18th IEEE International Conference on Control Applications Part of 2009 IEEE Multiconference on Systems and Control Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 810, 2009
A. E. Balau, Student Member, IEEE, C. F. Caruntu, D. I. Patrascu, C. Lazar, Member, IEEE, M. H. Matcovschi, Member, IEEE, O. Pastravanu, Member, IEEE
Abstract— Significant research effort has been directed towards developing vehicle systems that reduce the energy consumption of an automobile and because pressure control valves are used as actuators in many control applications for automotive systems, a proper dynamic model is necessary. Starting from equations found in literature, where a single stage pressure reducing valve is modelled, in this paper, the concept of modeling a real three land three way solenoid valve actuator for the clutch system in the automatic transmission is presented. Two simulators for an inputoutput model and a statespace model were developed and these were validated with data provided from experiments with the real valve actuator on a test bench.
I. INTRODUCTION
Over the last two decades, significant research effort has been directed towards developing vehicle systems that reduce the energy consumption of an automobile. Because hydraulic control valves are used as actuators in many control applications for automotive systems, their performance is under scrutiny, especially when system difficulties occur. Therefore knowledge of the performance characteristics of valves is essential. ^{1} Electromagnetic valves vary in arrangement and complexity, depending upon their function. Three broad functional types can be distinguished: directional control valves, pressure control valves and flow control valves. Pressure control valves act to regulate pressure in a circuit and may be subdivided into pressure relief valves and pressure reducing valves. Pressure relief valves, which are normally closed, open up to establish a maximum pressure and bypass excess flow to maintain the set pressure. Pressure reducing valves, which are normally open, close to maintain a minimum pressure by restricting flow in the line. There are many practical applications where this type of electromagnetic actuator is used: electromagnetic valve actuators of combustion engines, artificial heart actuators, electromagnetic brakes, electromagnetic actuator for the clutch system in automatic transmissions etc. [1].
Manuscript received January 22, 2009.
A. E. Balau (+40740772415; email: abalau@ac.tuiasi.ro).
C. F. Caruntu (email: caruntuc@ac.tuiasi.ro).
D. I. Patrascu (email: Daniel.Patrascu@continentalcorporation.com).
C. Lazar (email: clazar@ac.tuiasi.ro).
M. H. Matcovschi (email: mhanako@delta.ac.tuiasi.ro).
O. Pastravanu (email: opastrav@ac.tuiasi.ro).
All are with the Automatic Control and Applied Informatics Department, Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Bld. D. Mangeron, no. 53
A, 700050, Romania.
The increasing amount of power available to man that required control and the stringent demands of modern control systems had focused attention on modeling different types of valves even since 1967, when in [2], pressure control valves and electrohydraulic servovalves were analyzed. Recent attention has focused on modeling and developing advanced control methods for different valve types used as actuators in automotive control systems: physicsbased nonlinear model for an exhausting valve [3], nonlinear state space model description of the actuator that is derived based on physical principles and parameter identification [4], [5], nonlinear physical model for programmable valves [6], nonlinear model of an electromagnetic actuator used in brake system, based on system identification [1], mathematical model obtained using identification methods for a valve actuation system of an electrohydraulic engine [7], linear model constructed based on graybox approach which combines mathematical modeling and system identification for an electromagnetic control valve [8]. Starting from the equations in [2], where a single stage pressure reducing valve is modeled, in this paper, the concept of modeling a three land three way pressure reducing valve used as actuator for the clutch system in the automatic transmission of a VW vehicle is presented. Two models were developed: a linearized inputoutput model and a statespace model then implemented in Matlab/Simulink and validated by comparing the results with data obtained on a real testbench provided by Continental Automotive Romania. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the structure and the functional operation of the valve are presented and in Section III the mathematical models of the solenoid valve are developed. Section IV presents the block diagram and the parameters used in simulations. Also, simulation results for two different Simulink models are discussed. The concluding remarks are given in Section V.
II. VALVE STRUCTURE AND OPERATION
Pressure control valves employ feedback and may be properly regarded as servo control loops. Therefore proper dynamic design is necessary to achieve stability. Schematics of the three land three way pressure reducing valve are shown in Fig. 1. The pressure to be controlled is sensed on the spool end areas C and D and compared with a
magnetic force
feedback force
F which actuates on the plunger. The F is composed from the force applied on
mag
feed
9781424446025/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE
1356
the left sensed pressure chamber
, and the force applied
on the right sensed pressure chamber
.
Fig. 1. a) Section through a real three stage pressure reducing valve; b) Charging phase of the pressure reducing valve; c) Discharging phase of the pressure reducing valve
The difference in force is used to actuate the spool valve
which controls flow to maintain pressure at the set value. In
the charging phase the magnetic force is grater than the
feedback force and moves the plunger to the left, connecting
the source with the hydraulic load. When the feedback force
becomes grater that the magnetic force, the plunger is moved
to the right and the connection between source and hydraulic
load is closed. In the discharging phase, the magnetic force
is switched off or has a lower value than the feedback force
which moves the plunger to the right, connecting the
hydraulic load to the tank.
Using the magnetic force, and the feedback force it results
a force balance which describes the spool motion and the
output pressure. This equation of force balance is the same
for both positive and negative displacements of the spool:
F
mag
2
−CP + DP = M s x + K x ,
C
D
v
e
(1)
where 
C 
, 
P C 

sensed chamber, 
, 

sensed K = 0.43 
chamber, ( w P S − P R 

e 
0 
0 

P S P S 
and 
P R 

0 
0 
D P
D
)
represent the area and the pressure of the left
the area and the pressure of the right
M
v
is
the
spool
mass,
represents the flow force spring rate,
is the reduced pressure,
represents the area
is the supply pressure,
are the nominal values, w
gradient of main orifice, x is the spool displacement and s
represents the Laplace operator.
In Fig.
1
a)
a hydraulic damper that acts to
reduce the
input pressure spike, which has negative effects on the
output pressure, is also represented.
III. VALVE MODELING
The models designed in this Section are based on physical
principles for flow and fluid dynamics and parameter
identification.
A. Inputoutput mathematical model for the charging
phase
The charging phase of the pressure reducing valve has
been illustrated in Fig.1.b). A positive displacement of the
spool allows connection between the source and the
hydraulic load, while the channel that connects the hydraulic
load with the tank is kept closed.
The linearized continuity equations which describe the
dynamics from the sensed pressure chambers are [2]:
Q
C
=
K
1
P
R
−
P
C
=
V
C
β
e
sP
C
−
Csx
,
Q
D
=
K
2
P
R
−
P
D
=
V
D
β
e
sP
D
+
Dsx
,
(2)
(3)
where
K ,K
1
2
are
the
flowpressure
coefficients
of
restrictors,
V
C
,
V
D
are the sensing chamber volumes and
β
e
represents the effective bulk modulus.
Using the flow through the left and right sensed chambers,
the flow through the main orifice (from the source to the
hydraulic load) and the load flow, the linearized continuity
equation at the chamber of the pressure being controlled is:
K 

− 
P R 
) 
− Q L 
− 
K P l R 
− 
K 1 
( P R 
− 
P C 
) 
− 

K 2 ( 
P 
P 
) 
K 
V t sP 
, 
(4) 

− 
− 
+ 
x 
= 

R 
D 
q 
β e 
R 

where 
Q L 
is 
the 
load 
flow, 
K 
C 
is 
the 
flowpressure 

coefficient of main orifice, K q is the flow gain of main orifice, K l is the leakage coefficient and V t represents the 
total volume where the pressure is being controlled.
1357
These equations define the valve dynamics and combining 
Q + K 
(P C 
− 
P R )(P R 
+ K 
(P 
− P 
R ) 
− 

them into a more useful form, solving (2) and (3) w.r.t. P C and P D and substituting into (4) yields after some 
L 
1 
K 
P 
2 D K P 
K 

sP 
, 
(9) 

− 
− 
− 

manipulation: 
D 
T 
)l R 
+ 
q 
x 
= 
β e 
R 

( 
K P c 
S − Q L ) + 1 ωω 1 2 
s ω + 
1 + 1 s ω 2 1 + + C K q ω 2 D − K q ω 1 s 
[1 K x q + 2 ] = P K R ce 
1 + 1 ω ω 1 2 + C K q [ V C V t ω s 1 ω ω 3 2 
D − K q s + 1 + + 
, (5) 
where K D is the flowpressure coefficient of main orifice and P T represents the tank pressure. In an entire analogue manner like demonstrated for the charging
phase, V again making the assumption that 

≪ 1, D V t 
≪ 1 
and considering that the flowpressure 

V D 
ω 2 

s 1 
1 
s 
V C ω 1 
V D ω 2 s 
1 s ω 2 
V t 

+ V t 
ω ω 3 1 + + 
+ 
ω 3 
+ 
V t + ω 3 
V t ω 3 ω 1 
+ 
+ 
coefficients of the main orifices are equal, 
K D 
= K 
C 
, 
the 

final form for the reducing valve model in the discharging 

where 
β e 
K 1 
β e K 
2 are the break frequency of the 
phase was obtained: 

ω 
= 
ω 
= 

1 V C , 2 V D left and right sensed chambers, ω 3 = β e K ce
is the break frequency of the main volume and K ce = K + K represents C l the equivalent flowpressure coefficient. Considering that

( 
K P D T + Q L ) 1 + ωω 1 2 + 
s ω 1 + s 1 ω C − K ω q 2 
2 1 + + [1 Kx q + D K ω q 1 s 2 ] = PK R ce 
1 + 1 ω ω 1 2 + C K q − s ω 1 + s 1 ω 2 + 
D K q s + s 1 ω 3 + 
1 
. (10) 

V t 
≪ 
1, 
V t 
≪ 
1 
, the right side can be factored to give the 
final form for the reducing valve
phase:
model in the charging
(
K P
c
S
−
Q
L
)
s
ω
1
+
s
1
ω
2
1
+ +
[1
K x
q
+
1
1
+
ω ω
1
2
C
+
K
q
D
−
K
q
s +
+
1
ωω
1
2
C
+
K
q
ω
2
D
−
K
q
ω
1
s
2
]
=
PK
R
ce
s
ω
1
+
s
1
ω
2
+
s
1
ω
3
+
1
.
(6)
B. Inputoutput mathematical model for the discharging
phase
A negative displacement of the pressure reducing valve
spool allows connection between the hydraulic load and the
tank, while the channel that connects the source with the
hydraulic load is kept closed.
The linearized continuity equations at the sensed pressure
chambers for the discharging phase of the valve, illustrated
in Figure 1.c), are:
−
Q
C
=
K
1
P
C
−
P
R
= −
V
C
β
e
sP
C
+
Csx
,
−
Q
D
=
K
2
P
D
−
P
R
= −
V
D
β
e
sP
D
−
Dsx
.
(7)
(8)
Using the flow through the left and right sensed chambers,
the flow through the main orifice (from the hydraulic load to
the tank) and the load flow, the linearized continuity
equation obtained for the chamber of the pressure being
controlled is:
C. Statespace model
Starting from (1), (2), (3) and (4), respectively (1), (7), (8)
and (9) a statespace model is designed:
=
Ax
( )
t
+
Bu
( )
t
=
Cx
( )
t
+
Du
( )
t
,
(11)
where different values of the B matrix are used:
B
1
for the
charging phase of the valve and
phase:
B
2 for the discharging
A
^{=}
0
1
β
C
e
V
c
β
D
e
−
V
D
0
B
1
=
0
0
0
0
K
c
β
e
V
t
K
e
−
M
v
0
0
C
−
M
v
0
K
1
β
e
−
V
c
0
0
K
q
β
e
V
t
K
1
β
e
V
t
D
M
v
0
0
K
2
β
e
−
V
D
K
2
β
e
V
t
−
0
0
K
1
β
e
V
c
K
2
β
e
V
D
(
K
ce
+
K
1
+
K
2
)
β
e
V
D
(12)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
β
e
−
V
t
1
M
v
0
0
0
0
,B
2
=
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
K
c
β
e
0
0
0
β
e
V
t
V
t
1
M
v
0
0
0
0
.
1358
The state vector is represented by x(t), u(t)is the input
vector, and x _{(}_{t}_{)}_{,}
P
R
_{(} _{)}
t
are considered the outputs of the
system, v _{(}_{t}_{)} being the velocity of the plunger:
x
( )
t
=
v
( )
t
x
( )
t
P
C
( )
t
P
D
( )
t
P
R
( )
t
^{}
,
u
( )
t
^{=}
P
S
( )
t
P
T
( )
t
Q
L
( )
t
F
mag
( )
t
.
(13)
This model is more precise because no approximations
were used, as for the inputoutput model.
IV. SIMULATORS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC VALVE
In this section two simulators that were designed starting
from the models described in Section III and developed in
Matlab/Simulink program are presented.
A. Transfer function
Equations (1), (2), (3), (6), for the charging phase of the
valve, and (1), (7), (8), (10) for the discharging phase of the
valve, define the pressure reducing valve dynamics and can
be used to construct the transfer function block diagram
represented in Fig. 2.
Considering the resulting force between the magnetic and
the feedback force, solving
and
P from the linearized
D
continuity equations (2) and (3) and substituting in the
equation of force balance (1), the following equation was
obtained:
F
mag
+
C
K P
1
R
+
Csx
s
ω
1
+
1
K
1
−
D
K
2
P
R
−
Dsx
s
ω
2
+
1
K
2
=
M
v
s
2 +
x
K
x
e
.
(14)
After
some
manipulations,
that
ω =
m
represents
where
it
was
considered
the
mechanical
natural
frequency, and substituting (12) into (1) yields:
F
1
−
sx
2 D
C
K
_{}
s
ω
1
1 +
+
1
2
K
2
s
ω
2
+
1
=
xK
e
2
s
2 + 1
ω
m
,
(15)
illustrating the closed loop model from Fig. 2 for the
displacement x. A switch is used in order to commutate
between the two phases of the pressure reducing valve. Like
seen in Fig. 2, switching between the charging and the
discharging phase can be realized by selecting different
disturbances for positive and negative displacement of the
spool.
Fig. 2. Transfer function block diagram of valve
Parameter 
values used 
for 
testing in Simulink are 

presented in Table 1. Dimensional parameters 
were 

measured directly on the sectioned valve and the 
flow 

coefficients were determined through experiments with the 

real valve 
on a test bench 
at 
Continental Automotive 

Romania. 
TABLE 1 PARAMETER VALUES
Symbol
Value
Unit
K _{e}
M _{v}
β _{e}
_{ω} _{1}
_{ω} _{2}
_{ω} _{3}
K _{C}
K _{D}
K _{1}
K _{2}
K _{q}
K _{c}_{e}
W
P _{T}
P _{s}
K _{l}
V _{C}
V _{D}
V _{t}
C
D
α
2000
0.0025
1.6*10^9
2.6845e+006
2.1342e+007
1.6606e+004
7.5772e011
7.5772e011
1.2634e010
1.3873e009
5.3418
2.0757e009
0.003
0
100000*10
2.0000e009
7.53e8
1.04e7
3e4
3.664e5
2.94e5
2e5
[N/m]
[kg]
[N/m^2]
[rad/s]
[rad/s]
[rad/s]
[m^3/s/bar]
[m^3/s/bar]
[m^3/s/bar]
[m^3/s/bar]
[m^3/s/bar]
[m^3/s/bar]
[m]
[N/m^2]
[N/m^2]
[m^3/s/bar]
[m^3]
[m^3]
[m^3]
[m^2]
[m^2]
[m]
B. Inputoutput model simulation
In order to validate the results obtained for the solenoid
valve actuator, a Simulink model (represented in Fig. 3) was
created, using a magnetic force as input. The magnetic force
block (Magnet1) implements the connection between
electric current trough solenoid and magnetic force
generated by the magnetic flux. A force sensor was utilized
to measure the magnetic force and the results were used in a
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Fmag [N], current [A]
form of a two dimensional lookup table, designed at
Continental Automotive Romania for this type of valve.
was considered when the magnetic force is applied, and
then, a negative one, when the magnetic force is set back to
zero.
Fig. 3. Inputoutput Simulink model
In Fig. 3 two subsystems were used: one representing the
transfer functions of the reducing valve model (Model) and
one representing the load flow (Subsystem). The
commutation between the charging and the discharging
phase was simulated by a switch that connects different
perturbation depending on the value of the displacement. A
hysteresis type switch was used in order to avoid the rapidly
switching between the two flow perturbations caused by the
oscillations of the plunger, using
α
=
2 10
⋅
− 5
as
the
threshold for the displacement. The saturation block was
used to allow only positive values for the magnetic force and
the filter to eliminate the high frequencies caused by the
lookup table.
In Fig.
4
a
real input
signal is illustrated, represented
either by the magnetic force or by the current used to obtain
the magnetic force through the lookup table.
1
0 
0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.8 
1 
1.2 
1.4 
1.6 
1.8 
time [sec] 
Fig. 4. Current and magnetic force used as input signals
For modeling the load flow needed to actuate the clutch,
an impulse signal for 20 ms with a value of 10 ^{}^{4} m ^{3} /s was
considered as shown in Fig. 5, value determined from
measurements on the test bench. First, one positive impulse
7, where the spool displacement and the reduced pressure
were compared with real data obtained from experiments
made on a test bench with the input signal from Fig. 4 and
the disturbance from Fig. 5.
Fig. 6. Compared spool displacements for inputoutput model
It can be seen that the simulated displacement of the spool
has even smaller variations than the measured displacement
while the behaviour is the same.
Fig. 7. Compared reducing pressures for inputoutput model
1360
pressure [bar]
displacement [mm]
Concerning the reduced pressure, the experimental results
reveal that the simulated pressure follows the measured
pressure behaviour, the amplitude of the simulated pressures
variations in steady state being lower than the amplitude of
the measured pressures variations.
C. Statespace model simulation
The statespace model was represented in Simulink as
shown in Fig. 8, where a similar switch as in the input
output model was used to commutate the reduced pressure
between the charging and the discharging phases.
[time Druck _A]
[time Druck _P]
[time Strommesszange ]
From 19
Fig. 8. Statespace Simulink model
The results obtained for the spool displacement using the
statespace model are similar to those obtained using the
inputoutput model and are represented in Fig. 9.
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.1
0
0.8
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.05
0
0 
0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.8 
1 
1.2 
1.4 
1.6 
time [sec] 
Fig. 9. Compared spool displacements for statespace model
Fig. 10 illustrates the difference between the simulated
and the measured reduced pressures. It can be seen that the
amplitude of the simulated pressures variations in steady
state is lower than the amplitude of the measured pressures
variations.
14
12
10
4
2
0 
0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.8 
1 
1.2 
1.4 
1.6 
time [sec] 
Fig. 10. Compared reducing pressures for statespace model
V. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper two different models for a solenoid valve
actuator used in the automotive control systems were
developed: a liniarized inputoutput model, where
simplifications were made in order to obtain a suitable
transfer function to be implemented in Simulink and to
obtain an appropriate behaviour for the outputs, and a state
space model with no simplifications. The results of the
experiments illustrate a similar behaviour of both simulators.
The models were validated by comparing the results with
data obtained on a real testbench provided by Continental
Automotive Romania. It can be concluded that both
simulators have good results illustrated by the similar
behaviour obtained for the spool displacement and the
reduced pressure compared with the measured values.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was partially supported by CNMPSICONA
project and Continental Automotive Romania. The authors
gratefully acknowledge the support.
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