin gth o h ig h e t Many yogic texts ptescribo 6 coureo ot demand of oxygen and also as Pavanaa- asanas and pranayamafor specific ailmont3, bhy as aha s a t r a n q u i l i z i n ge f fe ct. but the clairns of soms of thm sppear to be somewhat exaggofated, obsculo 8nd HETP F ULD U R I N G P A E G N ANCY insernplete. Funher. different schools and I have seenmy Acharya gncouragesome leachsrs have devElopedthsir own combina. of his adapt students, during even in their tions and mthods making clsims that raise sdvanced slags of pregnancy to do Head- genuine doubts amongthc lay public and evon stand. lt and Sarvangasanam are helpful undorstandablo toSsntmnt among medical duling pregnancy as they have a prventivg mEn not subscribingto indigenous medicine. ffect against varicose veinc, oedema ol the Howevar, ono crnnot deny that thero is legs-common conditions during pregnancy. considorablscof for dispassionate study T hey also h e l p i n m i l d l y m a ssa g in gr h e of yogic texts, systems snd prscticos to uterine 16gion,and also relievepelvic congos- dbrivo msximum benefits for modorn timos. uon. Evidently these antsnatol exercises One has to approach thg yogic toxts with cannot be started offectively after pregnancy. fu ll fa ith , a t lEo stin the i ni ti al stagegas they It will b6 a great boon to womsn if thsy 8re the works of great Rshis. And a ffshi is start yoga and masterthe postureswhen they one who speaks the Truth, 8ro young (preferably staning beforo puberRishayassatya vrchasaho I ty) to dorivo the gynaecological bsnelits of yoga. Later on, woll, thoy could lesch yoga Having startd writing about the therat o t hs ir sl u g g i s h h u s b a n d s a n d th fu n putic appfoach of yoga, it may bo worth ov ing c hil d r e nt o o I whi16 to considsr thg ailments that aro

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supposed to respond to yogasanas and Pranayama. t y p g s o f h e a d a ch e s. 1. S ir o r o g a m - M a n y Obviously not alf, bui sorno do rspond to voga. 2, Pratisyayam or PinasayatogamDiseasesof ihe nose. 3. Jwaram-Fever. in th e 4 . S oolam- S h o o t i n g p a i n e sp e cia lly of tho stomach. 5' Bhagadaram-Oiseases generative organs. 6, Gulma Rogam . Diseaseof the sploen. 7. Arsa ot Guda Rogam-Disessepertaining to r.ctum, especi' ally piles . 8 . S w a y a t u - D i f fe r e n t kin d s o f Inf lam mati o n . 9 . S p o t u m . A ll De r m a to lo g i. cEl conditions. 1O. Swasam - fespirstoty ail.nents,dyspnooe.asthma etc. 1 1. Chardhi -vomitting - liquids, blood and sputum 12, A k s h i r o g a m- A i l m e n t s p Er ta in in g to thoey es . 1 ? . A t h i s a a r a m -d ia n h o e a ' 1 4 . Kushtam-Kushtais said to beof two varieties Sw6ta - whits and Krishna - Black. Accord' ing to a school Eczemais a vatiation which may be dty or woeping. 15' Meharogam ' f - diseasesof sex organs, --$.t4. t0. MurchaApasrfi-raram- loss ot Epilepsy. 17. 18. Nirnidra - Sleeplessness momory, ' lnsommia. 19. Kampanam- Tremours. 20. Yakrithu - Livt Ukku - Stammering, 21. diseases- Jaundice. 22. Hridtogam - Palpitation. Weaknessof tho hoart. AUTHENTIC WORK ON YOGA Further. yoga recognizes mentsl ot psychotogical diseasEsfwhich ate sttemptod to bo cotrected by siddhanta, yoga practicB inctuding Ptanayamaand dhyana). They 8rg Kama (infatuation), krodha (anger), Bhaya (fear), Dwesha (Hatred), Lobha (gteed), Vishadam(confusion), Shoka (sorrow), Asuya (intolerance),Avamaanam (guilt ot loss of sslf - rospect) lrshya (Envy) Maatsstyam (M alic ).

most authEntic and exhaustive work on Hathayoga consists of four chapters or upadesas. A detaild commentary by a sage called Brahmanandawritten in simple Sanskrit makes it I vsry useful reference work, Tho four UpadesasarE (a) Asana (b) Kumbh a ka ( c) M u d r a s (d) N adanusandhanam. T h e fir st th r e e a r s H athayogaandthe fourth is Ra ja yo g a in wh ich th mai n practi cei s Na d a n u sa n d h a n a m.A ccordi ng toB fshmani ncl udes the l atet a n d a , Na d a n u sa n d ahana four aspects of PatanjalaAshtanga yoga. viz. Pratyahara,dharana, dhyana and samadhi which have been treated Elbeit insufticintly in the oarlier issue. The author also refers to roany yogis who have preceded him' such as Adinatha (Sri Siva) Matsyendra, Saabara, Aanandabhairava. Chawrangee, Meena, B i l ssaya, Manthana, Go r a ksh a ,Vir u p a ks ha, Surananda,Siddhapada, Bhairavs,Korantaka, Kcneri. Pujyapada, Nttyanaths. Niraniana, Kapali, Bindunatha, Kakachandi,Alla, Prabhudeva, Narada, Epstt flom such yogis as Jalandharanathaand Munis as Yagnysvalkys. Speciai asanas ot yoga tteatisor with tho n8me of the various yogie are also available. For instance yogayagnyavalkya.yoga Kurantam, V.iddha Saatapatam.Gherunda Samhita aro some. Asanas bearing someofthg sages, names include Vasishtasanam, Durwasasa' nam, Kalabhairavasanam, Sayanaasanam. Budhasanam, Marichasanam, Bhatadwaiaetc. Kaundinyasanam, sanam,Kasyapasanam, The other main Hathayogatexts are Siva Samhita and Gherunda Ssmhita.

Yol 8noth81 imponsnt sourc of yogic information is the Upanishads. Twenty ol the lOB Upanisads, starting from lsavasya for which Sri Upanisad - Brahmayogin has w,itt6n commentatiesaro tetmed yoga upani' sads and doscribo dlflerent kinds of yogas. Then Svetaswatataand other majot tJpanisad thele like Chandogya. (especially Dahara vidya, Apart from Patanisla Yogadarsana, importsnt ones for a yogg are many yoga works thst ate publishsd' Bhuma vidya) ato Hat hay og a p r a d e e p i k w a h i c h is p e lh a p s th o student.

Sandrl y o p a n i s a d i s of Ath a r va n a Veda. The f i r s t c h a p t e rd e s c r ib e s th e Ash tanga y oga , b u t f o l l o w s t h e Ha th a yo g a aulhorit iesi n p r e s c r i b i n g 10 yamas and 10 10 niy am asf o r t h e f i r s t t w o an g a s. T h e 8 as anasdes c r i b : d a r e S w a s i ika . Go m u kh a , Padm: , Vir a , S r m h a , t h a d r a , M u kta a n d May ura. Therea r e i n t e r e s t i n g o b s er va tio n s about J os it ion so f n a d i sa n d c h a kr a s. T h e 14 nadis des c r i b c da r e l d a , P i n g a la ,Su sh u m n a , Saras urat iV , arune. Pusha, H a sth ijih vaya , sa ssu ini, V is w o d h a r a ,k u h o o , S r mkh in i, Pa ya swi ni, A lam b u s h a G , a n d h a ra i n dth e im p o r ta n tnadis odha n ap r a n a y a m a . l t r s fo lto we d b y p r a na ya m a . T h e a des c ript i o n of samantra va rious B an d h a sa n d m u d r a sa r e th e n d e scr ibed, s o als o t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f d e scr ip l i ons or v is u a l a t t e n t i o n ( D r i s htis) .

se lf itse lf,wh ich is beyond the thres gunas, co n stitu lin gth e o b served(dri sya). Sa m a d h i is the state of uni ty of Jiva a n d Pa r a m a , without the di sti ncti onof th e o b se r ve d , o b server and observati on ( T r ip u li) .
Jivatma Paramalma Aikyovastha Triputirahita Paramanandas warspa Sudhacharitt"";i:l:li

ll is Asa m p r a g u a ta samadhi . OTHER YOGA TEXTS T h e o th e r yo g a texts that may be of a n to r e st are:

,yf

Adwaya

4 ) Ga r b h o p a n isa d 5) Y oga K urantam 6) Vridha Saatapatam lf fejabindoopaT he f if th a n g a , P r a t y a h a rais , d e scr ib e d n isa d ( 8 ) Gh e r u n da S amhi ta 9) Y oga as 5 dif f ere n t k i n d s , b a s e d o n d r ffe r e n t Taravai'i- 1o)Glo-;fiFad 1i) As;ischc ols ol y o g a . W i t h d u e e f tq r t wjth d r a w. ta n a d o p a n isa d .1 2 f Tri si kni brahmanopani i n g s ens esi s o n e . T o o b s e r vo in e ve r yth - sad 63)) sre--gamgilg O+f Brahma i n g t he s e l l ( A l m a b b a v a ) i s Pr a tya h a r a , Va d yo p a n isa d {5) Y ogasi khopani sad Re nounc in g t h e f r u l t s o f a l l p re scr ib e d a cti- .t6 J Yo g a Ku n d a lyupani sad .7f N aoabi nvr rresis t he t h i r d . T o t e l i n d i ff r e n ce to a ll dooFlanisad {8f Dars"nopanisad {Fffii( P a r a n g m u k h a r w a m ) Dir e ctin g ti-oliffiiir thrngs . d YogachudamanyuQgf att ent iont o t h , 18 v i t a l p o s a t i o n s in th e b o d y panisad y,;ff Vpgglglvvgpanisad 22) Sam(M arm as t ha n a i)s t h o f i f t h k r n d o t Pr a tya h a r a , u n u n " n a i y a m l ffga B ahasyam

Q.D $ T he s ix t h a n g a - d h a r a n a - is r e fe r r e da s Yog'i"i'h"' frv e t y pes . D h a r a n a t s f o c u ssin g th e m r n d -gS9l arrd k eepin g a t b o u n d a r a p l a ce ,th e h e a r t T h e r e a n y m a ny other w orks. The fegion (O ah a r a a k a c a ) o,r i n t h o o u te r sp a ce , Pu r a r r a sco n la in va luabl e hi nl s on yoga Panc hamu r td i haranarn. te xts, So m e T a n tfic texts are al so good Dhy an a m a s o f t w o k i r -r d s. Sa g u n a m so u r ce s. So a lso the V ai shnava, S aakta and Nrrgun a m . S r g u : r a , a c c o rd in gto Sa n d i- a n d Sa iva Uo a n isa ds. Wi th the' renew ed h e l o r m o f t h e L o r d ( M u r ti in te r e stin ycg :, th e rei s pl entyof scope for l yo ir- rr)edr t a t r ntg dhy anan) [ l i r g u n a r s n l e d r ta t' r r go n th e b r th p r a cticea n C r e searchi n yoga.

24)

Samhita

Vog._Vrg,ly""C$-

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