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9th International Conference on Islamic Economics and Finance

Islamic Accounting Anthropology: an Alternative Solution to Solve Modernity Problems


--Manuscript Draft-Manuscript Number Article Type Section/Category Keywords : : CIEF Conference Paper (English Language) : Stream - : Islamic Accounting Anthropology; Self-Interest; Methodological Holism; Ummah; Islamic Epicentrum Society

Corresponding Author: Ari Kamayanti, Dr. Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Jawa Timur (East Java) INDONESIA First Author: Aji Dedi Mulawarman, Dr. Order of Authors: Aji Dedi Mulawarman, Dr. Ari Kamayanti, Dr. Abstract: It is ironic that accounting, even Islamic accounting, is not entirely free from the neoliberalism trap in two observed downfalls. First, under cultural evolutionism, accounting must evolve to a 'better' materialistic measurement, because it is purposed to achieve incremental growth of human happiness through attainment of profit growth, against the representation of zakkah values. Second, under orientalism, by adopting secular accounting, society will achieve prime modernity as perceived by the West, by employing and reproducing accountants with such mindset to control Islamic Accounting Standard Setters. Accounting in this way has found a new found faith which is self interest. As a consequence, although Islamic Economics has been saved by the Profit-Loss Sharing concept, Islamic accounting may be developed into another capitalists' tool when PLS concept is reduced to accounting techniques that retains bottom line profit. We employ Akbar S. Ahmed's Islamic Anthropology as a starting point to propose Islamic Accounting Anthropology (IAA) based on methodological holism view. In this way, IAA that is developed using the Quran, a diachronic study of sirah-rasul as well as sinchronic study of Moslem reality, can be utilised to construct Islamic accounting that will represent the need and character of the moslem society namely Islamic Epicentrum Society. IAA will help standard setters to revisit ontological perspective of accounting (instead of mere practices), and this spirit can be vitalized through accounting education that will evoke consciousness for God and welfare of the ummah.

Islamic Accounting Anthropology: an Alternative Solution to Solve Modernity Problems

Aji Dedi Mulawarman Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia Email: ajidedim@ub.ac.id Telephone: +6281555600745 Ari Kamayanti Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia Email: arikamayanti@ub.ac.id Telephone: +6281555737916 Abstract: It is ironic that accounting, even Islamic accounting, is not entirely free from the neoliberalism trap in two observed downfalls. First, under cultural evolutionism, accounting must evolve to a better materialistic measurement, because it is purposed to achieve incremental growth of human happiness through attainment of profit growth, against the representation of zakkah values. Second, under orientalism, by adopting secular accounting, society will achieve prime modernity as perceived by the West, by employing and reproducing accountants with such mindset to control Islamic Accounting Standard Setters. Accounting in this way has found a new found faith which is self interest. As a consequence, although Islamic Economics has been saved by the Profit-Loss Sharing concept, Islamic accounting may be developed into another capitalists tool when PLS concept is reduced to accounting techniques that retains bottom line profit. We employ Akbar S. Ahmeds Islamic Anthropology as a starting point to propose Islamic Accounting Anthropology (IAA) based on methodological holism view. In this way, IAA that is developed using the Quran, a diachronic study of sirah-rasul as well as sinchronic study of Moslem reality, can be utilised to construct Islamic accounting that will represent the need and character of the moslem society namely Islamic Epicentrum Society. IAA will help standard setters to revisit ontological perspective of accounting (instead of mere practices), and this spirit can be vitalised through accounting education that will evoke consciousness for God and welfare of the ummah. Keywords: Islamic Accounting Anthropology, Self-Interest, Methodological Holism, Ummah, Islamic Epicentrum Society

Introduction: Accounting as (Misleading) Faith We believe that accounting can not be viewed as a simple technological tool. Accounting carries value and this value is essentially faith. In this paper, it must be noted that fundamentally, we are tracing the causes of modernity problems starting from its roots; its
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values.

It is Islamic anthropology that will guide us through this process and to propose The

solutions to the prevailing chaos in the form of Islamic Accounting Anthropology.

development of Islamic Accounting Anthropology as a science that has a unique nature, could be directly utilised to design to research methodology, and also will further help accounting researchers to perform studies which could be used to emancipate the ummah from the cage of capitalism that negates economic and social justice for all. It is without doubt to state that the prevailing system of capitalism (evolution for the sake of increasing laissez faire and self interest through free market toward capital accumulation), is a problem with todays economy (Bell 1978). This problem might arise, as claimed by Carrier (2005, p. 443), because of the redefinition of economics as a study of price formation. Any intrinsic value is regarded as meaningless metaphysics and primitive, therefore religion and ethics, for example, ought to be rejected. There is no other meaning to value but price, and it is viewed that there is no justice outside the market itself. Taking this definition as a stance, accounting plays a supporting role as one of the better life spirits of capitalism through bottom line profit, wealth accumulation and market orientation. Accounting was brought into Italy by the Muslim traders. These Muslim activities in accounting was captured by Luca Pacioli, who is now better known as the father of accounting (one of a misguided orientalist interests), in his book summa de arithmetica. In the name of God was still written in Paciolis double book-keeping, indicating the former thick spirituality of accounting, that was originally brought by Muslim traders. As the Christians separated themselves from the Catholics at that time, Islamic accounting soon lost its transcendental spirituality. Placing it this way, capitalism can be seen to have a pseudo-religion/spiritual

principles as Attached Faith instead of Embedded Faith. This can be seen from the process of

accounting evolution1. As there was repeating attachment and detachment between religion and knowledge, it could be apprehended that the mindset of Western gene is rationalism. This gene has been strengthened by the protestant ethics and Jewish spirit through new values namely capitalism. This indicates that even if we are viewing accounting as tool, this tool has been developed based upon (religious) faith! Au contraire, we oppose the idea that accounting is a mere tool of faith. Accounting in itself is faith. If Western accounting maintains a dominating evolutionism based on Protestant Christianity and or Judaism in the West, then accounting will become once again the offspring of capitalism that now has evolved to neo-liberalism. Accounting will be detached from its true faith again. This view is essential since without it, we will be at a cul-de-sac. Any attempt to liberate accounting from the capitalism trap will be futile. This same view would also enable us to use faith (Islam) to emancipate accounting through Islamic Accounting Anthropology. Will the modern accounting emancipation by Islam nowadays take the path of Embedded Faith or Attached Faith (as seem by the West)? As we shall soon discuss, the evolution process of Islamic accounting seems to have taken a similar`path through the course of history, as in the West. Under evolution, we can see that accounting, even Islamic accounting has developed in line with modernity in society both from a global view (AAOIFI)2 as well as local view

Ever since the era of Plato and Aristoteles, there has been an eternal philosophical battle about paganistic view of spirit and nature. The battle is between religion as an Embedded Faith (which is faith that becomes the true source of knowledge) and Attached Faith (faith that is simply being attached hence can easily be pulled out). Weber (1930, p. xxxv) claims capitalism as a Western-inherited nature that is genetically passed down from one generation to another since he could not find a similar trait of capitalism in the East (China and India). He further claims that it is the protestant ethic that brings the spirit of capitalism, and that accounting has been articulated to give rise to capitalism through rationalizing economic action (Christie et al. 2004). On the other hand, Sombart argues that it was the Jews who were best able to use modern accounting to accumulate wealth. Sombarts thesis depicts that accounting has a Jewish spirit (Funnel 2001). 2 The Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) was established in 1991 with a purpose to set international accounting and (recently) auditing standards for Islamic financial institutions based

(Indonesia/Indonesian Institute of Accountant) through accounting bodies as well as its standards. Nevertheless, shariah seems to be mere symbols and is used to legitimate order of This

conventional accounting (eg. accrual concept, going concern, mark to market, etc.).

phenomena has been observed in Islamic banks, in which interest-based loans are passed as Islamic by the Shariah Board (Kamla 2009). Mulawarman (2011a, p. 2) sees that AAOIFI is quite accommodative in the adoption of conventional accounting to the shariah accounting standards. This tendency can be reflected in the AASIFI (Accounting and Auditing Standards for Islamic Institution) in 1998 that is similar to the conventional standards. In Indonesia this is also apparent in the shariah accounting standards as The Basic Framework of Valuation and Disclosure of Shariah accounting adopts completely the conventional basic framework standards with the same underlying Entity Theory. We will explore this phenomena further in the

following section, but it is mimickery of Western conventional accounting would still retain egoism of stockholders away from the purpose of maqashid shariah. The products of AAOIFI have indicated a tendency to follow the modern development of accounting when it mimicks conventional Western accounting and banking3 regulation based on Basel Accord. It follows from the cultural evolutionism concept that, according to Said (2003),
on shariah rules. To date (February 2013), AAOIFI has issued twenty six accounting standards, five auditing standards, seven governance standards, forty five shariah standards and a code of ethics for accountants and auditors of Islamic financial institutions (www.aaoifi.com). All these standards refer to International Accounting Standard Boards (IASB) to legitimate shariah transaction. 3 Further in 1999, AAOIFI has even published Statement on the Purpose & Calculation of the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) for Islamic Banks that is Based on the CAR proposed by the Bank of International Settlements as set out in the Basel Agreements. At the very least, this CAR adoption may arouse a question about Shariah Banking purpose. As we know, the Basel Accord published by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision is a risk management tool to help investors and financial institutions to protect their wealth. It is thick with capitalist mindsets to accumulate investors wealth. This is not to say that risk management is not needed by Islamic banks and financial institutions. As Gambling and Karim (1991, p. 123) elucidate, adherence to shariah principles would enhance ones sensitivity to risk investment; while on the contrary, overemphasizing policy decisions on material return have proven many times to be counter-productive because of their lack of interaction between companies and society over the longer period. However, its direct unfiltered adoption suggests that the interest being protected is the interest of financial stakeholders (banks, insurance as financial institutions) backed up by accounting firms.

[accounting] is under the influence of the orientalists view which regards that everything must evolve to modernity as perceived by the West. Additionally this view regards universality and uniformity as the keys to modernization. These conditions will also cause problems, since universality will intervene in the substance of religion, which will not enable the creation of methodology that springs from its specific religious tradition (Rudyansjah 2012, p.164-165). Of course, AAOIFI may argue that any standard that is published by the AAOIFI must undergo a public hearing process before its publication as delineated by Karim (1999, p. 241): The public hearing is also meant to increase awareness of AAOIFIs standards amongst the financial community. Furthermore, it is intended to enhance confidence in the financial statements of Islamic financial institutions on the part of the users of these statements. AAOIFI is very much encouraged by the number of central banks, Islamic financial institutions, and professional accountants who attended the public hearings. Members of the accounting and auditing committees in our organization who are responsible for drafting the standards have benefited tremendously from the useful discussions that took place in these public hearings. In this way, it is the central banks, Islamic financial institutions, and professional accountants, who will benefit from useful discussions that took place in these public hearings. The decision usefulness in this case is therefore very limited to the interest of capital owners. The individuals acting as representation of the people in that public hearing are assumed to have taken rational decisions for all. This is true if the theory of public choice4 is employed, which we oppose because of its emphasis on economic rationality. We can further use diffusionism as another anthropological approach to view Islamic accounting development. Under diffusionism, civilization is formed because of the existence of assumed center of culture. The West, for example, because of its asumed stance being the center
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This can be explained under the theory of public choice from Virginia School as proposed by James Buchanan and Gordon Tullock in their Calculus of Consent (1962). They explicate that every rational choice model of politics is a market oriented research agenda. Economic analysis is seen as a tool for explaining all aspects of life, not just a narrow professional activity. Every public decision represents equilibrium, and no decision as well as its consequence can ever be wrong since it is made through rational thinking. The decision is also viewed to be a consentual agreement from the public.

of culture, feel the right to dominate and conquer the world. Nowadays, the Western culture is represented by the existence of multi national corporations, whose purpose as elucidated by Perkins (2006, p. 31) is to dominate through corporatocracy...[as] the new elite who had made up their mind to rule the planet. Similar stance is also taken by the Jew as stated by Ford (2006). With this regard, the Western accounting plays its role and difuses to all areas assuming its superiority. The Western as well as its accomplishes (i.e the locals who have Western education) become the agents of acculturation. According to Fathoni (2006, p. 33), agents of acculturation are those whose spread foreign (Western) ideas into a nation through culture. Acculturation is hence carried out with the underlying notion of cultural superiority. Opposingly, Islam clearly states that everyone is equal regardless their race or origin 5. This tenet is confirmed by the Prophet Mohammed PBUH in his last sermon6 when he stated that everyone is equal except for his/her taqwa. Both global and local accounting development, as we have clearly elucidated, has given sufficient evidence that accounting has become technology that brings universality and uniformity to move any civilization to modernity. Under the study of anthropology, especially evolutionism, accounting can be seen as technology that is utilised in the evolution process to adapt. Contrary thought by Julian Steward (1976) in Birx (2011, p. 449) elucidates that cultural core7, which is connectivity to nature, is the starting point and source to develop civilization instead of technology. Such civilization would be shaped by its own culture that is unique as

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QS 49:13 "All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves" 7 Cutural core is the main idea of cultural ecology which states that indegenous knowledge (cultural beliefs and practices) is used to maintain long term sustainability of natural resources as well as to protect those who are most vulnerable (Birx 2011, p. 451).

opposed to similar to other culture as a result of changing environment. Cultural core, might diminish because of increasing dependence on technology which will enable us to no longer as attached to nature as before. The solution is therefore presented as such; accounting should be used to bring us back not just to our cultural core but also to our values that are rooted deeper than cultural core, which is Islam! Accounting should not be viewed not as technology but as culture and beyond, not as tools but as values. Accounting should reflect our true faith. In this paper, we would like to shed some light on the existence of AAOIFI and IAI that could be seen to be separated from the maqashid shariah concept (even if maqashid shariah is stated as one important purpose of these institutions). The deviation would be apparent when this concept is brought to accounting practice as it falls into the trap of conventional profit and market logics. The ummah interest is lost over the interest of the market. This indicates that the values of zakah has been neglected. Islamic Accounting Anthropology should be able to

discover accounting spiritual meanings and conceptuals base that is based on zakah values instead of mere technical details. Although we will use some of the Western anthropological approaches, it must be noted that they have basic assumptions which is functionalism. This means in Western anthropology, any aspect of formation of culture can be accepted as long as it can be explained in its functional term. Religion or faith is equated as myth if it can not be explained as any function in society. Religion is considered as modern morality that is Kantian, that is rational, reasonable and is based on conscious mind, that spring from the Aristotelian (Rudiansjah 2012, p. 160). That is why this strain of anthropology is termed as functionalism anthropology or sociological anthropology. Placing it this way, Western anthropology can be a way in for any hegemony to maintain its existence. At this point we are making our stance that although we will use the

Western anthropology in this paper, there are underlying assumptions that we refuse to take up. We disagree to view evolutionism as development of society from primitive condition to modernity. We disagree to view difusionism as the spreading of a more superior culture. We also disagree to view cultural core simply as routine/functional practice, but as historical and contextual values underlying any practice including accounting. Based on the stated arguments, this paper poses a research question: how can problems of modernity (capitalism) be solved through Islamic accounting by employing Islamic Accounting Anthropology that is different to the functional, primitive-modern and cultural superiority view of Western anthropology? This article is a preliminary effort to a greater publication on Islamic Anthropology (in accounting) to fulfil one of Ahmeds (1989) recommendation to produce anthropological books as a contribution to the Muslim world that focuses on a cultural zone.

Method: Extending Ahmeds Methodological Holism In positivists hands, society is seen as structure that will strive to continuously form order and pattern. Hence, sociology attempts to understand how society behaves purposively

and rationally, and it is utilised to actually impose order and regulation within the social world (Burrell and Morgan 1979, p. 107). It is, therefore, also known as the positive science of society (Roslender 1992, p. 4). Of course, there are strands of critical sociology such as proposed by Marx or Habermas. However as Roslender (1992) argues, its critical aspect diminishes with the development of Talcott Parsons structural-functionalism sociology. In this respect, sociology can be regarded as, what Said (2003) explicates, a representation of the West and a mode of its domination to conquer the East.

We therefore choose to shift studying society from the sociological view that is positivist to anthropological view that focuses on the development of culture to society from human as a starting point. Sociology focuses on social groupings; on the elements or social phenomena as well as relations betwen these groups (social relations) in cities/towns. It initially focuses on the study of the people abroad (non-Western) in its wholeness. On the other hand, anthropology focuses on the study of people in villages (Fathoni 2006, p. 19; Koentjaraningrat 1985, p. 29). Again, this view places anthropology in the orientalists hands, as the Western feels to be more civilized (to live in town), while the non-Western lives in village with inferior culture or mentalit primitive8. Of course, this inferiority notion can be easily argued if we refer to the anthropological work of Bathuthah (2009, p. 340) who narated a story about a Roman slave named Michael, indicating that the Western can be as inferior in a certain society as the nonWestern . It is because of this fundamental paradigm of sociology, that we decline the use of sociology to view society. If society must break free from the modernity conceptualized by the West, as we have earlier stated, then sociology will not provide solutions to modernity problems. It will, in fact, strengthen Western modernity. Sociology can be said to follow an orientalists point of view in seeing society, especially Muslim Society, as something to be conquered and controlled. Said (2003, p 69-70) further explains that Islam in this sense with all the thoughts of Mohammed, Saladin, Averroes and Avicenna are fixed in a visionary cosmology- fixed, lay out, boxed in, imprisoned, without much regard for anything except their function. Islam, in this

This term was proposed by Lucien Levy-Bruhl which focuses mostly on the existence of religion as loi de participation, mystiqu, and prlogique. Loi de participation is relating in causalities things that have similarities to spiritual belief (totemization). For example, believing that one soul would unite with a red cacatoa in Central Brazil. Mystiqu means believing that the universe is ruled by something magical (like God). While prlogique is the last stage of primitivism when one starts thinking that God may or may not exist- or the birth of rational thinking (Koentjaraningrat 1987, p. 107).

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way, is presented as a representation of the West, through their geographical, historical and moral apprehension. Islam is a function. Because of this, the West sees the practical function of Islam not its values by using especially gender issues concerning women supression including polygamy (Ahmed 1989, p. 233). Even if we use anthropology, we will deviate from the definition of religion, such as proposed by a distinguished anthropologists such as Geertz (1976) and Peacock (1973) who similar to sociology, see Islam as functions and classify that there were many Islam (kyai, santri and abangan). We take similar stance as Ahmed (1989, p. 234) to affirm that there are no many Islams, as suggested by Western anthropologist, but only one Islam with various multitude of Muslim societies. In the western concept, religion can be viewed as a historical product. Geertz (1976) only reads religious symbols to uncover meanings without practical analysis that comprise analysis of conditioned, historical faith as well as its articulations (Rudyansjah 2012, p. 152). Religions function as totem that evoke spiritual emotion as proposed by Emille Durkheim (Koentjaraningrat 1987, p. 96). We will not also use the Western anthropology that is very much orientalist in nature. There are several paradigms in the Western anthropology. Maruf (1989) elucidates that

anthropology starts off from physical/biological anthropology with Darwin evolution (Darwinism). The post-Darwinism era produces two strands of streams: Social/Cultural

Darwinism with Herbert Spencer and Franz Boas as its prominent figures, and Cultural Evolutionism with Edward Taylor, Lewis Morgan, John Lubbock and James Frazer as its followers. Social/Cultural Darwinism believes that people mentalities are product of ancestral and racial history. Meanwhile cultural evolutionism believes in progressive development from primitive culture towards modern one.

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However, the described mapping by Maruf (1989) is just a way to portray anthropology. Unlike Kuhn (1962) and taking similar stance to Ahimsa-Putra (2008), we believe that there are several paradigms in anthropology and that these paradigms can co-exist. Ahimsa-Putra (2008) delineates that there are cultural anthropology ranging from nomotetic approach (such as cultural materialism, structuralism and fungsionalism) to idiographic approach (such as constructionism, difusionism and historical particularism). Keesing (1999) describes several strands of

anthropology, namely physical anthropology, prehistoric anthropology and social anthropology. Bakker (2000) even proposes metaphysical anthropology. In large, the Western anthropology is not just viewed as the study of primitive society (Malcolm 1997, p 7), but also the product of enlightenment era (Rudyansjah 2012, p 1). The definition in itself still retains an orientalist view which confirms that the evolution towards modernity is unaviodable. Anthropology itself was born from the practical need to colonize and is very much Europe-America-centric (Marzali 2005, p. 15). Unfortunately, this anthropology has become a mainstream even for local (Indonesian) distinguished anthropologist such as Koentjaranigrat, a US graduate student, who takes up an orientalist view9. Anthropology in this sense is still positivistic in nature, a term introduced by Weber as disenchanted world, that is very much based on mechanistic function (Rudyansjah 2012, p. 9). We believe that local society has its own unique wisdom and values that may not at all be primitive compared to the West. Therefore, as Malcolm (1997) further explains, an

anthropologist would need to employ methodological holism which explores all aspects of subjects being studied (economic, language, theological, political, agronomical aspects).
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It should be noted that Koentjaraningrat suggests the exclusion of the anthropological work by a Muslim scholar Ibn Chaldun of the 14th Century because, even if as Toynbee recognises Ibn Chalduns work as the greatest work of its kind that has been created by any mind in any time or place, this work is regarded by Koentjaraningrat as a work that does not have much impact on the development of anthropology (Koentjaraningrat 1987, p. 3). His view might be caused by his US education that might transfer oriental paradigmatic position of anthropology.

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We will therefore turn to Ahmeds Islamic anthropology because of its differentiating tenets to sociology and even Western anthropology. Methodological Holism was proposed by Ahmed (1989) in his writing Towards Islamic Anthropology: Definition, Dogme, Direction. Methodological holism would analyze a Muslim actor as part of social configurations or ummah, as opposed to methodological individualist who sees man in a society as an actor maximizing, optimizing and sees that social interactions are interpreted as values gained or lost. In that work, he defines Islamic anthropology: ...loosely as the study of Muslims groups by scholars committed to the universalistic principles of Islam, humanity, knowledge and respectful tolerance and relating micro-village tribal studies in particular, to the larger historical and ideological frames of Islam. Islam is here understood not as theology but sociology (Ahmed 1989, p. 231-232).

This is our starting point to devise analysis tool. However, we will not take the stance of using Islam as sociology since it will only take us back to seeing it (Islam as a religion) merely as a function. The anthropological commitment to the principle of Islam as value or theological is essential to bring the actual practices in line with Islam as a belief. Equated to this, we employ applied anthropology as opposed to pure anthropology or abstract anthropology because of its rejection to cultural relativism (a mainstream in the study of anthropology) which, unlike pure anthropology, enables it to take a place or position in determining which value is to be held with a purpose to suggest a value-ladden solution (in this case: Islam) (Marzali 2005, p. 13). The research has been conducted using the recommendations proposed by Ahmed (1989) to costruct Islamic anthropology. However, we have made a few modification to extend his recommendations to be able to suit our purpose as well as to lay down assumptions that should not have been left out, namely (1) referring to the Quran; (2) viewing Islam not in sociological

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perspective but theological one and; (3) enhancing the need to develop Islamic (accounting) anthropology in continuous process of education (from bachelor to doctorate degree). Hence we have conducted the research through documentation, literature studies and collection of empirical evidence in Indonesian Muslim society as well as in education. By employing Ahmeds (1989) recommendations, the research has followed this methodological framework: 1. Referring to the Quran and the sirah rasul to relate to the formation of society as defined by Divine Will. 2. Taking Indonesia as one of many distinct cultural-geographical type as a base to develop Islamic Accounting Anthropology. This research will portray how Indonesian Muslims are still in touch with their cultural core (i.e. Islam) in their everyday life that reflect their accountabilities to Allah SWT. 3. Collecting and documenting several works to justifty the need to return to Islamic anthropological framework with Islam as the essential value or ingredient for society/ummah formation in the way of maqashid syariah. 4. Providing several empirical findings on accounting education as a continuous effort to embed Islamic values and to prove that through long term effort in education, students as part of ummah will be emancipated and in turn will be able to emancipate society from the capitalism cage. anthropology. The findings will be organised as follows. First, we will explain the current formation of accounting knowledge that is positivistic in nature which in fact helps to maintain the hegemony of capitalists and pose inequalities problems to the ummah. This section will also provide This is the essential findings of applied Islamic accounting

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empirical evidence from both Muslim society and accounting education practices through anthropological perspective to confirm that the Western positive accounting is not suitable for Indonesia and this discrepancy will enhance modernity problems. We will provide also evidence how Western thought has penetrated Indonesian scholars to govern Indonesian Islamic accounting and therefore education is essential ingredient as well as most important starting point to bring about emancipation. Second, we will provide several anthropological work in various countries to prove that accounting is very contextual in nature and hence Islamic anthropology is better suited rather than sociology. We will also provide several anthropological work in Indonesia as a result of continuous accounting education based on Islamic and local values. Reference to sirah rasul will be obtained to propose solution to capitalism in Islamic accounting through zakah values, al hisbah and the importance of having the balanced concept of abdullah and khalifatullah filardh to avoid falling back into the capitalism trap.

Anthropological Perspective of Positive Accounting: a Highway to Neoliberalism The era of Plato and Aristoteles, when the growth of rationalism (based on apriori knowledge) and empiricism (based on aposteriori knowledge) were born, essentially marks the beginning of secularization far before the era of enlightenment/auckflaruung in the West. Purification of knowledge (similar to desacralization of knowledge by Al Attas 1981) reaches its apex through the tenets established in the Vienna Circle, which affirms that social science should follow the logic of natural science, hence similar mechanistical assumptions and methods should be employed equally in universal language.

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Accounting is also seen as a natural science10 (Sterling 1975). Accounting is therefore based on empiricism and rasionalism. The entry point that would enable accounting to comply with the logic of natural science is positive science11, different from its precedessors who see accounting as a normative science. Normative accounting is replaced by positive accounting because it deals with questions pertaining what ought or should be done, which focuses on deductive reasoning, not empirical or evidential analysis (Tinker and Puxty 1995, p. 6). The positive accounting theory in the US soon blossomed with the help of several education institutions such as Stanford, Illinois, Texas, UCLA, NYU, Rochester and Berkeley12 as the true heir of positive accounting theory. Since then, accounting education system has followed the positivism as a true religion: The million dollars donated towards conferences, research projects, and chairs in positive accounting research has installed antinormative bias in the educational system. University students are not instructed in the normative activity of reasoning out the correct expense, revenue, asset or claim; rather they are drilled in rote learning of FASB rules. In short, faithful to the positive accounting tradition, teaching has focussed on, what is, not what should be. Indeed the blind faith in what the rules are has displaced any conception of where the rules come from... (Tinker and Puxty 1995, p. 10)
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The nature of accounting has been debatable (Sterling 1975, Stamp 1981). Sterling (1975) states that accounting is in fact natural science but because of its approach to accounting as social science, it can not solve modernity problems. He futher refers to common accounting definition as an art that if in truth, a practitioner of the accounting art is a truth seeker, he is confronted by a host of uncertainties. There are no natural laws of accounting which he can employ, only conventions validated by experience. According to Sterling (1975), there are two misconceptions in this definition. First, uncertainties would cause a tendency to see different approach to accounting which leads it to its artistic nature. Second, conventions imply that accounti ng is practiced under subjective decisions made by people. He further proposes to change this paradigm and uses rule-based accounting (measurement instead of allocation) with a natural science approach to confirm that accounting is really a natural science! 11 This development is in line with Auguste Comtes evolution as written in his books Cours de Philosophie Positive (1842) and Systeme de Politique Positive (1851). He believed that humanity religion is achieved at the peak of positivism as a key succes factor of self happiness in order to construct social order. From Comtes final frontiers of Positivism, we can state that positivism diminishes the Protestant and Jewish values that were attached on accounting. Accounting has become soulless/religionless neoliberalism with the beliefs of rational market, empiricism and flow of capital. These are values that are temporary- moral-free and opposes eternal values. The faith of accounting has been transformed to happiness/lust/self-interest. 12 University of Berkeley was the first of many universities that accepted Indonesian students, mainly accounting lecturers from local universities.

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Despite the fact that positive accounting only presents a temporary reality in the market studies and is criticised as an ideological embarassment (Tinker and Puxty 1995, p. 7), it finds its way to Indonesia through moral intellectuals, or academics, who have been indoctrinated 13 by positivism. With the new found faith which in essence is self-interest, accounting adapts financial theory that is also based on empirical evidence such as the Agency Theory. Jensen (1994, p. 44) explains that the central position of agency theory is that rational self interested people always have incentives to reduce the losses these conflicts engender. Positive Accounting Theory by Watts and Zimmerman (1986, p. 3) also emphasizes the importance of self-interest. This theory at the end carries anthropocentric value such that is described by Watts and Zimmerman (1986, p.3): We assume that all these various parties in selecting or recommending accounting and auditing procedures act so as to maximize their own welfare14 (i.e. their expected utility). To make a decision on accounting reports, individuals want to know how the alternative reporting methods affect their welfare.

The true religion that has replaced transcendental religion is adamantly stated by Jensen (1993, p. 45) that self-interest that can work more efficient in a structured authority: I am sceptical of our ability to change human nature. Thousand of years of effort by all great religions of the world have failed15 to eradicate the reality of self interest. Instead, I place my bets on the institutionla structures, contracts and informal arrangements that we create to reduce conflict, to govern our relations, and to increase the extent of cooperation and the benefits we reap from it. Such efforts, which arise from self interest, are privately rewarding and improve the quality of life in our society.

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Indoctrination, according to Moore (1966, p. 396) could be described as one-sided or biased presentation of a debatable issue, a presentation designed to assure a favorable outcome for a predetermined point of view 14 Deliberately bolded by authors 15 Deliberately bolded by authors

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One governing structure is the market itself. Earlier, we have elucidated that Carrier (2005, p. 443) defines economics as a study of price formation where any intrinsic value such as religion, ethics, etc. are irrational and ought to be rejected. The market is therefore regarded as the center of justice. Within the market, there are firms, who under the big heading of selfinterest, sees opposing view besides the value of price. Coase (1937) in Fontrodona and Sison (nd, p. 5) points out that a firms function is to determine cost of production in a system of relationship in which lies agency conflicts. Ethically a business/firm, as Friedman (1970) states, has a social obligation to increase its profit. This shows that either the market or the firm has similar underlying faith- self-interest. Self-interest has become one prophetic goal and linked Economics, Finance and Accounting as shown in Figure 1. This truly reflects the core of modernity and its problems as its effect. Figure 1. Self-Interest as a New-found Religion

Economics

Value is Price (Market) Accounting (bridging values in economics and finance)

Finance

Value is Firm (Theory of the Firm)

Self-Interest (Individualism)

This self-interest is the key of modernity problems because of its individualism. supported by Bell (1978, p 16-22):

This is

18

The fundamental assumption of modernity, the thread that has run through Western civilization since the sixteenth century, is that the social unit of society is not the group, the guild, the tribe, or the city, but the person.... In the economy, there arises the bourgeouis entrepreneur...What defines bougeouis society is not needs but wants... Society is seen...as a composite atomistic individuals who pursue only their own gratification.

It is individualism that fuels unrestrained capitalism and its course towards secular Western modern society. The emphasis on individual instead of ummah, as what is deemed in maqashid shariah, has created enlarging gap between the rich and the poor; creating nature imbalance and destruction. Accounting and its self-interest profit bottomline have done much injustice as

Chwastiac and Young (2003, p 536) have proven that corporations, through financial statements: silence the negative impact of their activities upon the earth, the hell of war and the beauty of peace, the spiritual, human, and social impoverishment arising from excessive consumption, and the dehumanization of workers

How about Islamic accounting? In global context, it might just be that neoliberal positive accounting is also the stance of Islamic accounting produced by the AAOIFI. The AAOIFI Shariah Board members are apppointed for a four year term. Their job amongst many is to achieve harmonization and convergence in the concepts and application among the Shariah supervisory boards of Islamic financial institutions. They are also obliged to either to give the Shariah opinion in matters requiring collective Ijtihad (reasoning), or to settle divergent points of view, or to act as an arbitrator. On the other hand, the Standards Board members are appointed by the Board of Trustees for a five-year term. They are responsible for regulating the accounting profession and/or responsible for preparing accounting and auditing standards, certified accountants, and users of the financial statements of Islamic financial institutions. However, as can be seen from Table 1 and Table 2, the Shariah Board consists of nine out of fifteen members that represent the finance and banking industries (60%).
19

Further, the

Standard Board 16members are more varied, with nine out of seventeen bankers (53%) and four out of seventeen auditors representing the Big Four (24%), which will make up 77% members from financial institutions namely banking and insurance as well as accounting firms who act as bumper of decision making. This would direct AAOIFI to make its decision that will be largely based on investors interest, as stated by Graham and Neu (2003) that organization and accounting technology are not just designed to stabilize international boundary assymmetry and uncertainty, but also to serve salient liberalization for MNC. Table 1. AAOIFI Shariah Board Members per February 2013
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 13 14 15 Name Shaikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani Shaikh Abdulla Bin Sulaiman Al Manea Sheikh Waleed Bin Hadi Shaikh Dr. Ajeel Jasim Al-Nashmi Shaikh Dr. Abdel Sattar Abdel Karim Abu-Ghuddah Shaikh Nizam Yaquby Shaikh Dr. Ahmad Ali Abdulla Shaikh Dr. Hussein Hamid Hassan Shaikh Dr. Mohamed Ali Al Qari Shaikh Dr. Esam 'Anezi Sheikh Ayashi Faddad Shaikh Dr. Saleh Abdullah Al-Lihaidan Sheikh Aflah Alkahalili Sheikh Abdulla Bin Mohamed Al Mutlaq Sheikh Waleed Bin Hadi Mr. Abdulla Bin Humood Al Ezzi Dr. Khaled Al-Fakih Institution Vice-President Darul-Uloom Karachi, Permanent Member OIC Fiqh Academy Former Judge, Court of Cassation, Saudi Arabia Head of Shari'a compliance, Qatar Islamic Bank, Qatar Member, Sharia Supervisory Board, Kuwait Finance House, Kuwait Sharia Consultant, Dallah Al Baraka Group, Saudi Arabia Member of the Shari'a Board, Bahrain Islamic Bank Secretary General, The Higher Council of the Sharia Supervisory Board, Sudan Member, Shari'a Supervisory Board, Dubai Islamic Bank, UAE Member of Shari'a Supervisory Board, Bank Al Jazira, Saudi Arabia Member, Shari'a Supervision/ Director, Investment Dar, Kuwait Shari'a Advisor, Islamic Development Bank GM of Shariah Group, Al Rajhi Bank, KSA Head of Studies and Research, Grand Mufti Office , Sultanate of Oman Head of Shari'a Compliance, SABB, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Head of Shari'a compliance, Qatar Islamic Bank, Qatar Yemen Secretary-General & CEO, Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions, kingdom of Bahrain

Source: www.aaoifi.com
16

Gramsci believes that there is a supremacy of a social group that manifests itself in two ways, as domination and as intellectual and moral leadership. Both groups: Domination and intellectual/moral leadership or hegemony have purposes. Domination has a purpose to coercively dominate antagonistic groups which it tends to liquidate, or to subjugate even by armed force; while intellectuals and morals would lead allied and groups in the name of a dominant group. Domination relates to two corresponding modes of subjectivity juridical and ethical.

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Table 2. Members of AAOIFI Accounting and Auditing Standard Boards


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Name Mr. Muhammad Said Abdelwahab Mr. Hamad Abdulla Eqab Mr. Jalil Al-Aali Mr. Jamil Darras Shaikh Nizam Yaquby Sh. Dr. Mohamed Ali Al Qari Sh. Essam Mohammed Al Sheikh Ishaq Mr. Fawad Laique Dr. Nordin Mohammed Zain Mr. Firas Sadek Hamdan Mr. Simon Gray Dr. Hussein Said Saifan Mr. M. Faiz Azmi Mr. Prakash Pathmanathan Mr . Oliver Ali Agha Mr. Qudeer Latif Dr. Khaled Al-Fakih Institution Assistant General Manager, Kuwait Finance House, Kuwait. Senior Vice President, Head of Financial Control, Albaraka Banking Group, Bahrain. Partner, KPMG Fakhro, Bahrain Head, Central Accounting Section, Finance Department, Islamic Development Bank, Saudi Arabia Member of the Shari'a Board, Bahrain Islamic Bank, Kingdom of Bahrain Member, Shari'a Supervisory Board, Bank Al Jazira, Saudi Arabia Sharia Advisor & Board Member, Discover Islam Centre, Bahrain Partner, Ernst & Young, KSA Partner, Deloitte, Malaysia Head of Studies & Analysis Division, Accounting Department, Banque du Liban (Central Bank of Lebanon), Lebanon Director, Supervision, Dubai Financial Services Authority, United Arab Emirates Assistant General Manager, Jordan Islamic Bank, Jordan Partner,Global Islamic Finance Leader, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Malaysia Assistant General Manager Finance, Ithmaar Bank, Bahrain Managing Partner, Agha & Co, UAE Partner, Clifford Chance LLP, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Secretary General & CEO, AAOIFI

Source: www.aaoifi.com In local context, i.e. Indonesia, although real commodities do play a larger role compared to non-real sector17, accounting education has been formed by employing the Western capital market positive accounting. This occurs solely due to the fact that Indonesian academics who have experienced the US education share similar orientalist sentiments towards accounting. The neoliberal positive accounting in Indonesia, as a new faith, can be largely influenced from the generation of economists who were shaped by capitalist mindset because of US education and were known as The Mafia Berkeley (a term introduced by David Ransom, in a

17

The nations GDP consists of 80% income from Small and Micro Enterprises while the capital market is dominated by only 460 companies that are family -owned. The number of Indonesian SMEs in 2010 from the Department of Cooperation and SMEs in2010 showed that there were 55 million SMEs, or 99% of all nations corporations. GDP of SMEs reached up to 56% and can absorb approximately 99,4 million employment or 97% employment according to the Department of Cooperation and SMEs 2010)

21

magazine named Ramparts, 4th edition 1970).

The Mafia Berkeley and the army18 are

essentially the movement of intellectual/moral leadership, a term introduced by Gramsci (1971), to legitimate the domination of the West. The evolution of accounting towards the Western accounting through development of intellectual/moral leadership has been established since Indonesian colonization by the Dutch as far back as 1642. Abdoelkadir (1982) noted that in 1918 the first Netherland accounting firm was established and soon bookeeping was taught in business schools. Enrollment to these schools were privilege to children with high social status (children of head of districts of the rich/royal family) that were notabene already detached from the oppressed society caused by Dutch colonization. From this moment on the modern values were beginning to be transferred as a Orientalists strategy to educate the primitive East. Unfortunately by undergoing this process, the local intellectuals/morals, that were originally had stood away from their local community because of their high community status, have mimicked the West and turn against the interest of their nation. They shifted their role towards

comprador/inlander/slave, a term used by Rais (2008, p 83) or buaya putih-white crocodile19, a term proposed by Supadjar (2005). Abdoelkadir (1982) futher explains that Indonesia followed the Dutch system the World War II when the Japanese took over Indonesia and started training accountants during 19421944. Distinguished Indonesian accountants were first recognized after the Japanese occupancy,

18

The first Mafia Berkeley were Subroto, Emil Salim, Widjodjo Ni tisastro, Ali Wardhana, J.B. Sumarlin, Saturdays night discussion at The University of California. Mafia Berkeley were technocrats who were given scholarship to pursue Western education under Ford foundation to fill up the vacancies of lecturers formerly held by the Dutch, as well as those who follow similar idea. After they completed their studies, they were assigned to teach the army and were also actively involved in political movement through Universitas Indonesia, to ally against Soekarno, the first President of Indonesia, to achieve liberalism state. Therefore, they were close to the army, in which Radius Prawiro was once acting as the highest military officer of people army/TRI, the military governor of Yogyakarta and later one of the governors of IMF and ADB (Mallarangeng 2004, p 45-47). The latter group of the Mafia Berkeley is also Sri Mulyani, currently one of the directors of the World Bank. 19 White crocodile is a symbol of mimickery of the white-skinned people by the dark-skinned people (asia), but only up to its outer layer/skin.

22

namely Prof. Sindian Jayadiningrat, Prof. Rachmat Sumitro, Prof. S. Hadibroto and

Prof.

Sumarjo. After Indonesian indepedence in 1945, Universitas Indonesia (UI) established master accounting major in 1953. Soon UI modelled its accounting education using guided study system after a plan that was employed in the US. Accounting education evolved further into Western accounting starting from 1958, the Ministry of Education and Culture as well as the Directorate of Higher Education and the Consortium of Economic Science has outlined programs for Indonesian accounting academics to study abroad mainly in the US. During this education process they acquired and then transferred Western values (secularism) in accounting20. Prof. Widjojo Nitisastro was one of the names mentioned in the Mafia Berkeley and became the Dean of Faculty of Economics Universitas Indonesia. This university becomes one of the largest and most distinguished universities in Indonesia. Soon after that, accounting lecturers were sent to California University, Kentucky University, Texas University, Wisconsin University, Missouri University, Kent-State University, etc. The America-centric (read:

positive-centric) accounting has painted dominant color of Indonesian accounting. The positive accounting become the accounting mainstream for several years, despite the non-mainstream accounting brought by the later wave of academicians who have their scholarship from University of Wollongong21, Australia or European Universities. Such stance is still apparent today. A distinguished lecturer from a well known state university and also a policy maker in the Indonesian Institute of Accountant- Education Compartment (IAI-KAPD) stated in an accounting meeting of IAI in 2012 Banjarmasin, that she would help lead Indonesian accounting education to comply with IFAC standards. She is not alone. Such attitude is unanimous amongst members of Indonesian accounting standard setters.
20

Beaver, the president of American Accounting Association, in 1987 clearly stated that accounting should be separated from religious values: long-standing and highly cherished tradition of separation of church and state. 21 The emergence of shariah accounting in Indonesia was at first triggered by University of Wollongong graduates.

23

Sudibyo (2010) explains this as an attempt to one solid economic community and to face Asean Free`Trade Association (AFTA). Under anthropology, the role of agents, known as acculturation agents, to introduce and disperse culture (in this case accounting techniques through IFRS) is important to produce kulturkreis. The history of accounting kulturkreis22 in Indonesia went back as far as 1973 when Indonesian Institute of Accountants (IAI) in 1973, adopted accounting standards from the US GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) as well as some standards from Australia (A Statement of Australian Accounting Principles). In 2012, up to this date, the accounting

evolution towards the Western accounting is also apparent as IAI has agreed to fully adopt and implement IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards). IFRS itself has a goal, among many, to develop a single set of high quality, understandable, enforceable and globally accepted international financial reporting standards (IFRSs) through its standard-setting body, the IASB (www.ifrs.org). The term enforceable and globally accepted indicates that IFRS is becoming a forced kulturkreis - a religion or faith that is planted- as the West is infiltrating the international accounting standards with its protestant ethics. The Indonesian shariah acounting standards can be said also to follow positive (pragmatic) accounting that is stated by a member of IAI Standard Board: There is a belief that Islamic Finance has a significant role in the strengthening of economic potential. The trend of internationalisation of Islamic Finance is getting stronger and becoming more integrated with global finance system. More than 600 Islamic Financial Institutions are now operating in more than 60 countries. Asset from Global Islamic Finance at the moment is USD 1 billion and may grow up to USD 2 billion in the next 3-5 years (Speech given in the XI IAI congress, 8-10 December 2010 in Jakarta, Hotel Indonesia, Kempinski)

22

Kulturkreis, a term proposed by Graebner (a German historicist and linguist), is essentially elements of culture that are similar and can be found in different (geographical) areas. By mapping similarities of cultures in different areas, the cutural difusion can be analysed (Koentjtoroningrat 1987, p 112-113). However, IFRS is the application of forced kulturkreis as international accounting standards must be applied with very little regard to local culture.

24

From this statement, the Islamic finance is simply viewed good or ethical from the material aspect. Human has material purpose to achieve civilization as proposed in the nature of man as the ontological view of human, opposing what is not as stated in the Quran to fight in the way of God (At Taubah 9:38) and (Al Baqarah 2:30) to be khalifah. Islamic finance should not be measured by materialistic growth (as the essential nature of capitalism). Growth is the root of American liberalism and an economic ideology of liberal innovation23 (Bell 1978, p 79). This similar materialistic stance of Islamic finance, again, brings us back to the realization that Islamic finance adopts the faith of positive accounting as delineated by Tinker and Puxty (1995) earlier. Table 3. Members of Indonesian Shariah Accounting Board Members
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Name M. Jusuf Wibisana Amin Musa Arif Machfoed Cecep Maskanul Hakim Dewi Astuti Endy M. Astiwara Hasanudin Ikhwan Abidin Basri Kanny Hidaya Setiawan Budi Utomo Sri Yanto Wasilah Wiroso Yasir Institution Partner, Pricewaterhouse Coopers PT. Asuransi Ekspor Indonesia (ASEI) Academics/ Universitas Indonesia Bank Indonesia, Islamic Financial Services Board Bank Indonesia/ Syariah Banking Control Team Sharia Supervisory Board Manulife Insurance Indonesia Shariah Member Board of Majelis Ulama Indonesia (DSN-MUI) Shariah Member Board of Majelis Ulama Indonesia (DSN-MUI) Shariah Control Board, Bank DKI Syariah Shariah Member Board of Majelis Ulama Indonesia (DSN-MUI) Technical Director KAP Kanaka Puradiredja, Nexia International Universitas Indonesia Universitas Trisakti, Associate Member Batasa Tazkia Consulting Academics

Source: www.iaiglobal.or.id Even if there is Islamic pilar as one of the three pilars in Indonesian accounting standards, we can perform similar analysis on the tendency of the use of this standard by viewing the members of Islamic accounting standard setters, known as DSAS (Dewan Standar Akuntansi Syariah). The members consist 50% of public accountants, insurance and bank industries. From table 3, it might just be that the US accounting firm may have central role in determining s hariah
23

...growth would provide the resources to raise the incomes of the poor. The thesis that growth was necessary to finance public services was the crack of John Kenneth Galbraiths The Affluent Society. (Bell 1978, p 80)

25

standards as the head of the Islamic accounting standard setter represents one of the Big 4 accounting firms24. Conceptually, both AAOIFI and IAI set their accounting standards based on Entity Theory that follows positive accounting which reflects self-interest faith in two points: 1. The separation of corporation/company as entity acts as a limitation to owners liability. 2. Both produce Income Statement, whose income is purposed towards companys stockholders. AAOIFI, being Islamic, adds these statements: Statements of restricted accounts for deposits or investment made by depositors based on mudharabah muqayyadah, statement of Qard Hassan, and Statment of Zakat and charity funds (Latifah, Asfadillah and Sukmana 2012). Placing it this way, the real issue is the conceptual theory underlying accounting, not on the technical debates that are currently taking place amongst accounting academics and standard setters. These debates, among many, stir around technical issues such as how to account for ijarah (AAOIFI agrees to operating lease while IFRS agrees to finance lease), or for sukuk (AAOIFI agrees to sale, while IFRS agrees to non-sale), or sukuk valuation (AAOIFI agrees to valuation by DCF while IFRS agrees to not using DCF). The discourse is played at

technical/valuation level, while the essential issue of the profit as bottomline remains undisturbed. Shariah accounting in Indonesia is also the midst of similar technical debates with little or no substansial theoretical discussion as it decided not to follow AAOIFI. The chairman of DSAS states that there are reasons why DSAS does not adopt AAOIFI standards25:

24

Jusuf Wibisana, the head of DSAS, is a native who was educated in an Islamic education institution ( Pesantren), but he represents Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PwC) as one of the Big 4 from the US. 25 This speech was made at the IFRS international dynamics 2013 and beyond: Impact to Indonesia conference (6-7 Maret 2013), JW Mariott Jakarta.

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AAOIFIs standards deal with financial institutions only and not deal with parties transacting with the institutions. AAOIFIs standards are too broad and less detail, since dealing with auditing as well as accounting. There might be differences in the Islamic rules applied on certain transactions as the result of local deliberation (ijtihad).

In turn, DSAS then adopts the conceptual framework of IFRS, that has been proved to gear for the market, especially capital market (although there are statements such PSAK 109 and 110 that do not only govern financial products such as AAOIFI). Statement of Shariah Accounting Standards 101-110 adopt the conventional accounting that is oriented towards accumulation of capital (reflected in the Profit and Loss Sharing/PLS). This leads to egoism of capital owners and managers instead of the welfare of ummah (maqashid syariah). The PLS is actually still representing the very foundation of Agency Theory as a theory frequenty used in accounting discipline. Jensen and Meckling (1994, p 17) state that Agency Theory has its own basic assumption of man (and his religion) in their Resourceful, Evaluative, Maximizing Model (REMM): The REMM model in contrast, explains the evolution of customs and mores as reflection in habits, unquestioned beliefs, and religion of behaviour patterns that reflect optimal behaviour given in the cost and benefit of various actions. When the underlying costs and benefits of various actions change, individuals are faced with a conflict between new, optimal forms of behavior and culturally accepted but inefficient, forms... And if the new behavior patterns are indeed optimal, the population will- through experience, education and death- gradually accommodate the new behavior in the culture.

There are two keypoints that can be noted from this statement. First, religion is measured in term cost and benefit (functional or utilitarian religion). Second, education amongst

experience and death, helps the evolution of a new form of culture that is more efficient and modern, which again implies an orientalist view.

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Because of its emphasis in function (tool), Islamic accounting can not proceed without political process. Watts (1992) describes that financial statements of business empiricaly are affected by market and political interest. Reality should be adapted in its enviroment as a relative interaction product between rational individual wants and egoism (self-interest). This interaction is a form of agency relation in both market and political process. In short, accounting foundation (be it pragmatic Islamic or conventional accounting) reflects self-interest, power and politics (Mulawarman 2011a, p 97), that can be equated with secularism proposed by Al Attas26 (1981). The positivism is the highway that leads to hence the problem of modernity: neoliberalism.

Accounting in Quranic and Contextuality Relation to Build Islamic Accounting Anthropology

The previous section has clarified that the present Islamic accounting development has followed (1) orientalist view that evolution of accounting should follow the line of Western modernity; (2) the religion of positivism which is self-interest despite the accordance of non-riba and the application of PLS accounting. These natures of Islamic accounting create modernity problems in the strengthening capitalism through accounting secularization. In this section, through the Islamic Accounting Anthropology as an applied anthropology, we offer solution to these problems.

26

Al Attas (1981, p 21-23) defines secularism in three forms: disenchantment of nature, desacralization of politics and deconsecration of values.

28

Figure 2. Islamic Anthropology Assumptions

To map where Islamic anthropology and to define its boundary, we will attempt to illustrate the present anthropology and society formation as a result of modernization (See Figure 2). The present society we are currently living in, is in large led to a postmodern society (area IV) that demark boundaries between countries and cultures. Through globalization and

humanity religion in a postmodern society, society has been developed by a forced kulturkreis (evolutionism and difusionism). There are societies that still takes the form of modern,

communist, socialist and Islamic societies that still retain its specific characters but are in the process of influencing and adopting one another (Area III). There are also small numbers of

society that are still in the form of indigenous societies with clear-cut unblemished cultures (Area II). Conventional anthropology (evolutionism, difusionism, cultural core) is moving horizontally or slightly vertically in its approach. For example, cultural evolutionism by Edward
29

Taylor, Lewis Morgan, John Lubbock and James Frazer, would study people and society formation from primitive to modern (Western) society. This kind of anthropology would cover the evolution from the local culture to the modern culture; from inner towards the outer circle (e.g. Area IIc-IIIb-IV or IIb-IIIc-IIIb). Social/Cultural Darwinism by Herbert Spencer and Franz Boas may cover cultural cores and difusion to other cultures (e.g. Area IIc-IIb-IIa or IIId-IIIcIIIb). These studies are based on rational objective-subjective anthropology, with certain interest such as transformation of society to modern one, or colonization of society. Islamic anthropology has one main goal that is to achieve an Islamic Society (order) where localities are the main ingredients with tauhid as the integration values as well as tool. Islamic anthropology in essence is an applied anthropology, in a sense that it is a guided anthropology geared to transform society (not in an orientalist view) from chaos (modernity/capitalism/secularism) society to an orderly society with equal respect to any cultures. Guided anthropology will become a tool to transform society from any chaotic state to Islamic society (Area I); which is an inward movement (from outer to inner circle). Being an applied anthropology, Islamic anthropology can be designed to fit other areas of disciplines such as accounting, management, business, agriculture, etc. With this in mind, we are therefore able to propose three solutions using Islamic Accounting Anthropology. First, it is imperative to note the importance of contextuality in accounting as the most essential anthropological approach that must always refer to six pillars of faith. We can refer to the sirah rasul as a diachronic analiysis of how the great prophet Muhammad PBUH configurated the spiritual-social-economic-political society which can be equated as an applied anthropology. The hijrah from Makkah to Madinah was a social and cultural re-orientation beside its purpose to maintain and protect aqidah and spread Islam. The trading nature of

30

Makkah creates a competitive and harsh environment that makes it hard to spread Islam. Opposingly, Madinah is a city with farming, trading and mining as its main activities. The hijrah is a declaration of the re-creation of humans fitrah, or the return of humans true nature from self to the welfare of society. This was done by the prophet by establishing the Nabawi Mosque as the center of all activities (parliamentary, state administration, armed-forces,

education, dakwah and baitul maal) (Mulawarman 2011a, p 162). The integration between religious symbol (the mosque) and all activities indicated the inseparation between the transcendence and the profane. This is a statement of integrity, not secularism. This shows that it is not only a huge mistake in applying or even forcing the same faith to different areas with different cultures (forced kulturkreis), but without a guided value, a society would be shaped into a secularized society. This, in many ways, have been proven by several anthropological studies. In China, Inoue, Umezaki and Watanabe (2012) find that

modernization has created unequality in Hainan Island. Specific studies on Islam have also been carried out in several areas. Yong (2012, p 161) finds that in Far South Thailand, ...the more modern (Westernized) a society becomes, the more its religious tradition declines. The West has created an image that Muslims are equated as terrorists, and this view if supported by authority, helps to reduce the religious practices to advance to modern (Western) civilization. Similarly, anthropological Islamic study in Chechnya (Raubisko 2009) finds that diverse Islamic practices that are very much related to the local tradition can not be simply changed to follow the ruling regime. Practices (including accounting practices) in any way, will live in the heart (faith) of its culture as cultural core.

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This means that even if normative accounting is employed instead of positive accounting, there would be a difference in the normative accounting that is developed in the US or Europe27, compared to normative accounting that will arise from Indonesian culture. Local accounting practices in a traditional market in a Javanese tribe, as a diachronic study, shows the thick spirituality of worship (ibadah) that is different from the partial Islamic PLS concept captured Islamic accounting28. produced a field note: An elderly woman in her late 40s was selling vegetables in the market. She was friendly and carrying out traditional trading activities. One of her teeth has been replaced with gold, and she wore several gold bangles on her arms. As she counted her money at the end of the day, she was happy for she has received so much barakah from Allah SWT. She would use her rizq that day to keep her business going and to buy more gold; not to view it as asset, but to keep them to perform haj in the future. We once observed and interviewed a traditional market trader and

This anthropological approah as shown in the habitus of local muslim trader to viewing accounting is necessary to abstract Islamic values that would enable the development of accounting away from the capitalistic Western accounting approach. Through this integrated synchronic-diachronic anthropology approach which is Islamic accounting articulated approach, Mulawarman (2011a) finds that maisyah-rizq-maal trilogy based on barakah is the core of accounting. Maisyah is the effort exerted by human to find rizq, and in this collection of rizq, assets or maal is formed. This concept is under the umbrella of
27

Collison et al. (2010) elucidate that Anglo-American accounting has now evolved to support welfare capitalism. Their finding show that those developed countries who practice Anglo-American accounting experience an increase in child mortality rate, obesity and inequal income distribution. With this purpose, Anglo-American accounting would not be able to enhance the non-capitalistic ideology of Indonesia with various local cultures and wisdom. 28 The PLS concept from Islamic finance is clear from the Western trap of self-interest, since it carries adalah (adl=just/fair)concept between capital provider (rab al maal) and entrepreneur (mudharib) in case of mudharabah financing. However, this financing is captured by Western accounting, the PLS is reduced back to income as bottom line because it uses Income Statement that requires profit in all accounting accounts. PLS adalah is diminished as transactions must be represented in Profit Sharing and (or) Revenue Sharing accounting techniques.

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tauhid, yet is developed through the study of local Islamic practices as well as the tracing of the prophet life. Second, it must be realized that Islamic accounting should revisit its fundamental ontology of the human nature. It seems that separation between God and the world has become the gene pool of the West. Historically, it can be noted that separation-integration/ detachmentattachment have occurred since the Greek era. In the beginning of time, the Greek believes that knowledge is bios-theoretikos. Theorus or the monks become the source of knowledge at that time. However, since the emergence of the Greek Philosophy by Plato and Aristotles, the separation occurred as rationalism and empiricism became the basis of knowledge (Hardiman 2012). This indicates that the former religion is in fact paganism that was simply attached to knowledge hence can be easily pulled out. The history repeated itsef in time when Catholics was spread into the Roman empire and led to the emergence of the Magisterium (the center of authoritative power of the church). Again, this religion was re-attached into knowledge and society, and was soon pulled out during the enlightenment era starting with the death of Galileo Galilei. Kamayanti (2011) sees that this reoccurence as a process of remarrying and redivorcing between religion and knowledge. With the presence of Islam that carries the human nature concept of abdullah (Gods servant) and khalifatullah (Gods representative), the Western reacted the separation by approving only the khalifatullah concept because of its original separation nature to God, and used it to legitimize capitalism. Islamic accounting anthropology as a guided anthropology based on Islamic values should be the key to bring back nature of human as willed by God. The fitrah nature of human unlike the Western gene pool (Weber 1930) should be the fundamental reason to develop accounting. Accounting should revisit other theory beside Entity

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Theory (that is filled with self-interest faith), such as Shariah Enterprise Theory. Conventional accounting that is based on Entity Theory would produce accounting equations: Asset= Liabilities + Equity Income= Revenue- Expense (1) (2)

These equations are reflecting faith of self interest since profit as the bottom line (equation 2) is the purpose of a business that is supported accounting. Income statement is the practice as a consequence of Entity Theory. Accounting for PLS system, therefore, still retains similar

concept. Asset as the accumulation of wealth (equation 1) also becomes the gist of conventional accounting which reflect capitalism. However, if Islamic accounting anthropology is employed then a unique relation

between the Quran and contextual Islamic accounting implementation can be abstracted and reconstructed. For example, by utilizing Shariah Enterprise Theory and the application of Maisyah-Rizq-Maal trilogy (Mulawarman 2011a) employing abdullah and khalifatullah fil ardh as the human nature, a unique accounting practices would be produced. Mulawarmans (2011a, 2011b) study in three Islamic schools in Indonesia (Sarekat Islam, Nadhlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah), finds that acounting reports should finally be in the form of Shariah Cash Flow Statement based on maisyah, Shariah Value Added Statement based on rizq and Shariah Balance Sheet based on maal, with compliance and creativity accounts as representation of abdullah and khalifatullah fil ardh respectively. As a consequence, this study also finds that such Islamic accounting should have impact on Creativity recognition (financial and social accountability), Compliance recognition (Halal and Thoyib), zakah-based valuation, limited accrualization that refuses Time Value of Money (TVM) concept (because of its gharar character) and Al Hisbah valuation to protect local

34

market.

Further, to avoid falling into the trap of self-interest, Zakah should become the main

discourse in Islamic Accounting (Mulawarman 2011b). When the root of the words riba and zakah (obligation in Islam for the haves to distribute their wealth to the poor) are juxtaposed, they seem to have the same meaning that is growing, developing or adding. However, there is a difference, zakah means natural growth and also means sacred, while usury means growth but not natural and does not have a sacred meaning. Riba itself, actually means to grow in the form of matter, which is not at all bad in Islam, because God also uses the word riba in the context that brings benefits. Such meaning is used while describing the rain water that "turn on" and "fertilize" the earth by growing various plants. As confirmed in the Quran, And you see the earth is dry, then when We send water on it, then live and be properous is the earth, and grow a variety of beautiful plants (Sura 22:5).

Zakah is the contrary concept to self-interest. The tendency to follow (capital) market, will also be different to Al Hisbah concept in the era of the prophet until the golden era of Islam has given definite boundary that market can not be free to determine prices. The government should have mechanism to control prices in order to protect the local market, especially in the globalisation era (Mulawarman 2012). This study shows that different accounting theories that sprung from different values will surely produce different accounting practices. Islamic accounting anthropology can be not just a tool to emancipate accounting from capitalism but also a way to achieve Islamic epicentrum society. In this society, there will be accounting practices that are very Quranic and contextual as a result of synchronic-diachronic approach in Islamic Accounting Anthropology. Third, the most effective way to awaken consciousness is through education, in this paper specifically, accounting education. If accounting education is led to recognize national and ummah consciousness, different results may arise. Kamayanti (2012) finds that breaking away from the pragmatic philosophy cage of the current conventional accounting education towards tauhid accounting education has given empirical evidence that God and ummah consciousness
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can be awaken both in lecturers and students. We have conducted accounting education in Universitas Brawijaya by employing integration between accounting and religious values29 and bringing about consciousness. Accounting education is not simply viewed as transferring

practical knowledge of accounting, but also inducing critical consciousness in the spirit of local wisdom and religiousity. Table 1 shows that the students of all levels; from bachelor degree to doctorate degree in accounting, were able to give 20,8% agreements, 22,6% doubt, and 56,6% disagreements to the relevance of IFRS adoption in Indonesia after values intervention. Table 1. Students Response on IFRS Adoption in Indonesia
No Class Courses Agree with IFRS 5 3 0 3 11 20,8% Doubtful about IFRS 5 2 0 5 12 22,6% Disagree with IFRS 12 5 4 9 30 56,6% Total

1 2 3 4

Bachelor Master Master PhD

Business Ethics and Profession Multiparadigm Accounting Critical Socio-spiritual Accounting Postmodern Accounting Research Total Percentage

22 10 4 17 53 100%

Source: Data collected from University of Brawijaya 2012-2013. Through such education, some students realized the domination of Western accounting through IFRS. These statements are examples of their attitudes towards IFRS accounting: IFRS development is shaped because of various interests. Investors and capital market are the point of interest...So must we keep on being trapped in the Western thought? We have cultures that are different from the West. We can not assume that they are the same. With such variety of cultures, Indonesia could have thrived more...This Western trap has created death for Indonesian creativity. (Kurnia, an accounting master student 2012) I will explore my knowledge to develop accounting that will be more beneficial for all. I must inspire my students to do the same, not to use accounting as tool of evil. This exploration will be employed by digging up local values and Islamic teachings. I will ensure that Islam will be in every stage of knowledge development. (Sonhaji, an accounting Ph.D student 2012)
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Universitas Brawijaya is a general state-owned higher education institution, not characterized with Islam/ not Islamic university. For this reason, we uses the spirit of Al Faruqis Pax Islamica, where to enter into Pax Islamica is never meant as conversion to Islam, but entry into a peaceful relationship where everyone is free to convince and to be convinced (Al Faruqi 1986, p. 9).

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As proven, an integrated accounting education will spark consciousness not just for oneself but also inspiration to others. In Universitas Brawijaya Indonesia, the ten years establishment of multiparadigm accounting30 enable values integration into accounting to take place. As a result, there have been several new accounting views that proposed various accounting practices that are Islam and local based in accounting anthropology. Amir (forthcoming 2013) finds that the local farmers are dominated by the MNC in Indonesia and urges the need to reform agriculture accounting with regard to local values and needs. Alimuddin et al. (2011) finds the local determination of price setting that is different to the conventional price setting by employing bayani, burhani and irfani as research method. Sari (2012) reconstructs vocational accounting education through Islamic Javanese local wisdom. This phenomena suggests that accounting education must be geared towards anthropology that is detached from its orientalism-secularism concept. The way to do this is by integrating Accounting Anthropology into accounting education curiculum, especially for the postgraduate levels.

Conclusion Problem of modenization lies in the new found faith namely self-interest. In Accounting, self interest is embedded in accounting theories such as Positive Accounting Theory, Entity Theory and Agency Theory. This self interest is not in line with the collective interest of the ummah, thus accounting has become a tool to support neoliberal society. The solution is to use Islamic Accounting Anthropology (IAA) to produce a map of society then guide it towards Islamic Epicentrum Society, where accounting practices are

30

Multiparadigm accounting is a term introduced in the University of Brawijaya that explains the various approach (positivism, interpretivism, critical and postmodernism) to study and develop accounting (Irianto et al. 2012)

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designed under the guidance of the Quran and are resulted from a synchronic-diachronic approach. This can only be done if accounting is not fixated in technical discussion only, but also moves towards ontological discussion. The trigger to change ontological view lies in accounting education that must always drive consciousness to the welfare of society instead of self-happiness. Finally, the very fundamental key of Islamic Anthropology, and its all anthropological derivation (be it accounting, economics, and any other discipline) is the recognition of cultural cores under tauhid. The Islamic values are universal, but it will never attempts to reduce cultural core such as stated in the last sermon of prophet Muhammad PBUH, that all colours are equal except for taqwa. Wallahu alam bishawab. O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. Al Hujuurat (49, ayat 13)

Today have I perfected your religious law for you, and have bestowed upon you the full measure of My blessings, and willed that self-surrender unto Me shall be your religion. Al Maidah (5, ayat 3) All mankind is from Adam and Eve, An-Arab has no superiority over non-Arab, Nor a non-Arab has no superiority over an Arab, Also white has no superiority over black Nor black has any superiority over white Except by piety (taqwa) and good action Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves (The Last Sermon, Prophet Muhammad PBUH)

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