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International Journal of Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering Available online at www.ijaeee.com & www.sestindia.



ISSN: 2319-1112

Effects of Dispersion & MAI on Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems
Irfan Ali 1 ,Ankit Agarwal 2
M.Tech. Scholar1, Department Of Electronics and Communication, Jagannath University, Jaipur (India) Assistant Professor2, Department Of Electronics and Communication, BMIT (East), Jaipur (India) 1 mail2irfan85@gmail.com 2ankitsagarwal@gmail.com
ABSTRACT - Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) is an optical processing system which allows multiple users to share the same bandwidth simultaneously without interfering with each other using unique optical codes. As the number of user increases, the dispersion and multiple access interference begin to rise, which led to high bit error rate and low quality of service of the system. This paper presents the effect of Dispersion and Multi Access Interference (MAI) of optical fiber on the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of a Direct Sequence Optical Code Division Multiple Access (DS-OCDMA) network. By using Matlab simulations, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) versus Received Optical Power (ROP) of an OCDMA transmission system can be evaluated for different numbers of system users. Mat lab simulations can be performed in order to illustrate the reduction of the dispersion index gamma, or to visualize different scenarios, e.g., what amount of transmitted power is required in order to obtain a BER of 10-9 when the length of the optical fiber is increased. Keywords: OCDMA, BER, MAI, OOC, ROP, SNR

I. INTRODUCTION Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology for local area networks. In addition, telephone companies are steadily replacing traditional telephone lines with fiber optic cables. In the future, almost all communications will employ fiber optics. Multi- access techniques are required to meet the demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks, which allow multiple users to share the fiber bandwidth. Multiple access schemes available for optical LANS include Time division multiple access (TDMA), Wavelengthdivision multiple access (WDMA), and Code division multiple access (CDMA). Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a well known scheme for multiplexing communication channels that is based on the method of direct-sequence spread spectrum [1]. In CDMA, every channel is identified by a unique pseudo noise key, whose bandwidth is much larger than that of the input data. Ideally, the key should mimic the correlation properties of white noise and should be as long as possible in order to minimize the interference noise introduced by other channels; thus, a great deal of effort is invested in finding practical keys with good autocorrelation and cross-correlation properties [1]. Optical CDMA is a technology to realize multiplexing transmission and multiple access by coding in the optical domain, which supports multiple simultaneous transmissions in the same time slot and the same frequency. It is another technology of multiplexing and multiple access besides OTDM and WDM and a potentially promising technique for optical networks in the future, and especially, due to its easy access and flexible network structure, it is very applicable to the access network [2]. Now a days, OCDMA systems are highly interesting as they offer several sought-after features such as asynchronous access, privacy, secure transmissions, and ability to support variable bit rates and busy traffic and provide high scalability of the optical network [3]. In 1986, Prucnal, Santoro and Fan proposed to realize the fiber-optic LAN by using optical signal processing, and used prime codes to carry out the experiment of electronic encoding and fiber-optic delay line decoding, verifying the feasibility to implement incoherent OCDMA system by encoding in the time domain. In 1988, Weiner, Heritage and Salehi demonstrated how to spread the femto-second optical pulse into pico-second duration pseudo noise bursts. The spread frequency was achieved by encoding the light spectrum into pseudorandom binary phase and then by decoding the spectrum

ISSN: 2319-1112 /V2N2:283-291 IJAEEE

IJAEEE ,Volume 2 , Number 2 Irfan Ali and Ankit Agarwal

phase encoded to recover the original pulse. They proposed that the coherent ultra-short pulse coding and decoding could be applied to the fast reconfigurable OCDMA communication networks. Both breakthrough studies were milestones for the development of OCDMA [2]. Optical orthogonal codes (OOC) defined by Salehi, Chung, and Wei are a family of (0,1) sequences with desired autocorrelation and cross-correlation properties providing asynchronous multi-access communications with easy synchronization and good performance in OCDMA communication networks [4]. II. OPTICAL ORTHOGONAL CODES

An optical orthogonal code is a family of (0, 1) sequences with good auto and cross-correlation properties. Thumbtack-shaped auto-correlation enables the effective detection of the desired signal and low-profiled crosscorrelation makes it easy to reduce interference due to other users and channel noise. The use of optical orthogonal codes enables a large number of asynchronous users to transmit information efficiently and reliably. The lack of a network synchronization requirement increases the flexibility of the system. The codes considered here consist of truly (0,1) sequences and are intended for unipolar environments that have no negative components since you either have light, or you don't, while most documented correlation sequences are actually (+1, -1) sequences intended for systems having both positive and negative components. An optical orthogonal code (n, w, a ,c) is a family C of (0, 1) sequences of length n and weight w which satisfy the following two properties [5]. i) The Auto-Correlation Property:



for any x C and any integer t, 0<t<n.

ii) The Cross-Correlation Property:

for any x & yC and any integer t.



The numbers a and c are called the auto and cross-correlation constraints. The (0, 1) sequences of an optical orthogonal code are called its code words. The number of code words is called the size of the optical orthogonal code. From a practical point of view, a code with a large size is required. A desirable property of a code is that it should be as large as possible i.e. contains as many code words as possible. This is to enable more users to access the channel. An OOC is said to be optimal if it has the maximum cardinality for a given n, w, . Optical CDMA extract data with desired code in the presence of all other users optical pulse sequences, therefore set of code words should be designed to satisfy three fundamental conditions:i. For any codeword the non shifted auto correlation, equal to the hamming weight of the codeword, should be made large as possible, this ensures that the receiver signal is much larger than the background noise in the system. ii. For any codeword the shifted auto correlation must be much less than the hamming weight of the codeword. This requirement ensures that the output of correlator receiver will be a small when the receiver is not synchronized with the transmitter and allows OCDMA to operate asynchronously without to operate asynchronously without the need for a global clock signal. iii. The crosscorrelation between any pair of code words must be small. This property ensures that the each codeword can easily be distinguished from every other address sequence. This makes MAI insignificant compared to the energy contained in the receiver information bit. Applications of OOCs:In OCDMA many users are transmitting information over a common wide-band optical channel. The target is to design an efficient system, to allow the users to share the common channel. Traditional multiple access techniques such as frequency division multiplexing, time division multiplexing, collision detection or demand

ISSN: 2319-1112 /V2N2:283-291 IJAEEE

Effects of Dispersion & MAI on Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems assignment require network synchronization at high speed (optical speed), and frequent conversions between the optical domain and the electronic domain. These requirements limit the efficiency of such an optical multiple access system. But if a code division multiple access system with optical orthogonal codes is applied, it simplifies greatly the complexity of the system, and achieves potentially higher transmission efficiency [6]. III. Proposed System Description Although in the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system soft capacity is obtained, the system faces interference in case of two users simultaneously access the communication channel which, in turn, degrades the performance of the CDMA system. Consequently, the main shortcoming of the CDMA system is multiple users access of the communication channel. For this reason, scientists and researchers are looking at systems that enable transmission without interference. Nevertheless, there are several differences between the electrical and the optical CDMA. The optical CDMA is very important and becoming increasingly popular due to its high available bandwidth and elimination of cross talks. In the OCDMA system, multiple users can access the same channel with help of various coding techniques. In OCDMA, the transmission signal may be subjected to conversion from electrical-to-optical, optical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical signal domain. The OCDMA system consists of five main sections: a. Data source (i.e., transmitting computer). b. c. d. Optical CDMA encoder. Optical star coupler: Device that accepts one input signal and is able to output to several. At last, using the PN sequence receiver can receive his desired signal. However star coupler has a loss. But this is very poor. The 4th section is the optical CDMA decoder.

e. Data sink (i.e., receiving computer). The schematic block diagram of an OCDMA communication system is depicted in Figure 1 and 2, for an OCDMA transmitter and for an Optical Correlator Receiver (OCR) with switched sequence inversion keying, respectively [7]. In the OCDMA transmitter, every user preserves different signature codes modulated as binary. Data are actually electrical signals sent to the optical drive which converts the electrical signals into optical signals. The encoded signal is further sent to the star coupler. The star coupler used depends on the topology of the network which can be either a LAN or an access network. In case of a LAN, the star coupler is N:N, while in an access network, the star coupler is 1:N. Further, in OCDMA every user shares the same channel. For this reason, crosstalk which is interference due to multiple accesses is introduced here. In order to reduce this unwanted interference, every user uses various signature sequences. On the other hand, in the OCR with switched sequence inversion keying, an optical switched correlator is used. Consequently, a bipolar reference sequence is correlated directly with the channels unipolar signature sequence in order to recover the original data [7]. The unipolar-bipolar correlation is practically realized in an optical correlator, by spreading the bipolar reference sequence into two complementary unipolar reference sequences. In addition, the optical correlator provides unipolar switching functions for de-spreading the optical channel signal [8]. The PIN photodiode is also known as the p-i-n photo-receiver. Here, i is the intrinsic region which is un-doped between the doped regions of n and p. Finally, the PIN photodiode cancels the de-spreaded signal integrated with the periodic data. This occurs before the detection of the zero threshold voltage [9].


Sequence Inversion Key

Optical Drive

Optical Fiber C o u p l e r


Sout Optical Amplifier

Optical Source

Figure 1: Transmitter of Optical CDMA

ISSN: 2319-1112 /V2N2:283-291 IJAEEE

IJAEEE ,Volume 2 , Number 2 Irfan Ali and Ankit Agarwal

A1(t) 1:2 Coupler R Sout(t) Zout(t) A1(t) R

1(t) 1(t)


Figure 2: Receiver of Optical CDMA

IV. PROPOSED SYSTEM ANALYSIS In the Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) transmitter, the Sequence Inversion Keying (SIK) th modulated signal is passed through the optical drive to a laser diode. Mathematically, the expression for K users can be written as [3].

Sk(t) =

P B (t) A (t - l T )
T k k c


In (3), Sk(t) provides information about the transmitted output pulse shape for different users in single mode fiber while l is the period of the chip and PT is the optical power of the chip. Furthermore, Bk and Ak are the users binary signal and signature codes, respectively. The operator describes the sequence inversion key modulation, where Ak is transmitted for a1, Ak is transmitted for a 0, respectively. Sk(t) is transmitted through the single-mode fiber, undergoing dispersion; it gives the output Sk(t) at the end of the fiber. For the Kth user, it is given as Sk(t) =

PRBk (t) Sout (t) Ak (t - l Tc)



Where PR is the received optical power which is the difference between transmitted power and fiber loss. Tc is the pulse interval, Sout(t) stands for the output pulse shape due to fiber chromatic dispersion can be expressed mathematically as [3].

Sout(t) =

() ()


Here, indicates the index of chromatic dispersion of the optical fiber which can be expressed mathematically as [8]. () = ()() D bc2 L (6) In the equation (6), , c, L and D describes wavelength of the optical carrier, velocity of light, length of fiber and coefficient of chromatic dispersion respectively of optical fiber, while the rate of the chip is bc. The signal is

sent to the photo detector and is integrated in the output of the correlator for the i user which is mathematically expressed as [3].
K N-1 Zi(t) = RPRT 2

B (t) S


(7) Here, R, K and n0 shows the responsivity of the photodiode, multiple subscriber of the system and noise in the channel respectively. PR Represents the optical received power given by [8]. PR = PT - Pf (8)
K=1 l=0

AK (t-lTc)*{Ai(t-lTc)- Ai(t-lTc)}*dt+ )(

ISSN: 2319-1112 /V2N2:283-291 IJAEEE

Effects of Dispersion & MAI on Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

The mean of Zi(t) is given by [3]

T U = RPR 4T 0

Sout (t-lTc) dt


The multiple accesses interference variance is given by [10]

2 = U2 2(K-1)
The thermal noise NTH and the shot noise NSH of the photo detector are given by [8]


NTH = (4KBTr) * Br





KB and Br define Boltzmann constant, receivers bandwidth and Tr temperature respectively. q and RL denote the electrons charge and the load resistor of the receiver section. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) and bit error rate (BER ) of the OCDMA system are given by [7] SNR = U2 (13) 2+NO
BER = erfc ( )


MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a calculating environment and fourth-generation programming language. Developed by Math Works, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, and Fortran. Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical computing, an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD symbolic engine, allowing access to symbolic Computing capabilities. An additional package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-domain simulation and Model-Based Design for dynamic and embedded systems. In 2004, MATLAB had around one million users across industry and academia. MATLAB users come from various backgrounds of engineering, science, and economics. MATLAB is widely used in academic and research institutions as well as industrial enterprises. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The OCDMA system performance is validated with a rate of 10*109 chips per second. We evaluate the OCDMA system performance by looking at the BER for various users and at the eye diagram penalty for 7 chip m-sequence signature (m-signature chip used in our simulations was 1110010. In our simulations we have considered single mode optical fiber at 1550 nm wavelength, with coefficient of chromatic dispersion of 17ps/km-nm and a receiver load resistance of 50 . Table 1 below presents the parameters of the evaluated OCDMA system.
VI. Table 1: Simulation parameters

Symbo l Bc Q K Tr

Significance Operating Wavelength Chip Rate Electron charge Boltzmann constant Receiver Temperature

Value 1550 nm 10 G chip/s 1.6 e-19 c 1.38e-23W/K. Hz 300 K

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IJAEEE ,Volume 2 , Number 2 Irfan Ali and Ankit Agarwal

RL R L Ps dBm Idk Nth D

Load resistance of receiver Responsivity of each p-i-n photo diode Length of fiber Received optical power gain Dark Current Thermal Current Coefficient of chromatic dispersion

50 0.85 245.05 km -20 10 nA 1 pA2Hz-1 17 ps/km-nm

Figure 3: BER Vs ROP for 3 and 6 users

ISSN: 2319-1112 /V2N2:283-291 IJAEEE

Effects of Dispersion & MAI on Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Figure 4: BER Vs ROP for 12/17 users

Figure 5: BER Vs ROP for different users

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IJAEEE ,Volume 2 , Number 2 Irfan Ali and Ankit Agarwal

Figure 6: Performance comparisons -SNR vs. ROP Figure 3, 4 & 5 below presents the system performance for BER versus received optical power (ROP) for 3 and 6 users, 12 and 17 users & illustrates the BER performance versus ROP for up to 23 users. We observe that BER decreases when the ORP and the number of users is increased. For instance, when we consider a 10-5 BER, the ROP is - 14.8dBm for 19 users while for 23 users, this becomes - 14.2dBm. The eye diagram for the evaluated OCDMA system is also simulated in Mat lab. We used two signal levels in our simulations: signal level 1 and signal level 0. The top line shows the output level of the signal level 1. The bottom line represents the output level of signal level 0. When the eye is opened and the line is spiky, it means a better performance of the OCDMA system. On the other hand the eye is distorted when dispersion occurs in the system. We evaluated the OCDMA performance by looking at the eye diagram for a chip rate of 10 G chip/s and a coefficient of fiber dispersion of 17ps/km-nm and different indices of chromatic dispersion . 35.

Figure 7: Eye-diagram - gamma = 0.1

ISSN: 2319-1112 /V2N2:283-291 IJAEEE

Effects of Dispersion & MAI on Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Figure 8: Eye-diagram We observed from all our simulations that the eye is more closed for longer fiber lengths with the same index of chromatic dispersion. We also observed that, in order to maintain a better performance of the OCDMA system we need also to reduce the index of the chromatic dispersion of the optical fiber. We also considered the shot and the thermal noise with MAI. We observed that a higher power of the optical transmitter is required in order to maintain a 10-9 BER for increasing number of users. We also observed the behaviour of the OCDMA system by looking at the eye diagram of the OCDMA network with a coefficient of fiber dispersion of 17ps/km-nm and an index of chromatic dispersion of the optical fiber = 0.05 and when considering different lengths of the optical fiber. The more closed the eye-diagram is, the worse performance the OCDMA system has. We noticed also that when the fiber length is decreased, the index of chromatic dispersion of the optical fiber increases. In addition, BER performance degrades due to dispersion effects in the OCDMA system. The BER be reduced by adding the chips while the effect of the chromatic dispersion is reduced by sinking the power of the optical transmitter. REFERENCES
[1] A. J. Viterbi, CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995. [2] Hongxi Yin, David J. Richardson, Optical Code Division Multiple Access Communication Networks:Theory and Applications Tsinghua University Press, Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg. [3] S.P. Majumder, Member, IEEE, Afreen Azhari, and F.M. Abbou,Impact of fiber chromatic dispersion on the BER performance of an Optical CDMA IM/DD transmission system, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol.17, No. 6, June 2005.

[4] J.A. Salehi, Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks-Part I: Fundamental principles, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 824-833,August1989. [5] J.A. Salehi, Emerging Optical Code-Division Multiple Access Communications Systems, IEEE Network, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 31-39, Mar. 1989. [6] [7] L. TanCevski, I. Andonovic, M. Tur, J. Budin, Hybrid wavelength hopping/time spreading code division multiple access systems, iee proc. Optoelectron, vol. 143, no. 3, june 1996, pp. 161-166. S.P. Majumder and Md. Forkan Uddin, The effect of four wave mixing on bit error rate performance of a Direct sequence optical code division multiple access system, 2005 Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, Perth, Western Australia, 3-5 October 2005.

[8] S. P. Majumder, Afreen Azhari, Performance Limitations of an Optical CDMA Sys-tem Impaired by Fiber Chromatic Dispersion, 0-7803-8783-X/O4/$20.00 0 2004 IEEE. [9] Abdul Gafur, Dr. Doru Constantinescu, Dispersion Effects on OCDMA system performance Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing , September 2009,Sweden [10] T. O'Farrell and S. I. Lochmann, Switched correlator receiver architecture for optical CDMA networks with Bipolar capacity, Electron. Lett, vol. 31, pp. 905-906, May. 1995.

ISSN: 2319-1112 /V2N2:283-291 IJAEEE