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Lecture 2: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Levels of Organization: 1. _______ 2. Tissues 3. Organs 4. Organ systems 5.

Organism The cell is the functional unit of all living organisms. Simple organisms - Bacteria and algae consist of a single cell. Multicellular organisms - more complex consist of many cells as well as ____________________. Cells with great variety of functional and morphological specializations. ___________________ - process by which cells assume specialised structure and function. Eukaryotic cells consist of a nucleus and cytoplasm The cytoplasm contains a number of ______________ each with a defined function. Organelles bounded by ______________ _____________ and ______________ are mostly synthesised within the cytosol. The nucleus may be considered the _________ _organelle. its substance - nucleoplasm bounded by a membrane system called the nuclear envelope or membrane. contains the genetic material of the cell. Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum - an extensive system of flattened membrane-bound tubules, saccules and flattened cisterns. Golgi apparatus another discrete system of membrane-bound saccules typically located close to the nucleus. Mitochondria - scattered free in the cytoplasm are a number of relatively large, elongated organelles. have a smooth outer membrane and a convoluted inner membrane system. Plasma membrane or plasmalemma an external lipid membrane serves as a __________________ with the external environment. adjacent cells extracellular matrix Functions: ____________ of nutrients and metabolites ____________ of the cell to adjacent cells and extracellular matrix ____________ with the external environment. Membrane structure Permeability to lipid-soluble molecules Permeability to non-lipid-soluble molecules Singer and Nicholson (early 1970s) - proposed the _______________ ______________ of membrane structure. a lipid bilayer sandwiched between two layers of protein. Cell membranes consist of a bilayer of phospholipid molecules that are amphipathic _________, hydrophilic (water-loving) head derived from glycerol conjugated to a nitrogenous compound via a phosphate bridge. _________, hydrophobic (water-hating) tail. consists of two long-chain fatty acids, each covalently linked to the glycerol component of the polar head. straight-chain saturated fatty acid unsaturated fatty acid which is 'kinked' at the position of the unsaturated bond Fluidity and flexibility of the membrane Due to presence of _________________________ prevent close packing of the hydrophobic tails. Due to ______________________ in the bilayer stabilize and regulate the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer Due to ______________________ incorporated in the membrane.

intrinsic or integral proteins extrinsic or peripheral proteins transmembrane proteins

External surface of the plasma membranes of animal cells _____________- polysaccharide molecules projecting from the surface of the bilayer forming an outer coating. involved in __________________ phenomena in the formation of intercellular ________________ in the _______________ of molecules to the cell surface in some situations, provides mechanical and chemical _________________ for the plasma membrane. GLYCOCALYX _________________ - membrane proteins conjugated with short chains of polysaccharide _________________- membrane lipids conjugated with short chains of polysaccharide Differential centrifugation for cell fractionation (isolation of subcellular components). NUCLEUS the most obvious feature of the cell seen under the light microscope. considered the largest organelle in the cell. ________________ of the cell Primarily contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) arranged in the form of ________________ - the _____________ from which all the other components of the cell are constructed. When a cell divides, the first step in this process is replication of the DNA so that a copy of the cell blueprint goes to each of the daughter cells. Nuclear contents: DNA - making up less than 20% of its mass

Protein called nucleoprotein - synthesised in the cytoplasm and imported into the nucleus. __________________ - low molecular weight, positively charged which bind tightly to DNA and control the coiling and expression of the genes encoded by the DNA strand. ________________________, including enzymes for the synthesis of DNA and RNA and regulatory proteins. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) newly synthesised messenger - mRNA Transfer - tRNA Ribosomal - rRNA

Chromatins refers to ___________________ at interphase. Chromatin in the nucleus forms 2 distinct dispersal patterns: Condensed areas __________________; not actively producing RNA. (INACTIVE) Extended areas (light) _______________; in the process of producing RNA. (ACTIVE) NUCLEOLUS Spherical, highly basophilic structure that is usually located eccentrically in the nucleus. nuclei of cells highly active in __________________, contain one or more dense structures called nucleoli the sites of ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosome assembly. Nuclear envelope (Nuclear membrane) Visible in electron micrographs. Too thin to be resolved by LM. Consists of two unit membranes (outer and inner) 7-8 nm each. Separated by 10-30 nm space (perinuclear space) Continuous with the _____________________________ (rER). Perforated by circular openings (nuclear pores), 70 nm _______________ provide a channel for the exchange of substances between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.

RIBOSOMES minute cytoplasmic organelles, each composed of two subunits of unequal size. Each subunit is composed of a strand of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) with associated ribosomal proteins forming a globular structure. Ribosomes align mRNA strands so that transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules may be brought into position and their amino acids added sequentially to the growing polypeptide chain ________________ Ribosomes are sites for protein synthesis __________________ sites for protein synthesis that are to be used within the cell. __________________ - sites for protein synthesis that are to be exported and also for protein to be used within the cell Endoplasmic reticulum A system of interconnecting tubules, vesicles, and flattened sacs (cisternae). The most extensive membranous structure in the cell. Membrane units are much thinner than the plasmalemma; not visible by routine histo stains. ER consists of 2 contiguous regions: Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) Receives the proteins that are synthesized by the ribosomes attached to it. Proteins destined for export and lysosomal proteins (enzymes) pass through the membrane into its lumen. Proteins are processed into the form of ________________ before handing them over to the Golgi complex. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) Continuous with and similar to rER except that it lacks ribosomes. Principal functions: Biosynthesis of ________________ and _________________ membrane synthesis and repair.

Liver cells, sER is rich in cytochrome P450 and plays a major role in the metabolism of glycogen and detoxification of various noxious metabolic byproducts, drugs and alcohol. Muscle cells: sarcoplasmic reticulum, sER is involved in the storage and release of calcium ions that activate the contractile mechanism

Golgi complex consists of stacked, saucer-shaped membrane-bound cisternae. The outermost cisternae take the form of a network of tubules known as the ______ and trans Golgi networks. Packaging of proteins in the Golgi complex (from rER) 1. Proteins synthesised in the rER are transported to the Golgi apparatus in coated vesicles (transfer vesicle). 2. On arrival at the convex cis Golgi network, the coated proteins disengage and the vesicles fuse with the membrane of the forming face. 3. Proteins are passed from cisterna to cisterna. Glycosylation of proteins is completed by sequential addition of sugar residues and the proteins are packaged for transport to their final destination. 4. On arrival at the concave trans Golgi network, the proteins are accurately sorted into secretory vesicles. Group of plasma cells from inflamed tissue; cells are responsible ________________________ as part of the body's immune defences. The plentiful rER is strongly basophilic and the protein is acidophilic so that there is staining with both eosin and haematoxylin giving a purplish or amphophilic colour to the cytoplasm. The well-developed Golgi complex G consists of lipid (membrane), which is dissolved out during preparation.

Thus the Golgi is unstained and appears as a pale area (negative image) adjacent to the nucleus Lysosomes membranebound organelles containing an amorphous granular material. contain electron-dense particulate material have more than 40 different degradative enzymes including proteases, lipases and nucleases come from Golgi complex. Lysosomes are the principal organelles involved in: __________________ digestion of phagocytosed material from outside. __________________ digestion of unneeded or senescent cell organelles. INCLUSIONS ______________ structures (may or may not be membrane-bound). Not all cells contain inclusions. Fat droplets, glycogen granules, zymogen granules, pigment granules, crystals, lipochrome pigments, lipofuschin pigments and dust particles. MITOCHONDRIA the principal organelles involved in ________________ in mammals Features: often hot-dog shaped, but can become rodlike, filamentous, spherical, etc. The number in the cell depends on its _____________ requirement. Liver cell 2000 M / cell Resting lymphocytes only a few M Tend to aggregate in areas within the cell where energy requirement is __________. Sperm cell; M conc. at the midpiece of tail. CYTOSKELETON Supporting framework of minute filaments and tubules. Maintains the shape and polarity of the cell. To accommodate the dynamic functions of cells:

Cells that propel themselves about by amoeboid movement (e.g. white blood cells) Cells that have actively motile membrane specialisations such as cilia and flagella (tracheal epithelial cells) Cells that are highly specialised for contractility (e.g. muscle cells) Cell division - a process that involves extensive reorganisation of cellular constituents.

1. Microfilaments Extremely fine protein filament (______ nm) Made up of _______ filament undergo frequent assembly and disassembly to accommodate changes in cell shape and cell movement. Abundant in the peripheral areas of the cell just beneath the cell membrane. Involved in the activities of the cell membrane such as exocytosis and endocytosis. Less abundant in the central portion of the cell. Probably involved in the movement of cell organelles. Involved in the locomotion of certain cells. 2. Intermediate filaments Intermediate in size between microfilaments and microtubules (______ nm in diameter). Intermediate filaments have 5 types (morph. similar) but differ in protein contents: __________ in keratinocytes of skin cells; for cell-to-cell attachment. __________ skeletin; in muscle cells; more numerous in smooth than in striated muscles . __________ scattered all over cytoplasm of fibroblasts and muscle cell. _______ filament - provide internal support for neurons

_______filament - provide internal support for glial cells.

3. Microtubules Tubules that are much thicker than microfilaments or intermediate filaments (25 nm). Formed in the centrosomes (microtubule organizing center; MTOC). Attached to organelles for movement Scattered in the cytoplasm internal support to cell Comprise centrioles sources of mitotic spindles, the cilia of ciliated cells and flagellum of sperm cells. References: Young B. 2009. WHEATERS FUNCTIONAL HISTOLOGY. 5TH Edition. UK: Churchill Livingstone. Distributor: Phils: C & E Publishing, Inc. Gonzales E. 2009. ESTEBAN and GONZALES TEXTBOOK OF HISTOLOGY. 4TH Edition. PHILS: C & E Publishing, Inc.