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A height gauge can be one of two types of device.

The first is simply a device or instrument that measures the height of some object, while the second is a device that automatically marks parts or work pieces at a specific height or point for further attention. A height gauge can also be used to set the height of a desired measurement or the height of a part. They are found in shops, industrial applications, testing and laboratory settings, and even in doctor's offices. Two main types of height gauges are used. Vernier gauges are purely mechanical in nature with a scale engraved or printed on the device itself, usually on a vertical bar or tower type assembly. A component called a datum slides up and down this vertical bar and may be secured by screws, by clamps, or by other means. The datum usually has an extension that is either aligned with the object or gap to be measured or set to correspond to an indicator that gives a reading on the measurement gauge column.

Introduction
1.3.8. Dial Calipers: 1.5. Angle plate

1.7. Cast Iron Surface Plates with Handles: 1.11. Combination set 1.19. Vernier Height Gauge 1.23. Micrometer Depth Gauge Home
1.19. Vernier Height Gauge
This is also a sort of vernier caliper, equipped with a special base block and other attachments which make the instrument suitable for height measurements, see fig. 1.48. Along with the sliding jaw assembly, arrangement is provided to carry a removable clamp. The upper and lower surfaces of the measuring jaws are parallel to the base, so that it can be used for measurements over or under a surface. The vernier height gauge is mainly used in the inspection of parts and layout work. With a scribing attachment in piace of measuring jaw, this can be used to scribe lines at certain distance above surface. However dial indicators can also be attached in the clamp and many useful measurements made as it exactly gives the indication when the dial tip is just touching the surface. For all these measurements, use of surface plates as datum surface is very essential.

Fig. 1.48.

1.19.1. Specification of Vernier Height Gauges:


For specifying the vernier height gauge, one has to specify clearly the range of measurement, the type of scales desired, and any particular requirements in regard to the type of vernier desired. Generally, all the parts of the height gauges are made of good quality steel, or stainless steel also in certain cases. At the time of fabrication, the blanks: Storage of upon 400 dimensions. Data retention on failure of electric power. Automatic entry of data as component is measured. Entry of data via the custom touch key- pad. Calculation of capability indicates for quick and easy assessment of machine/ plant or process capability. Easy identification of component features out of tolerance. Calculation of mean, standard deviation and range Assessment of 2- sigma, 3- signal, and 4- sigma confidence intervals Comprehensive print- out of statistical data including histograms. Each sequence of measurement is recorded in numerical order and can be recalled subsequently and printed out in the format required.

1.20. Micrometers:
The micrometer screw gauge essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm and revolves in a fixed nut, see fig. 1.49. The end of the screw forms one measuring up and the other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called sleeve and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retraced by turning a thimble connected to the spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the frame. The barrel is graduated in unit of 0.05 cm. i.e. 20 divisions per cm, which is the lead of the screw for one complete revolution. The thimble has got 25 divisions around its periphery on circular portion. Thus it subdivides each revolution of the screw in 25 equal parts, i.e. each division corresponds to 0.002 cm.

Fig. 1.49.

A lock nut is provided for locking a dimension by preventing motion of the spindle. Ratchet stop is provided at the end of the thimble cap to maintain sufficient and uniform measuring pressure so that standard conditions of measurement are attained. Ratchet stop consists of an overriding clutch held by a week spring. When the spindle is brought into contact with the work at the correct measuring pressure, the clutch starts slipping and no further movement of the spindle takes place by the rotation of ratchet. In the backward movement it is positive due to shape of ratchet.

1.20.1.Adjusting for wear of threads, wear of measuring surfaces, spindle locking arrangement and ratchet stop mechanism:
In the external micrometer shown in Fig. 1.50, an abutment or anvil is provided which occupies a fixed position in relation to the main nut, in which the spindle moves. The anvil and the main nut are carried by a bow- shaped frame. The main nut is fitted tightly into the sleeve or barrel which is integral with the frame. The thimble is permanently secured to the screw and is knurled on the outer surface. The spindle having the measuring face at its end is tightly fitted into the screw. The spindle is thus rotated by rotating the thimble. It will be observed that the thimble extends over the end of the barrel so that threaded portions of the screw and the main nut are all the time completely enclosed. The nut and the thread portion of the screw are so proportioned as to ensure full length engagement in all positions of spindle. The fixed index line is marked upon the barrel and the angular graduations around the left hand chamfered end of the thimble. It will be noted that in addition to the main nut three is a shorter nut also by its side with which the screw also engages. The adjacent faces of the main nut and the shorter nut are

provided with small V- shaped teeth which from a clutch and prevent the shorter nut from rotating with the screw. In the recess between these two nuts is housed a light coil spring, the tendency of which is to force the two nuts apart and in this way any slight backlash between the threads in the nuts and the screw is automatically taken up.

Fig. 1.50. Part sectional view of an external micrometer showing wear adjustment, spindle locking arrangement and the mechanism of ratchet stop (micrometer range 2.5 to 50 mm)

Adjustment for wear threads. In addition to forming an abutment for the coil spring, the shorter nut also provides for adjustment in the event of wear on the threads. When the two nuts are originally assembled on the screw, the clutch teeth are meshed in a certain position and marks are provided on the outer surfaces to facilitate replacement in the event of the instrument being dismantled. The wear on the threads is compensated by withdrawing the screw and turning the smaller nut through one, two or more clutch tooth spaces from its original angular position and then bringing it in mesh with the main nut. In this way the threads on the smaller nut are slightly displaced. At the time of re- assembling, care must be taken to see that the clutch teeth on the two nuts are meshing properly and that the small nut is held in position until the screw has entered the main nut. In another most commonly used method of compensating for wear on the thread, provision of an external tapered thread is made on one end of the main nut. The tapered thread is engaged by an adjusting

nut having a parallel thread. When sufficient wear occurs between the two threaded portions, the adjusting screw is advanced so as to contact the bore of the main nut slightly and thus making it take up the clearance between the threads of the nut and the screw.

1.20.2. Ratchet stop mechanism:


The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that a certain maximum torque on the spindle is not exceeded and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By providing this arrangement, when the spindle has engaged the work with a certain pressure, further rotation causes the ratchet merely to slip, no additional movement being imparted to the spindle. The ratchet stop mechanism is incorporated in the knurled extension provided at the end of the thimble. The mechanism is shown in Fig. 50 and is illustrated below. The knurled extension is free to rotate on its retaining stud. The inner face of this is provided with fine ratchet teeth, and through these teeth, and through these teeth and the spring loaded pawl (see fig. 1.50) the movement is transmitted to the spindle. As soon as the resistance to the motion of the latter reaches a certain value, the pawl is forced back against the pressure of the spring and ratchet slips.

1.20.3. Reading a micrometer:


In order to make it possible to read upon 0.0001 inch in micrometer screw gauge a vernier scale is generally made on the barrel. The vernier scale has 10 straight lines on the barrel and these coincide with exact 9 divisions on the thimble. Thus one small division in thimble is further sub- divided into 10 parts and for taking the reading one has to see which of the vernier scale division coincides with a division of the thimble. Accordingly the reading for the given arrangements in Fig. 1.51 will be On main barrel: 0.120" On thimble: 0.014" On vernier scale: 0.0001" Total reading = 0.1342".

Before taking readings, anvil and spindle must be brought together carefully and the initial reading noted down. Its calibration must be checked by using standard gauge blocks.

In metric micrometers, the pitch of the screw thread is 0.5 mm so that one revolution of the screw moves it axially by 0.5 mm. main scale on barrel has least divisions of 0.5 mm. the thimble has 50 divisions on its circumference. One division on the thimble = 0.5/ 50 mm= 0.01 mm. If vernier scale is also incorporated then sub- divisions on thimble can be estimated upon an accuracy of 0.001 mm. Reading of micrometer in fig. 1.52 is 3.5 mm on barrel and 7 divisions on thimble = 3.5 + 7 0.01 = 3.5 + 0.07= 3.57 mm.

Fig. 1.51.

Fig. 1.52.

1.20.4. Cleaning the micrometer:


Micrometer screw gauge should be wiped free from oil, dirt, dust and girl. When micrometer feels gummy and dust ridden and the thimble fails to turn freely, it should never be bodily dunked in kerosene or solvent because just soaking the assembled micrometer fails to float the dirt away. Further it must be remembered that the apparent stickiness of the micrometer may not be due to grit and gum but to a damaged thread or to a warped and sprung frame or spindle.

1.20.5. Precautions in using micrometer: In order to get good results out of the use of micrometer screw gauge, the inspection of parts must be made as follows: Micrometer should be cleaned of any dust and spindle should move freely. The part whose dimension is to be measured must be held in left hand and the micrometer in right hand. The way for holding the micrometer is to place the small finger and adjoining finger in the Ushaped frame. The forefinger and thumb are placed near the thimble to rotate it and the middle finger supports the micrometer holding it firmly.

Then the micrometer dimension is set slightly larger than the size of the part and is slid over the contact surfaces of micrometer gently. After it, the thimble is turned till the measuring tip just touches the part and the final movement given by ratchet so that uniform measuring pressure is applied. In case of circular parts, the micrometer must be moved carefully over representative arc so as to note maximum dimension only. Then the micrometer reading is taken. The micrometers are available in various sizes and ranges, and the corresponding micrometer should be chosen depending upon the dimension. Errors in reading may occur due to lack of flatness of anvils, lack of parallelism of the anvils at part of the scale or throughout, inaccurate setting of zero reading, etc. Various testes to ensure these conditions should be carried out from time to time.

1.21. Inside Micrometer Calipers


This micrometer caliper has no U- shape frame and spindle. The measuring tips are constituted by the jaws with contact surfaces which are hardened and ground to a radius. One of the jaws is held stationary at the end second one moves by the movement of thimble. A locknut is provided to check the movement of the movable jaw. This facilitates the inspection of small internal dimensions. This is not widely used as other types have various advantages over it. Its range is from 5 to 50 mm, see fig. 1.53.

Fig. 1.53.

1.22. Method of Testing Internal Micrometers.


The accuracy of the internal micrometer reading is checked in two parts, viz., checking the accuracy of the traverse of the measuring head and the checking of the accuracy of the overall lengths when the measuring head, set to zero, is associated with the various extension rods in turn. The accuracy of the traverse of the measuring head is determined by clamping it in the Vee- block with its axis in line with a sensitive indicator and the feeler (with a flat contact face) of the indicator touching the rounded contact face of measuring head. The feeler is set initially such that it reads zero when the micrometer head is also reading zero and a slip gauge of convenient dimension has been introduced between the two faces. The micrometer head is then set at same reading and correspondingly the slip gauge size is reduced. Any error in the reading is revealed by a corresponding departure of the indicator pointer from its initial position. In this way the accuracy is tested at various readings of the micrometer head. In order to check both progressive and periodic errors, and in order that both the type of errors may be revealed, the reading in micrometer head of 0 25 mm range may be taken at following values 0, 2.4, 5.1, 7.7, 10.3, 12.5, 14.9, 17.6, 20.2, 22.8, 25.0 mm. the accuracy of the overall length is determined by using a vertical comparator. The indicator of the comparator is set at a height corresponding to that of the overall length to be measured, from the flat base. After this setting the internal micrometer is placed under it in the maximum position and the error noted down.

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