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18th IEEE International Conference on Control Applications Part of 2009 IEEE Multi-conference on Systems and Control Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 8-10, 2009

Modeling of a Pressure Reducing Valve Actuator for Automotive Applications

A. E. Balau, Student Member, IEEE, C. F. Caruntu, D. I. Patrascu, C. Lazar, Member, IEEE, M. H. Matcovschi, Member, IEEE, O. Pastravanu, Member, IEEE

Abstract— Significant research effort has been directed towards developing vehicle systems that reduce the energy consumption of an automobile and because pressure control valves are used as actuators in many control applications for automotive systems, a proper dynamic model is necessary. Starting from equations found in literature, where a single stage pressure reducing valve is modelled, in this paper, the concept of modeling a real three land three way solenoid valve actuator for the clutch system in the automatic transmission is presented. Two simulators for an input-output model and a state-space model were developed and these were validated with data provided from experiments with the real valve actuator on a test bench.

I. INTRODUCTION

Over the last two decades, significant research effort has been directed towards developing vehicle systems that reduce the energy consumption of an automobile. Because hydraulic control valves are used as actuators in many control applications for automotive systems, their performance is under scrutiny, especially when system difficulties occur. Therefore knowledge of the performance characteristics of valves is essential. 1 Electromagnetic valves vary in arrangement and complexity, depending upon their function. Three broad functional types can be distinguished: directional control valves, pressure control valves and flow control valves. Pressure control valves act to regulate pressure in a circuit and may be subdivided into pressure relief valves and pressure reducing valves. Pressure relief valves, which are normally closed, open up to establish a maximum pressure and bypass excess flow to maintain the set pressure. Pressure reducing valves, which are normally open, close to maintain a minimum pressure by restricting flow in the line. There are many practical applications where this type of electromagnetic actuator is used: electromagnetic valve actuators of combustion engines, artificial heart actuators, electromagnetic brakes, electromagnetic actuator for the clutch system in automatic transmissions etc. [1].

Manuscript received January 22, 2009.

  • A. E. Balau (+40740772415; e-mail: abalau@ac.tuiasi.ro).

  • C. F. Caruntu (e-mail: caruntuc@ac.tuiasi.ro).

  • D. I. Patrascu (e-mail: Daniel.Patrascu@continental-corporation.com).

  • C. Lazar (e-mail: clazar@ac.tuiasi.ro).

  • M. H. Matcovschi (e-mail: mhanako@delta.ac.tuiasi.ro).

  • O. Pastravanu (e-mail: opastrav@ac.tuiasi.ro).

All are with the Automatic Control and Applied Informatics Department, Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Bld. D. Mangeron, no. 53

A, 700050, Romania.

The increasing amount of power available to man that required control and the stringent demands of modern control systems had focused attention on modeling different types of valves even since 1967, when in [2], pressure control valves and electro-hydraulic servovalves were analyzed. Recent attention has focused on modeling and developing advanced control methods for different valve types used as actuators in automotive control systems: physics-based nonlinear model for an exhausting valve [3], nonlinear state- space model description of the actuator that is derived based on physical principles and parameter identification [4], [5], nonlinear physical model for programmable valves [6], nonlinear model of an electromagnetic actuator used in brake system, based on system identification [1], mathematical model obtained using identification methods for a valve actuation system of an electro-hydraulic engine [7], linear model constructed based on gray-box approach which combines mathematical modeling and system identification for an electro-magnetic control valve [8]. Starting from the equations in [2], where a single stage pressure reducing valve is modeled, in this paper, the concept of modeling a three land three way pressure reducing valve used as actuator for the clutch system in the automatic transmission of a VW vehicle is presented. Two models were developed: a linearized input-output model and a state-space model then implemented in Matlab/Simulink and validated by comparing the results with data obtained on a real test-bench provided by Continental Automotive Romania. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the structure and the functional operation of the valve are presented and in Section III the mathematical models of the solenoid valve are developed. Section IV presents the block diagram and the parameters used in simulations. Also, simulation results for two different Simulink models are discussed. The concluding remarks are given in Section V.

II. VALVE STRUCTURE AND OPERATION

Pressure control valves employ feedback and may be properly regarded as servo control loops. Therefore proper dynamic design is necessary to achieve stability. Schematics of the three land three way pressure reducing valve are shown in Fig. 1. The pressure to be controlled is sensed on the spool end areas C and D and compared with a

magnetic force

feedback force

F which actuates on the plunger. The F is composed from the force applied on

mag

feed

978-1-4244-4602-5/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

1356

the left sensed pressure chamber

F C
F
C

, and the force applied

on the right sensed pressure chamber

F D
F
D

.

line pressure P S output pressure P R C D F mag F feed +1mm x
line pressure P S
output
pressure
P R
C
D
F mag
F feed
+1mm x -1mm
T
plunger
hydraulic damper
tank pressure P T
a)
b)
c)

Fig. 1. a) Section through a real three stage pressure reducing valve; b) Charging phase of the pressure reducing valve; c) Discharging phase of the pressure reducing valve

The difference in force is used to actuate the spool valve

which controls flow to maintain pressure at the set value. In

the charging phase the magnetic force is grater than the

feedback force and moves the plunger to the left, connecting

the source with the hydraulic load. When the feedback force

becomes grater that the magnetic force, the plunger is moved

to the right and the connection between source and hydraulic

load is closed. In the discharging phase, the magnetic force

is switched off or has a lower value than the feedback force

which moves the plunger to the right, connecting the

hydraulic load to the tank.

Using the magnetic force, and the feedback force it results

a force balance which describes the spool motion and the

output pressure. This equation of force balance is the same

for both positive and negative displacements of the spool:

F

mag

2

CP + DP = M s x + K x ,

C

D

v

e

(1)

where

C

,

P

C

sensed chamber,

,

sensed

K

=

0.43

chamber,

(

w P

S

P

R

 

e

0

0

P

S

P

S

and

P

R

 

0

0

D P

D

)

represent the area and the pressure of the left

the area and the pressure of the right

M

v

is

the

spool

mass,

represents the flow force spring rate,

P R
P
R

is the reduced pressure,

represents the area

is the supply pressure,

are the nominal values, w

gradient of main orifice, x is the spool displacement and s

represents the Laplace operator.

In Fig.

1

a)

a hydraulic damper that acts to

reduce the

input pressure spike, which has negative effects on the

output pressure, is also represented.

III. VALVE MODELING

The models designed in this Section are based on physical

principles for flow and fluid dynamics and parameter

identification.

A. Input-output mathematical model for the charging

phase

The charging phase of the pressure reducing valve has

been illustrated in Fig.1.b). A positive displacement of the

spool allows connection between the source and the

hydraulic load, while the channel that connects the hydraulic

load with the tank is kept closed.

The linearized continuity equations which describe the

dynamics from the sensed pressure chambers are [2]:

Q

C

=

K

1

(

P

R

P

C

)

=

V

C

β

e

sP

C

Csx

,

Q

D

=

K

2

(

P

R

P

D

)

=

V

D

β

e

sP

D

+

Dsx

,

(2)

(3)

where

K ,K

1

2

are

the

flow-pressure

coefficients

of

restrictors,

V

C

,

V

D

are the sensing chamber volumes and

β

e

represents the effective bulk modulus.

Using the flow through the left and right sensed chambers,

the flow through the main orifice (from the source to the

hydraulic load) and the load flow, the linearized continuity

equation at the chamber of the pressure being controlled is:

 

K

  • C (

 

P

R

)

Q

L

K P

l

R

K

1

(

P

R

P

C

)

 

K

2

(

P

P

)

 

K

V

t

sP

 

,

(4)

 

 

+

x

=

 
 

R

D

 

q

β

e

R

where

Q

L

is

the

load

flow,

 

K

C

is

the

flow-pressure

coefficient of main orifice,

K

q

is

the

flow gain of

main

orifice,

K

l

is the leakage coefficient and

V

t

represents the

total volume where the pressure is being controlled.

1357

 

These equations define the valve dynamics and combining

 

Q

+

K

(

P

C

 

P

R

)

(

P

R

+

K

(

P

P

R

)

them into a more useful form, solving (2) and (3) w.r.t.

P

C

and

P

D

and substituting into (4) yields after some

L

1

K

P

2

D

K P

K

  • V t

sP

 

,

(9)

 

manipulation:

 

D

T

)

l

R

+

q

x

=

β

e

R

 

(

K P

c

S

Q

L

)

+

1

ωω

1

2

s

ω

+

1

+

1







s

ω

2

1

+ +

C

K

q

ω

2

D

K

q

ω

1

s

[1

K x

q

+

2

]

=

P K

R

ce

1

+

1

ω ω

1

2

+

C

K

q

[

V

C

V

t

ω

s

1

ω ω

3

2

D

K

q

s +

1

+ +

 

, (5)

where

K

D

is the flow-pressure coefficient of main orifice

and

P

T

represents the tank pressure.

In an entire analogue manner like demonstrated for the

charging

  • V C

phase,

V

again

making

the

assumption that

 

1,

D

V

t

 

1

and considering that the flow-pressure

 

V

D

ω

2

s

1

 

1

s

V

C

ω

1

V

D

ω

2

 s

1







s

ω

2

     

V

t

 

+

V

t

ω ω

3

1

+ +

 

+

ω

3

+

V

t

+

ω

3

V

t

ω

3





ω

1

+

+

coefficients of the main orifices are equal,

K

D

= K

C

,

the

 

final form for the reducing valve model in the discharging

where

 

β

e

K

1

β

e

K

2

are the break frequency of the

phase was obtained:

 

ω

=

ω

=

 

1

V

C

,

2

V

D

left and right sensed chambers,

ω

3

=

β

e

K

ce

  • V t

is the break

frequency of the main volume and

K

ce

= K + K represents

C

l

the equivalent flow-pressure coefficient. Considering that

  • V C

  • V D

(

K P

D

T

+

Q

L

)

1

+

ωω

1

2

+

s

ω

1

+



s

1





ω

C

K

ω

q

2

2

1

+ +

[1

Kx

q

+

D

K

ω

q

1

s

2

]

=

PK

R

ce

1

+

1

ω ω

1

2

+

C

K

q

s

ω

1

+



s

1





ω

2

+

D

K

q

s +



s

1





ω

3

+

1

. (10)

V

t

1,

V

t

1

, the right side can be factored to give the

 

final form for the reducing valve

phase:

model in the charging

(

K P

c

S

Q

L

)

s

ω

1

+



s

1





ω

2

1

+ +

[1

K x

q

+

1

1

+

ω ω

1

2

C

+

K

q

D

K

q

s +

+

1

ωω

1

2

C

+

K

q

ω

2

D

K

q

ω

1

s

2

]

=

PK

R

ce

s

ω

1

+



s

1





ω

2

+



s

1





ω

3

+

1

.

(6)

B. Input-output mathematical model for the discharging

phase

A negative displacement of the pressure reducing valve

spool allows connection between the hydraulic load and the

tank, while the channel that connects the source with the

hydraulic load is kept closed.

The linearized continuity equations at the sensed pressure

chambers for the discharging phase of the valve, illustrated

in Figure 1.c), are:

Q

C

=

K

1

(

P

C

P

R

)

= −

V

C

β

e

sP

C

+

Csx

,

Q

D

=

K

2

(

P

D

P

R

)

= −

V

D

β

e

sP

D

Dsx

.

(7)

(8)

Using the flow through the left and right sensed chambers,

the flow through the main orifice (from the hydraulic load to

the tank) and the load flow, the linearized continuity

equation obtained for the chamber of the pressure being

controlled is:

C. State-space model

Starting from (1), (2), (3) and (4), respectively (1), (7), (8)

and (9) a state-space model is designed:

 x ɺ ( ) t   y ( ) t  
 x ɺ
( )
t
y
( )
t

=

Ax

( )

t

+

Bu

( )

t

=

Cx

( )

t

+

Du

( )

t

,

(11)

where different values of the B matrix are used:

B

1

for the

charging phase of the valve and

phase:

B

  • 2 for the discharging

A

=

0

1

β

C

e

V

c

β

D

e

V

D

0

B

1

=

 

0

0

0

0

K

c

β

e

V

t

K

e

M

v

0

0

C

M

v

0

K

1

β

e

V

c

0

0

K

q

β

e

V

t

K

1

β

e

V

t

D

M

v

0

0

K

2

β

e

V

D

K

2

β

e

V

t

0

0

K

1

β

e

V

c

K

2

β

e

V

D

(

K

ce

+

K

1

+

K

2

)

β

e

V

D

(12)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

β

e

V

t

1

M

v

0

0

0

0

 

,B

2

=

 

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

K

c

β

e

0

0

0

β

e

V

t

V

t

1

M

v

0

0

0

0

 

.

1358

The state vector is represented by x(t), u(t)is the input

vector, and x (t),

P

R

( )

t

are considered the outputs of the

system, v (t) being the velocity of the plunger:

x

( )

t

=

v

( )

t

x

( )

t

P

C

( )

t

P

D

( )

t

P

R

( )

t

,

u

( )

t

=

P

S

( )

t

P

T

( )

t

Q

L

( )

t

F

mag

( )

t

.

(13)

This model is more precise because no approximations

were used, as for the input-output model.

IV. SIMULATORS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC VALVE

In this section two simulators that were designed starting

from the models described in Section III and developed in

Matlab/Simulink program are presented.

A. Transfer function

Equations (1), (2), (3), (6), for the charging phase of the

valve, and (1), (7), (8), (10) for the discharging phase of the

valve, define the pressure reducing valve dynamics and can

be used to construct the transfer function block diagram

represented in Fig. 2.

Considering the resulting force between the magnetic and

the feedback force, solving

P C
P
C

and

P from the linearized

D

continuity equations (2) and (3) and substituting in the

equation of force balance (1), the following equation was

obtained:

F

mag

+

C

K P

1

R

+

Csx

s

ω

1

+

1

K

1

D

K

2

P

R

Dsx

s

ω

2

+

1

K

2

=

M

v

s

  • 2 +

x

K

x

e

.

(14)

After

some

manipulations,

that

ω =

m

K e M v
K
e
M
v

represents

where

it

was

considered

the

mechanical

natural

frequency, and substituting (12) into (1) yields:

F

1

sx

  • 2 D

C

K

 

s

ω

1

  • 1 +

+

1

2

K

2

s

ω

2

+

1

  

=

xK

e

  • 2

s

  • 2 + 1

ω

m

,

(15)

illustrating the closed loop model from Fig. 2 for the

displacement x. A switch is used in order to commutate

between the two phases of the pressure reducing valve. Like

seen in Fig. 2, switching between the charging and the

discharging phase can be realized by selecting different

disturbances for positive and negative displacement of the

spool.

The state vector is represented by x ( t ) , u ( t ) is

Fig. 2. Transfer function block diagram of valve

Parameter

values

used

for

testing in Simulink are

presented in Table 1. Dimensional parameters

were

measured directly on the sectioned valve and the

flow

coefficients were determined through experiments with the

real valve

on

a

test

bench

at

Continental

Automotive

Romania.

TABLE 1 PARAMETER VALUES

Symbol

Value

Unit

K e

M v

β e

ω 1

ω 2

ω 3

K C

K D

K 1

K 2

K q

K ce

W

P T

P s

K l

V C

V D

V t

C

D

α

2000

0.0025

1.6*10^9

2.6845e+006

2.1342e+007

1.6606e+004

7.5772e-011

7.5772e-011

1.2634e-010

1.3873e-009

5.3418

2.0757e-009

0.003

0

100000*10

2.0000e-009

7.53e-8

1.04e-7

3e-4

3.664e-5

2.94e-5

2e-5

[N/m]

[kg]

[N/m^2]

[rad/s]

[rad/s]

[rad/s]

[m^3/s/bar]

[m^3/s/bar]

[m^3/s/bar]

[m^3/s/bar]

[m^3/s/bar]

[m^3/s/bar]

[m]

[N/m^2]

[N/m^2]

[m^3/s/bar]

[m^3]

[m^3]

[m^3]

[m^2]

[m^2]

[m]

B. Input-output model simulation

In order to validate the results obtained for the solenoid

valve actuator, a Simulink model (represented in Fig. 3) was

created, using a magnetic force as input. The magnetic force

block (Magnet1) implements the connection between

electric current trough solenoid and magnetic force

generated by the magnetic flux. A force sensor was utilized

to measure the magnetic force and the results were used in a

1359

Fmag [N], current [A]

form of a two dimensional look-up table, designed at

Continental Automotive Romania for this type of valve.

was considered when the magnetic force is applied, and

then, a negative one, when the magnetic force is set back to

zero.

[time Druck_A] [Pr] Pr x 10 -4 [time Druck_P] [Ps] 1 Ps [time Strommesszange] [i] 0.8
[time Druck_A]
[Pr]
Pr
x 10 -4
[time Druck_P]
[Ps]
1
Ps
[time Strommesszange]
[i]
0.8
i
[time Weg_Magnet]
-u+2.75
[x]
0.6
x
Fcn1
[xm]
0.4
From1
0.2
[x]
i, Fmag
0
-K-
QL
x
[xm]
Gain
-0.2
1
Subsystem
Fmag
x
[i]
0.003s+1
[Ps]
-K-
Kc
In
Pr
-0.4
Saturation
Magnet1
switching_filt
From
Model
Gain2
Gain1
-0.6
-0.8
Switch
-1
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
time [sec]
[Pr]
u-0.35
From4
Fcn2
Fig. 5. Load flow
-K-
Pr
Gain3
The results of the simulations are presented in Figs. 6 and
Load flow (QL) [m 3 /sec]

Fig. 3. Input-output Simulink model

In Fig. 3 two subsystems were used: one representing the

transfer functions of the reducing valve model (Model) and

one representing the load flow (Subsystem). The

commutation between the charging and the discharging

phase was simulated by a switch that connects different

perturbation depending on the value of the displacement. A

hysteresis type switch was used in order to avoid the rapidly

switching between the two flow perturbations caused by the

oscillations of the plunger, using

α

=

2 10

5

as

the

threshold for the displacement. The saturation block was

used to allow only positive values for the magnetic force and

the filter to eliminate the high frequencies caused by the

look-up table.

In Fig.

4

a

real input

signal is illustrated, represented

either by the magnetic force or by the current used to obtain

the magnetic force through the look-up table.

-1

i Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
i
Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
i Fmag
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

 

time [sec]

Fig. 4. Current and magnetic force used as input signals

For modeling the load flow needed to actuate the clutch,

an impulse signal for 20 ms with a value of 10 -4 m 3 /s was

considered as shown in Fig. 5, value determined from

measurements on the test bench. First, one positive impulse

7, where the spool displacement and the reduced pressure

were compared with real data obtained from experiments

made on a test bench with the input signal from Fig. 4 and

the disturbance from Fig. 5.

measured simulated 0.8 0.3 0.25 0.6 0.2 0.15 0.4 0.1 0.05 0 0.2 0.8 0.82 0.84
measured
simulated
0.8
0.3
0.25
0.6
0.2
0.15
0.4
0.1
0.05
0
0.2
0.8
0.82
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.9
0
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
time [sec]
displacement [mm]

Fig. 6. Compared spool displacements for input-output model

It can be seen that the simulated displacement of the spool

has even smaller variations than the measured displacement

while the behaviour is the same.

14 measured simulated 12 6 10 5.5 5 8 4.5 6 4 3.5 0.8 0.82 0.84
14
measured
simulated
12
6
10
5.5
5
8
4.5
6
4
3.5
0.8
0.82
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.9
4
2
0
-2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
time [sec]
pressure [bar]

Fig. 7. Compared reducing pressures for input-output model

1360

pressure [bar]

displacement [mm]

Concerning the reduced pressure, the experimental results

reveal that the simulated pressure follows the measured

pressure behaviour, the amplitude of the simulated pressures

variations in steady state being lower than the amplitude of

the measured pressures variations.

C. State-space model simulation

The state-space model was represented in Simulink as

shown in Fig. 8, where a similar switch as in the input-

output model was used to commutate the reduced pressure

between the charging and the discharging phases.

[time Druck _A]

[Pr] QL Pr [Ql ] Subsystem [Ps] Ps [Ps] -K- [Ps1] [i] i From 6 Gain
[Pr]
QL
Pr
[Ql ]
Subsystem
[Ps]
Ps
[Ps]
-K-
[Ps1]
[i]
i
From 6
Gain 4

[time Druck _P]

[time Strommesszange ]

[time Weg _Magnet ] -u+2.75 [x] x Fcn1 [xm] [xm] 1 [Fmag ] [i] 0.003 s+1
[time Weg _Magnet ]
-u+2.75
[x]
x
Fcn1
[xm]
[xm]
1
[Fmag ]
[i]
0.003 s+1
Saturation
switching _filt
Magnet 1 [Ps1] From 5 0 [x1] [Ql] Constant 3 x' = Ax+Bu y = Cx+Du
Magnet 1
[Ps1]
From 5
0
[x1]
[Ql]
Constant 3
x' = Ax+Bu
y = Cx+Du
[Pr1]
Charging phase
From 7
[Fmag ]
From 8
[Ps1]
From 11
[x2]
0
x' = Ax+Bu
K-
Constant 2
y = Cx+Du
[Pr2]
Discharging phase
[Ql ]
Gain 1
From 12
[Pr1]
[Fmag ]
From 15
From 13
[x3]
[Pr3]
From 14
Switch
[Pr2]
From 16
[x] From 1 [x3] -K- Displacement From 9 Gain [Pr] u-0.35 From 4 Fcn2 [Pr3] -K-
[x]
From 1
[x3]
-K-
Displacement
From 9
Gain
[Pr]
u-0.35
From 4
Fcn2
[Pr3]
-K-
Pressure
From 10
Gain 6
[x1]
From 18
[Ql ]
[x3]
From 17
Switch 1
[x2]

From 19

Fig. 8. State-space Simulink model

The results obtained for the spool displacement using the

state-space model are similar to those obtained using the

input-output model and are represented in Fig. 9.

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2

simulated measured
simulated
measured

0.1

0

0.8

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.05

0

0.84 0.86 0.88 0.9
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.9

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

 

time [sec]

Fig. 9. Compared spool displacements for state-space model

Fig. 10 illustrates the difference between the simulated

and the measured reduced pressures. It can be seen that the

amplitude of the simulated pressures variations in steady

state is lower than the amplitude of the measured pressures

variations.

14

12

10

4

-2

8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
8 0 2 6
8
0
2
6
0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
0.8 0.82
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
8 0 2 6 0.8 0.82 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 simulated measured
simulated measured
simulated
measured
0.84 0.86 0.88 0.9
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.9

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

 

time [sec]

Fig. 10. Compared reducing pressures for state-space model

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper two different models for a solenoid valve

actuator used in the automotive control systems were

developed: a liniarized input-output model, where

simplifications were made in order to obtain a suitable

transfer function to be implemented in Simulink and to

obtain an appropriate behaviour for the outputs, and a state-

space model with no simplifications. The results of the

experiments illustrate a similar behaviour of both simulators.

The models were validated by comparing the results with

data obtained on a real test-bench provided by Continental

Automotive Romania. It can be concluded that both

simulators have good results illustrated by the similar

behaviour obtained for the spool displacement and the

reduced pressure compared with the measured values.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was partially supported by CNMP-SICONA

project and Continental Automotive Romania. The authors

gratefully acknowledge the support.

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[1]

A. Forrai, T. Ueda, and T. Yumura, “A simple approach to

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[2]

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[3]

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[4]

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[5]

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