Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Просмотров: 8

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-Whats Common for Beer Mug and Power Factor
- Capacitors for Power Factor Correction
- MV Drive ion
- inverter
- Checking Capacitor Banks for Failed Capacitors
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-General-Service----Time-Metered-Optional
- Stanek-ExperiencesPowerQuality
- harmonics in your electrical system
- Liberty-Utilities-(Calpeco-Electric)-Large-General-Service
- TMA 01-ECX3232
- POWCAP2
- AF3
- ANALYSIS_OF_HARMONICS_CURRENT_MINIMIZATION_ON_POWER_DISTRIBUTION_SYSTEM_USING_VOLTAGE_PHASE_SHIFTING_CONCEPT.pdf
- Pq Database
- test emc1
- A Practical Second-Order Based Method for Power Losses Estimation in Distribution Systems With Distributed Generation
- power quality
- Design and Simulation of Different Harmonic Mitigation Techniques
- 211EE3145.pdf
- The Transformerless Single-Phase Universal Active Power Filter for Harmonic and Reactive Power Compensation

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

The installation of non linear loads determines the presence of current and voltage harmonics

and interharmonics. Components particularly sensitive to this kind of phenomena are power

factor correction equipments. This paper describes the design process of a centralized PFC

system under harmonic pollution conditions pointing out the key role of measurement

campaigns.

Angelo Baggini

Faculty of Engineering

University of Bergamo

Dalmine (BG), Italy

angelo.baggini@unibg.it

Franco Bua, Francesco Buratti, Alan Ascolari

ECD Engineering Consulting and Design

Pavia, Italy

franco.bua@ecd.it, francesco.buratti@ecd.it,

alan.ascolari@ecd.it

Abstract This paper deals with PFC units design related

problems in case of installation in harmonics rich environments:

in particular the paper contains an overview of sizing approach

used in a real case of PFC units design for installation in a steel

factory where new PFC units installation has been necessary

after a fault with catastrophic consequences for the existing ones.

The document contains a report on stresses calculation on PFC

units due to harmonic currents generated by non linear loads

installed in the above mentioned plant. Plant load, estimated to

be around 80 MVA, is formed by a big amount of small loads fed

by power converters: this is a big disturbance source for the

installation in terms of harmonic content.

In particular, due to the usual lack of real harmonics contents

data availability, main issue has been the process of definition of

a generic harmonic distortion for installed loads, based on power

converters installed and literature available data on power

converters spectra and its on field verification for PFC optimal

design, with three measurement campaigns aiming to verify real

harmonic distortion and series and parallel resonance risk.

This kind of problem is really actual and, most of all, is

constantly growing also in other industries, not only in steel

factories where harmonics content has always been a key

problem. Now, due to the continuous increase of power converter

usage and equipment power consumption, and mostly to the

increase of equipment disturbances sensitiveness, to avoid

potentially tragic faults, a deep measurement campaign is the key

solution at PFC units design stage, also considering the usual lack

of data on installation harmonic distortion.

The experience described in this paper constitutes the first

detailed example of on-field verification of harmonic

disturbances effects on two 8.4 Mvar, 13 kV PFC units in a

harmonics critical environment aiming first of all at a detailed

fault analysis (referred to pre-existent PFC Units) and then to a

correct new unit design.

In the paper the different design stages and related issues are

described, including: installation network analysis, load analysis,

harmonic distortion evaluation, PFC units stresses analysis, PFC

units sizing, on field stresses verification.

This work highlights the strong need for deep measurements

campaigns in harmonics rich industrial environment as the only

way, in addition to a correct distortion pre-analysis aiming to a

careful PFC design strategy to prevent potentially catastrophic

faults.

Keywords- PFC, Harmonics, Case study, Non linear loads,

Measurements

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE CAMPINAS. Downloaded on November 27, 2008 at 13:41 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

I. INTRODUCTION

The presence of harmonics in industrial plants nowadays is

constantly increasing and therefore its becoming a key issue

for designers when sizing PFC systems. In particular, a

measurement campaign should be carried out before the design

stage in order to simplify design activity: in this situation,

component sizing is performed on the basis of reliable data and

not on literature available data which usually may not be

corresponding to the real conditions of the system.

In particular, this paper contains an overview of sizing

approach used in a real case of PFC units design for installation

in a steel factory where new PFC units installation has been

necessary after a fault with catastrophic consequences for the

existing ones.

II. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

The plant serving a steelworks is fed by an overhead HV

(220kV) line through two HV/MV 220/10.95 kV transformers,

with rated power equal to 30/40 MVA (ONAN/ONAF).The

MV network has a radial scheme and cable connections.

Figure 1. Scheme of the plant

Several non linear loads are installed inside the plant, most of

them being six-pulse and twelve-pulse power converter having

different rated power and feeding the production plant

machineries.

Production line has been designed and realized for processing

products with different dimensions, which means that its

possible to have different process types each one producing a

different harmonic spectrum.

Since this is a semiautomatic production line, the number of

products and their positions are random factors. The direct

consequence is a continuous and unforeseeable variation of the

harmonic spectrum in the plant.

III. DESIGN OF THE POWER FACTOR CORRECTION SYSTEM

On the basis of calculations performed in order to determine

the required reactive power system, the buyer asked for the

installation of two three phase units, each one with rated

power equal to 8400 kvar at 13kV.

The choice of a double unit is related to the fact that the plant

usually foresee one day per week programmed stops, thus

varying the absorption of reactive power in comparison with

working days.

Among the project data the buyer supplied for PFC system

design only the plant single-wire scheme and a list of main

transformers feeding the existing loads in the steel factory.

A. Calculation of thermal and dielectric stresses

Since no data related to harmonic pollution was available,

the waveform to be used for calculations has been assumed on

the basis of:

type of converter;

literature data for installed converters typical spectra [2].

Since the load is formed by several small power VSDs and

since it was not possible to know phase angles, the overall

current calculation has been made through the sum of the

RMS values of the components with the same frequency

according to two methodologies:

arithmetical sum, as if the harmonics had identical phase

angle (limit and worst situation);

as a square root of the sum of square values, assuming that

some components were compensated by others because of

the phase angles. It is important to remember that this

method, though without any theoretical basis, is used in

common practice and largely adopted in technical

literature [8].

Considering the nature of plant loads it has been decided to

adopt a detuned PFC system with three single phase series

reactors. The choice of the unit characteristics has been made

by comparing stresses resulting on the capacitors due to

voltage harmonics coming from non linear loads, calculated

considering three different tunings which are commonly used

for this type of installations.

189 Hz (Case A);

204 Hz (Case B);

210 Hz (Case C).

Calculation of thermal and dielectric stresses on the PFC

unit has been performed with a mathematical model (based on

circuit in Figure 2. ) of the whole system for each one of the

tuning frequencies.

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE CAMPINAS. Downloaded on November 27, 2008 at 13:41 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Figure 2. Circuit model.

Parameters shown in Figure 2. are:

- I

hL

is h

th

load harmonic current;

- L

N

; R

N

are network parameters at PCC;

- I

hN

is h

th

harmonic current;

- L, C are PFC unit parameters;

- I

hf

is h

th

harmonic in PFC unit.

B. Calculation of the resonance frequency

When designing a PFC system a preliminary verification of

the absence of potential resonance phenomena is always

necessary. In this case short circuit power of the network has

been calculated on the basis of the available information,

assuming that transformer short circuit voltage is referred to the

rated power highest value among the ones stated for the

different refrigeration systems, as specified by the standard EN

60076-1 [3].

The value of short circuit power equal to 273.25 MVA has

been calculated through the equation (1) on the basis of data

shown in TABLE V.

l cc

T

l cc

T

cc

Z

V

V

S

Z

V

V

S

S

2

2

+

= (1)

where:

S

T

is transformer rated power;

V

cc

is transformer short circuit voltage (in p.u.);

V is system rated voltage;

Z

l

: line impedance between transformer and PFC units.

The resonance frequencies calculated for the different

configurations assumed are shown in TABLE I.

TABLE I. RESONANCE FREQUENCY

Data Case A Case B Case C

Units

connected

1 2 1 2 1 2

Resonance

frequency

(Hz)

169.5 155.0 179.9 162.7 183.9 165.6

The resonance frequencies calculated have values

comprised between the 3

rd

and the 4

th

harmonic order. On the

basis of the harmonic spectrum of six pulse and twelve

pulse converters found in literature [2] it has been possible to

verify the absence of resonance phenomena, because the

harmonics generated by these converters have usually only

frequency components higher than 250 Hz.

C. Choice of the parameters of the PFC system

On the basis of simulation results reported in TABLE I. and

after evaluation of related stresses on the units, as shown in

TABLE II. TABLE IV. for one unit energized, case C,

referring to the previous considered scenarios, the decision

adopted has been the realization of the PFC system tuned on

210 Hz. This choice gives a higher safety margin to avoid

resonance phenomena, even if its consequence is a slight

increase in the sizing of the components. This solution anyway

allows the adoption of smaller reactors, with a benefit in terms

of reduced losses.

Also for reactor thermal sizing, considering the uncertainty

on the real harmonic contents of the system, oversizing

approach has been adopted in order to obtain a higher safety

margin.

TABLE II. PFCUNIT TOTAL CURRENTS (2 UNITS) RESULTS REFER TO 1

UNIT.

Case C Current components

PFC Network

Fundamental (A) 317.6 IN

5th (A) 33.5 32.4

7th (A) 15.7 33.0

11th (A) 9.3 26.1

13th (A) 6.8 20.1

Total (A)* 320 57 + IN

* Calculated as quadratic sum of all contributions for each frequency.

TABLE III. PFCUNITS TOTAL CURRENTS (1 UNIT).

Case C Current components

PFC Network

Fundamental (A) 317.6 IN

5th (A) 50.6 48.9

7th (A) 20.7 43.6

11th (A) 11.7 33.0

13th (A) 8.6 25.2

Total (A)* 322.6 77.5 + IN

* Calculated as quadratic sum of all contributions for each frequency.

TABLE IV. PFCUNIT VOLTAGE STRESSES (IN CASE OF 2 UNITS, RESULTS

REFER TO 1 UNIT).

Capacitor voltage

components

Case C

Number of units 1 2

Fundamental (kV) 11,66 11,66

5th (kV) 0,214 0,142

7th (kV) 0,063 0,048

11th (kV) 0,022 0,018

13th (kV) 0,014 0,011

Total Algebric Sum (kV) 12,20 12,04

Total Quadr. Sum (kV) 11,67 11,67

On the basis of calculations made, it has been proposed to

install a PFC system divided into two units, each one as double

unbalanced star (3+2) with the possibility to easily modify the

tuning frequency to approximately 225 Hz, through the

adoption of a further capacitor per phase and per section and

the addition of a second couple of units tuned on a frequency

between the 11th and the 13th harmonic. The main data are

shown on TABLE V.

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE CAMPINAS. Downloaded on November 27, 2008 at 13:41 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

TABLE V. MAIN UNIT DATA

Units 2

Rated voltage (kV) 13

Rated frequency (Hz) 50

Rated power (kvar) 8400

Capacity (F) 150.21

Inductance (mH) 3.83

Inductance thermal current (A) 600

Unit type Double Y

Tuning frequency (Hz) 210

It should be pointed out that the choice of this PFC system

brings several advantages. Besides advantages coming from the

detuning inductance being a filter for the harmonics present in

the network, it limits remarkably the inrush current avoiding

then component stresses.

The problem of inrush current should always be considered

when sizing PFC units mainly in situations where frequent

switching are foreseen (in this plant it has been estimated to

have at least 52 switches per year).

IV. MEASUREMENT CAMPAIGNS

Because of the uncertainty of the harmonic spectrum due to

continuous load variations, and then on the related stresses of

the PFC system, some measurement campaigns have been

carried out on the installation in order to verify the most

important system parameters, i.e.:

voltage on the units (RMS and peak values);

currents on the units (RMS and peak values);

voltage and current harmonics (odd and even ones, up to

the 15th component);

active, reactive and apparent power.

Before system energization, visual controls have been made

aiming to monitor system installation activities and to avoid

unbalance generated by improper installation of cables. During

the installation of PFC units, measurements of inrush transients

have been carried out in order to verify the effectiveness, in

terms of current limitation, of the inductance installed in series

with the PFC unit. All parameters have been monitored

continuously through the use of a three phase network analyzer,

for the whole duration of the measurement campaigns.

Therefore it has been possible to monitor and record the

harmonic spectrum absorbed by the PFC units, both with

process plant idle and with plant working on different products.

Measurements have been carried out either with a single group

and with both groups connected.

A. Analysis of the results

The duration and the peak values of the inrush currents

measured during the first switch-on resulted to be lower than

the values estimated at design stage. However it has to be

pointed out that calculations made for inrush current pick value

evaluation have been performed with reference to the worst

case in terms of switching time, because it is not possible to

know supply voltage phase angle at the switching time when

the measurement is performed.

As expected, monitoring has shown a continuous variation

of the electrical parameters observed, not only for what

concerns harmonics, but also in terms of supply voltage (Figure

3. ). A variation of the total harmonic distortion (Figure 4. ) and

of the various harmonic components has been observed (Figure

5. and Figure 6. ), either in case of different products or during

manufacturing of identical items but with different positions in

the production line.

It is important to point out that a not negligible third

harmonic component has been found: this component had not

been foreseen at design stage because the harmonic spectrum

of this type of loads usually contains only components from the

fifth order upwards.

Figure 3. Typical phase to earth voltage shape measured on the three phases

Figure 4. Typical THDi measured on the three phases

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE CAMPINAS. Downloaded on November 27, 2008 at 13:41 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Figure 5. Typical 7th current harmonic component on the three phases

Figure 6. Typical 11

th

current harmonic component on the three phases

B. Stresses verification

On the basis of measurement campaign results obtained,

stresses on capacitors have been evaluated in the following

scenarios:

spectrum corresponding to the highest THD value

measured for each process type;

spectrum obtained by considering each harmonic

component highest value.

It is however necessary to specify that the combinations of

harmonic components used in scenario 2 have never been

observed contemporaneously.

Values related to scenario 1 are shown in TABLE VI.

Through the values of the harmonic currents measured, the

voltages on the capacitors for three different products

monitored have been then calculated.

TABLE VI. HIGHEST VALUES OF VOLTAGE HARMONICS MEASURED WITH

ONE OR TWO PFC GROUPS ENERGIZED

Harmonic component (%)

1

PFC

unit

THD 3

a

5

a

7

a

9

a

11

a

13

a

15

a

P1 26.36 6.6 25.3 6.6 0.9 5.5 3.4 0.7

P2 26.51 13.1 23.2 7.0 0.7 5.0 3.5 0.5

P3 27.06 7.5 25.7 7.4 0.7 5.0 3.7 0.4

Max 27.06 13.1 25.7 7.4 0.9 5.5 3.7 0.7

Harmonic component (%)

2

PFC

units THD 3

a

5

a

7

a

9

a

11

a

13

a

15

a

P1 21.87 16.3 18.5 5.3 0.8 5.3 3.7 0.5

P2 42.6 41.5 16.6 5.3 0.6 5.2 3.9 0.4

P3 32.4 31.4 18.6 6.1 0.8 4.9 4.1 0.3

Max 42.6 41.5 18.6 6.1 0.8 5.3 4.1 0.5

Var.

(%)

58 217 -28 -18 -10 -5 10 -22

The highest dielectric stresses calculated on the basis of

measurements results proved to be aligned with the capacitor

sizing calculations performed under the statistical assumption

of phase angle random differences among the harmonic

components (modelled by algebraic sum). The spectrum with

the highest values of each harmonic component measured on

the different product manufacturing processes monitored is

shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Current harmonic spectrum related to the highest values measured

In terms of thermal stresses it has been possible to observe

that the highest current (RMS value) measured showed to be

aligned with the value defined for thermal sizing of capacitors.

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

10

15

Tl0 3a 5a Za 9a 11a 13a 15a

$

P

S

O

L

W

X

G

H

>

@

1 ur|l 2 ur|ls

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE CAMPINAS. Downloaded on November 27, 2008 at 13:41 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

V. CONCLUSIONS

The presence of harmonics in industrial plants nowadays

must be taken for granted, therefore it is necessary to take it

into consideration especially when sizing PFC systems. In

particular, mainly in existing installations as in the case

described in this paper, a measurement campaign carried out

before the design stage should simplify considerably the design

activity because the component sizing is performed on the basis

of reliable data and not on literature data which, as valid as

they can be, however may not be corresponding to the real

conditions of the system. On this issue its important to recall

that in the system described here, a third harmonic component

that had not been foreseen at design stage, has been found: its

possible the to assume that it is not produced by facility loads,

but by the network. Through an adequate preliminary

measurement campaign this not negligible issue would have

been taken into consideration. However it is important to

highlight that by having tuned the filter on a rather low

frequency it has been possible to obtain a relevant mitigation of

this third harmonic component in the system.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This article has been prepared with the support of LPQI

project (www.lpqi.org.). LPQI project has been funded by the

European Commission and ICA (International Copper

Association Ltd.). The authors point out does not necessarily

reflect the position of the European Community, nor does it

involve any responsibility on the part of the European

Community.

REFERENCES

[1] J. Arillaga, N. R. Watson: Power System Harmonics. Wiley, 2004.

[2] IEEE 519-1992 - Recommended Practices and Requirements for

Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems. Institute of Electrical

and Electronics Engineers, 01-May-1992.

[3] IEC 60076-1 - Power transformers Part. 1 General.

[4] S. Fassbinder: Capacitors in Harmonic-Rich Environments. LPQI

Application Guide #3.1.2, http://www.lpqi.org.

[5] S. Fassbinder: Passive filters. LPQI Application Guide #3.3.1,

http://www.lpqi.org.

[6] D. Chapman: Harmonics - Causes and effects. LPQI Application Guide

#3.1, http://www.lpqi.org.

[7] F. Bua, G. Tacchi: Criteri di dimensionamento di batterie di rifasamento

in impianti caratterizzati dalla presenza di armoniche. Article available

on http://www.lpqi.org.

[8] R. C. Dugan, M. F. McGranaghan, S. Santoso, H. Wayne Beaty:

Electrical Power Systems Quality. McGraw Hill, 2002.

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE CAMPINAS. Downloaded on November 27, 2008 at 13:41 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-Whats Common for Beer Mug and Power FactorЗагружено:sikander843562
- Capacitors for Power Factor CorrectionЗагружено:messallam
- MV Drive ionЗагружено:hebisht
- inverterЗагружено:Prakash Praki
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-General-Service----Time-Metered-OptionalЗагружено:Genability
- Checking Capacitor Banks for Failed CapacitorsЗагружено:rocket-vt
- Stanek-ExperiencesPowerQualityЗагружено:FrankGriffith
- harmonics in your electrical systemЗагружено:engrorillosa
- TMA 01-ECX3232Загружено:praveen alwis
- Liberty-Utilities-(Calpeco-Electric)-Large-General-ServiceЗагружено:Genability
- POWCAP2Загружено:ja02mv
- AF3Загружено:Utsav Chauhan
- ANALYSIS_OF_HARMONICS_CURRENT_MINIMIZATION_ON_POWER_DISTRIBUTION_SYSTEM_USING_VOLTAGE_PHASE_SHIFTING_CONCEPT.pdfЗагружено:kaushikray06
- Pq DatabaseЗагружено:JZ Juzai
- test emc1Загружено:Omkar Shete
- A Practical Second-Order Based Method for Power Losses Estimation in Distribution Systems With Distributed GenerationЗагружено:Srinivas Reddy
- power qualityЗагружено:Zeckrey Jikurun
- Design and Simulation of Different Harmonic Mitigation TechniquesЗагружено:Pranav Siddharth
- 211EE3145.pdfЗагружено:rijilpoothadi
- The Transformerless Single-Phase Universal Active Power Filter for Harmonic and Reactive Power CompensationЗагружено:Christian Emenike
- Defining Size and Location of Capacitor in Electrical System 1Загружено:Armando Huaraya
- Enhancement of Power Quality in Distribution System Using D-StatcomЗагружено:Innovative Research Publications
- A Comparative Studyon Harmonicsof Different Electric BulbsЗагружено:AJER JOURNAL
- e 536 ContentЗагружено:virtech
- APPEEC.2010.5448167_3bb19b60583223039262f2d66402fbd7Загружено:Masoud_Ayoubi
- General Catalog Essential ProductsЗагружено:sfdfazel
- EE 132 1st Long Exam Answer Key SY 2016-2017 2nd SemЗагружено:Vincent Baltazar
- Power Factor Improvement Techniques.docxЗагружено:Simran Tiwari
- High Voltage Capacitor BankЗагружено:vimal
- Electricity Distribution Code in AustraliaЗагружено:rvim0002

- 33198Загружено:tatacps
- IEC-EMCЗагружено:samlscribd
- Power System Design for High-power Electric Smelting and Melting FurnacesЗагружено:tatacps
- Modeling and Analysis of Custom Power Systems by PSCAD-EMTDCЗагружено:tung020581
- Power_measЗагружено:Rudi Tua
- 20060530203800968Загружено:tatacps
- 15094420Загружено:tatacps
- p 1547 Std Draft 07 ContentsЗагружено:tatacps
- P1495D2Загружено:tatacps
- IEEEP1564_99_05Загружено:tatacps
- WM2002_Indices_02_01Загружено:tatacps
- LasVegas2003 Rao SRP PresentationЗагружено:tatacps
- IEEEP1564_00_07Загружено:tatacps
- PESL-00101-2003.R2Загружено:tatacps
- ias96_1.pdЗагружено:tatacps
- [ANSI-IsO-IEC, 1999] Database Language SQL. Part 1. SQL-Framework. SQL99Загружено:tatacps
- Power Swing and OOS Considerations on Transmission LinesЗагружено:Hameed Ahmed Khas Kheli
- Brochure Ecodial-EnЗагружено:Mostafa Ali
- ProtectionRelayLE KoosTheron DIGSILENT PacificЗагружено:tatacps
- PF Feature Func OverЗагружено:tatacps
- CA-421-EN-1306Загружено:tatacps
- Sf6 Gcb 245kv 800kvenglishЗагружено:munindragoswami
- SF6 Outdoor CB Brochure 72.5 - 245kVЗагружено:tatacps
- Adr241sm VЗагружено:tatacps
- Sarel Sysclad Primary Switchgears 12 175kvЗагружено:tatacps
- Sarel Rmu Switchboard Rmsys 12-24kvЗагружено:tatacps
- JNG-MCCBЗагружено:tatacps
- Harmonic and Inter Harmonic Measurement According to Ieee 519 and Iec 61000-4-7Загружено:juampic
- Harmonics and How They Relate to Power Factor - POWERFACЗагружено:tatacps

- 348521_8175_MRO_v18Загружено:shoaib1985
- Atp Revision Paper 6bЗагружено:Suha Abdullah
- Blutut sluškaЗагружено:mujohaso123
- NimcoЗагружено:omarvico
- ECX3210 TMA1 ouslЗагружено:mprasanna42
- Manual Vindusviskere Ocean Operator's manual Straight line wiper OceanЗагружено:tylerdurdane
- Perhitungan Daya Terpakai Rev.3Загружено:crys suryo p
- Biodiversity and Climate ChangeЗагружено:Document Library
- TEPT5600Загружено:Yashasvi Vangala
- Adnan Ahmad CVЗагружено:Adnan Ahmad
- List API Standards-1Загружено:Aleksandr_79
- an9506.pdfЗагружено:Ashok Kumar
- Pumps Motors AssЗагружено:Hany Ahmed
- HP AIR COMPRESSORЗагружено:Şef Utas Awij
- Abb Temporizadores CT_EЗагружено:Nomada Gr
- Methods of Defrosting the Freezer of AЗагружено:Ankur Shahi
- Distance ProtectionЗагружено:a_596
- A New on-Line Partial Discharge Test for Turbine GeneratorsЗагружено:arun_adventure
- Rice Husk Cogen PDD Anant JoshiЗагружено:Anant Joshi
- book chaptersЗагружено:Tim Wong
- dot-pwdЗагружено:marcelagal
- Incineration FS CostsЗагружено:Rodolfo Barbosa Young
- Industrial Electronics and Control, Third Edition by PAUL, BISWANATHЗагружено:PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
- Acoustic Insulation - Busso Botto Guerrero Tricarico (Corregido)Загружено:Diego Guerrero
- Focus 1 DC Drive user guideЗагружено:lowelowel
- API 14EЗагружено:carlosluislopez
- An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics - Part 1Загружено:quantumrealm
- converter_pcb_layout_appli-e.pdfЗагружено:Kaan Günay
- 03341 Case Study Transformer Service 01-OIL v1 (WEB)Загружено:Abdullah Ghannam
- Guide to Preparing a Statement of Environmental EffectsЗагружено:Jonathan Loke

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.