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ElectromagneticForce CouplinginElectricMachines

MarkSolveson,Cheta Rathod,MikeHebbes, Gunjan Verma,Tushar Sambharam ANSYS,Inc.


1 2011ANSYS,Inc. October24,2011

Introduction
Lownoiseregulation
Aimedatreductioninnoisepollution

ComfortCriteria
Noisecausesdiscomfortandfatigue Noisesuppressiondemonstrates technological/marketingedge

ComponentFailure
Sensitivityofstructuretoacousticresonances

TheaboveAppliestomanyIndustrysectors:
Transportation,Power,Environmental,Buildingservices
2 2011ANSYS,Inc. October24,2011

Introduction
Noiseandvibrationinelectricmachinescomefrom manysources. ANSYSprovidesexcellentcapabilitiesforthedesignand analysisofelectricmachines:
Electromagneticperformance ElectricDriveperformance Structuralanalysis Thermalanalysis Acousticsanalysis

ANSYSfieldcouplingtechnologyallowsmappingof
electromagneticforcesforMechanicalanalysis
3 2011ANSYS,Inc. October24,2011

MachineTypes
Differentmachinesmayhavedifferentconsiderations dependingontheirarchitectureorcontrolstrategies.
PrimaryForcesareinplane(radialandtangential) SingleandThreePhaseInductionMachines. PMSynchronousMachines(SurfaceMount,IPM). Switchedreluctancemachines PrimaryforceareAxial AxialFluxMachines

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NoiseSources[1]
Magnetic
Radial
Self Auxiliaries LoadInduced

Mechanical

Aerodynamic
FluidCooling Phenomena

Electronic
Switching Harmonics

Slot Harmonics Magnetic Unbalance


Stator Rotor Couplings

Modesof Vibration Bearings Balancing Static Eccentricity

Foundation

Dynamic Eccentricity

Audible Frequencies

Unbalanced Rotor Elliptical RotorSurface

20Hz
5

60Hz

261.63Hz
October24,2011

4.186kHz

5kHz

20kHz

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[1]P.Vigayraghavan,R.Krishnan,NoiseinElectricMachines:AReview,IEEE,1998

ANSYSMachineModel

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ElectromagneticDesignandAnalysis
ANSYSMachineDesignMethodology
RMxprt:calculateratedperformanceformachine Maxwell:CalculatedetailedmagneticFEAofmachineintime domain Simplorer:Calculatedetaileddrivedesignwithcoupled cosimulation witheitherRMxprtorMaxwell.

SINE1

SINE2

SINE3

TRIANG1

IGBT1 E1

D7

IGBT3

D9

IGBT5

D11

RphaseA PhaseA_in RphaseB PhaseB_in RphaseC PhaseC_in MotionSetup1_in E2 D8 IGBT2 IGBT4 D10 IGBT6 D12 0 PhaseC_out MotionSetup1_out PhaseB_out PhaseA_out

V
VM1

V_ROTB1

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MachineModelinMaxwell Simplorer
2DIPM(InteriorPermanentMagnet)motormodelcreatedfromRMxprtand MaxwellUDP(UserDefinedPrimitive)forrotor
Model
V Model DModel1 D40 D42 D44 SModel1

4pole,1500RPM,220VoltDCbus. TwoControlStrategiesused: 6stepinverter InMaxwell PWMcurrentregulated Cosimulation MaxwellwithSimplorer

S_46

V D35

S_48

V D37

S_50

V D39

+ -

110V LabelID=V32 LabelID=VIA 0.000512893H*Kle LA 2.00694ohm RA LPhaseA

LabelID=VIB 0.000512893H*Kle LB

2.00694ohm RB

LPhaseB

+ -

110V LabelID=V33

LabelID=VIC 0.000512893H*Kle LC

2.00694ohm RC

LPhaseC

D41

D43

D45

D34

S_47

D36

S_49

D38

S_51

LabelID=IVc1 LabelID=IVc2 LabelID=IVc3 LabelID=IVc4 LabelID=IVc5 LabelID=IVc6 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm 100ohm R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25

-1 + 1V LabelID=V14

-1 + 1V LabelID=V15

-1 + 1V LabelID=V16

-1 + 1V LabelID=V17

-1 + 1V LabelID=V18

-1 1V LabelID=V19

SINE1

SINE2

SINE3

TRIANG1

IGBT1 E1

D7

IGBT3

D9

IGBT5

D11

RphaseA PhaseA_in RphaseB PhaseB_in RphaseC


1.10

PhaseA_out PhaseB_out
Sine Triangle
Basic_Inverter1
Curve Info SINE1.VAL SINE2.VAL SINE3.VAL TRIANG1.VAL
ANSOFT

V
VM1

PhaseC_in MotionSetup1_in

PhaseC_out
TR

0.88

TR TR TR

E2 D8 IGBT2 IGBT4 D10 IGBT6 D12 0

MotionSetup1_out

V_ROTB1

0.25

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Y1 -0.38 -1.00 -1.10 20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00 Time [ms] 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00

MachineModelinMaxwell Simplorer

SAS IP, Inc.


15.00

Torque

Basic_Inverter1
Curve Info
TR FEA1.TORQUE

ANSOFT

SAS IP, Inc.


20.00

Currents

Basic_Inverter1
Curve Info
TR TR RphaseA.I RphaseB.I RphaseC.I

ANSOFT

15.00
12.50

TR

10.00

10.00

5.00

FEA1.TORQUE

7.50

Y1 [A]
20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00 Time [ms] 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00

0.00

-5.00
5.00

-10.00

2.50

-15.00

0.00

-20.00 20.00 22.50 25.00 27.50 30.00 Tim e [ms] 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00

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ForceCalculations
Force calculationusingairgapfluxdensity Maxwell StressTensor
[9]

Forcecalculationatapointonthestator. Forceonalineintheairgap Forceonalinecolinearwiththestatortooth


Thisiscommonmethodinliterature.

EdgeForceDensity
DefaultfieldquantityavailableinMaxwell Canbeusedforcreatinglumpedforce
calculationsontoothtips

AutomaticForcemappingfromMaxwellto
ANSYSMechanical.(2D2D,2D3D,3D3D)
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EdgeForceDensityinMaxwell
Tangential Force on Tooth Tips
10.00

02_DC-6step_IPM

ANSOFT

5.00

0.00

Force (Newtons)

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00
Curve Info ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_Full1)

-20.00

ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_2) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_3) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_4) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_5) ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_6)

-25.00

-30.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 Time [ms] 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00

Radial Force on Tooth Tips


50.00

02_DC-6step_IPM

ANSOFT

-0.00

-50.00 Force (Newtons)

-100.00

-150.00

Curve Info ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_Full1) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_2) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_3) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_4) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_5) ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_6)

-200.00

-250.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 Time [ms] 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00

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EccentricityModel

LeftSide Tooth

RightSide Tooth

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ParametricStudyofEccentricity Electromagetic Force


Rotormissaligned 0%,25%,50% Solved simultaneouslyon multicorecomputer Shown:RadialForce onRightToothTip FFTofRadialForce

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EdgeForceDensity,50%Eccentricity

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50%Eccentricity:RadialandTangential ForceonRightSideandLeftSideTooth
0.00

Radial Tooth Tip Forces

ANSOFT

15.00

Tangential Tooth Tip Forces

ANSOFT

10.00 -50.00 5.00

-100.00

0.00

-150.00

-200.00

-250.00
Curve Info Radial Force Small Gap Radial Force Large Gap

Force (N)

Force (N)

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00
Curve Info Tangential Force Small Gap Tangential Force Large Gap

-25.00

-300.00 20.00

22.50

25.00

27.50

30.00 Time [ms]

32.50

35.00

37.50

40.00

-30.00 20.00

22.50

25.00

27.50

30.00 Time [ms]

32.50

35.00

37.50

40.00

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ANSYSForceMapping

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TwoApproaches
DirectForceMapping
ElectromagneticforcesfromMaxwellto Mechanicalbylinkingsystemsin Workbench Maps2DEdgeForce,and 3DSurfaceforce TransientAnalysisforStressprediction

LumpedForceMapping
ToothTipobjectscreatedformapping calculatedlumpedforceusing EdgeForceDensityinMaxwell. Applytheselumpedforcesmanually orthroughAPDLMacro FurtherharmonicandNoiseAnalysis
17 2011ANSYS,Inc. October24,2011

Approach1 DirectForceMapping
Scenario:StudytheeffectofRotorEccentricity Case1:0%Eccentricity
Nomisalignment

Case2:50%Eccentricity
Eccentricityamountissetto 50%ofgapwidth Createsunbalanced electromagneticforces

PeakEdgeForceDensity1.5e6N/m2

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PeakEdgeForceDensity1.9e6N/m2

DirectionalDeformationRadial
This image cannot currently be display ed.

MaxDeformationvs time

Case10%Eccentricity
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Case250%Eccentricity

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VonMissesStress
MaxStressesvs time

Case10%Eccentricity
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Case250%Eccentricity

Results:Comparison
Highertheamountofeccentricity,higheristhevariationof electromagneticforces,causingdeformationofstator, vibrationandnoise

TotalDeformation
Deformationhigherforeccentric model

PeakStresses

Stressesattime=12ms

StatorStressesarenonsymmetricandhigherforeccentricmodelwheretheair gapisminimum

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Approach2LumpedForceMapping
ElectromagneticForces Exportforces ANSYS Maxwell LumpedForcesinTimeDomain PerformFFTinMaxwell Real/ImaginaryForces InFrequencyDomain APDLinWorkbench ANSYS Mechanical HarmonicResponse APDLinWorkbench ANSYS Acoustics
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Workbench FlowChartfor NoisePrediction

ExtractAcousticPressures

ANSYSHarmonicAnalysis

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ModalAnalysis:GetResonantFrequencies

Mode#1,8502Hz

Mode#2,8708Hz

Mode#3,8708Hz

FirstfourNaturalFrequencyand correspondingmodeshapes

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Mode#4,9080Hz

WhyHarmonicAnalysis
Tomakesurethatagivendesigncanwithstandsinusoidalloadsat differentfrequencies Todetectresonantresponseandavoiditifnecessary(e.g.using mechanicaldampers,changingPWMfrequency,etc.) TodetermineAcousticresponse

BoundaryConditions

InputForces

Applingharmonicforcesfrom MaxwellintoANSYSMechanical
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HarmonicResponse Bodeplot
Frequencyresponseataselectednodelocationofthemodel.

Helpsdeterminethat MaxAmplitude(1.7mm) occursat8710Hzonthe selectedvertex


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HarmonicResponse Contourplot
Amplitudedistributionofthedisplacementsataspecificfrequency,

Deformationplotat8710Hz

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ANSYSAcoustics

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AcousticsCapabilitiesinANSYS
Acousticsisthestudyofthegeneration,propagation,absorption,
andreflectionofsoundpressurewavesinanacousticmedium.

Acousticproblemscanbeidentifiedas
VibroAcoustics:Soundgeneratedstructurally(ANSYSMechanical) AeroAcoustics :Soundgeneratedaerodynamically(ANSYSCFD)

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ModelingAeroAcoustics(ANSYSCFD)
FreeSpaceProblemwithnosolidsurfaces:
soundgeneratedfromturbulence,jetnoise

FreeSpaceProblemwithsolidsurfaces:
Fannoise,airframenoise,rotornoise,boundarylayernoise, cavitynoise

Interiorproblem:
Ductnoise,mufflers,ductedfannoise

Soundpressurefluctuations
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VibroAcoustics(ANSYSMechanical)
Computingtheacousticfieldradiatedbyavibratingstructure StructuremodeledinANSYSMechanicalwherevibration patternsarecalculated(Modal,HarmonicAnalysis).Applied loadsareobtainedfromMaxwell. Vibrationpatternsusedasboundaryconditionstocompute acousticfieldradiatedbystructure(ANSYSMAPDL,ANSYS AcousticStructures)

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AcousticAnalysis PressurePlot
This image cannot currently be display ed.

This image cannot currently be display ed.

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AcousticAnalysis PressurePlot

0.5m

Pres_1

Pres_2

Pres_3

Pressurevs Freq

Pressure(Pa)

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Freq(Hz)

Summary
Investigateddifferentnoisesourcesforelectricmachines DemonstratedanintegratedapproachfromElectromagnetics
toStructuraltoAcoustics. Showedtheeffectsofstaticeccentricityonstatortoothforces, deformationandstresses. Performedmodalanalysistofindtheacousticresonances

FutureWork: Investigationofdifferentnoisescenarios(machinetypes,drives) Includemoremechanicaldetails(windings,housing,etc) Expandharmonicanalysistoincludehigherfrequencycontentofforces FurtherinvestigationofAeroacousticswithANSYSCFD

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References
[1] P.Vijayraghavan,R.Krishnan,Noiseinelectricmachines:AReview,IEEE,1998 [2] K.Shiohata,R.Kusama,S.Ohtsu,T.Iwatsubo,TheStudyonElectromagneticForceInducedVibrationandNoisefroma NormalandEccentricUniversalMotors,PIERSProceedings,2011. [3] S.Fink,S.Peters,AnsoftNoisePredictionforElectricalMotors,CADFEM/ANSYSPresentation,2011. [4] WeiWang,QuanfengLi,ZhihuanSong,ShenboYu,JianChen,RenyuanTang,ThreeDimensionalFieldCalculationand AnalysisofElectromagneticVibrationandNoiseforDiskPermanentMagnetSynchronousMachines,ShenyangUniversityof Technology,China. [5] R.Belmans,D.Verdyck,W.Geysen,R.Findlay,ElectroMechanicalAnalysisoftheAudibleNoiseofanInverterFedSquirrel CageInductionMotor,IEEE,2008. [6] M.Anwar,I.Husain,DesignPerspectivesofaLowAcousticNoiseSwitchedReluctanceMachine,IEEE,2000. [7] S.Huang,M.Aydin,T.A.Lipo,ElectronmagneticVibrationandNoiseAssessmentforSurfaceMountedPMMachines,IEEE, 2001. [8] RakibIslam,IqbalHussain,AnalyticalModelforPredictingNoiseandVibrationinPermanentMagnetSynchronousMotors, IEEE2009. [9] PragasenPillay,William(Wei)Cai,AnInvestigationintoVibrationinSwitchedReluctanceMotors,IEEETransactionson IndustryApplications,Vol.35,NO.3,May/June,1999.

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ThankYou

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ANSYSAcousticsStructure
ANSYSAcoustics Structurescomputes noiseradiatedby vibratingstructures. FromHarmonic Vibrations toNoise Estimates. ANSYSAcoustics Structuresintegrateswith yourcurrentsimulation tools.

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TitleandAbstract
ElectromagneticForceCouplinginElectricMachines IncludingStress,Deformation,andAcousticAnalysis. Understandingtheimpactofelectromagneticforceson noisegenerationforelectricmachinescanincludemany factors. Thispresentationwillreviewtheseissuesand illustrateelectromagneticforces,stress,deformation,and acousticcouplinginANSYSWorkbench. Anexample showingautomaticmappingofmagnetictimedomain forces,andacomparisonofstressesfordifferentrotor eccentricitieswillbeshown.
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PresentationOutline(Goal30totalSlides)
1. 2. Introduction Literaturereview whatarethenoisecomonents forelectricmachines
a. b. NoiseSources,examples AcousticDefinition,examples RMxprttoMaxwell,Simplorer Forcecalculations EccentricityModel

3.

EMMotorMethodology
a. b. c.

4.

MechanicalAnalysis
a. 2D(3D?)transientforcemappingresults b. DiscussionofFFTapproaches(byinspectionor3rd partytools/scripts) c. 2D(3D?)harmonicAnalysis

5.

Acousticanalysis
a. Generalcapabilities(acousticelements,Actran coupling?) b. Resultsforstatorlamination

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NoiseSources
Magnetic
Theinteractionofmagneticfieldsandcurrentsinthemachinecause electromagnetictorque andthusrotationoftherotor. Evaluationoftheradialandtangentialforcesonthetoothtipsareimportant. Thiscanbeaccomplishedthroughevaluationoftheairgapfluxdensity,orusing ForceDensityfieldcalculationsavailablewithinMaxwell. Ifoneoftheradialforcefrequenciescoincideswiththenaturalfrequency ofthe machine,resonanceoccursleadingtoacousticnoise. Mixedproductofstatorandrotorwindingspaceharmonics. SlotHarmonics RotorEccentricity:improperrotoralignmentcausingunbalancedmagnetic forcesonthestator. Laminationvibrationduetomagnetorestrictiveforces(worstwhennotstacked properly)

Electronic
40

Switchingnoise InverterPWMfrequenciescanbeinaudiblerange. ANSYS,Inc. October 24,2011 2011 Current through the winding Lorentzforces

NoiseSources
Mechanical
Selfresonance naturalresonancefrequencies Closedformequations FEA Loadinduced Couplingofmachinetoload,andmounting. Auxiliaries BearingVibration Brushcommutators Chattering Intralamination FunctionofBoltforce Involves3DMechanicaltransientvibrationanalysis Manufacturingasymmetriesoftherotorandstator nonuniformairgap Statorwindingwhicharenotinstalledproperly

AeroDynamics
41 2011ANSYS,Inc. October24,2011 ANSYSCFD

MachineModelinMaxwell
VBscriptFieldsCalculatortocreateRadialand TangentialForceExpressionsfrom EdgeForceDensity VBscriptCalculatesRadialandTangential ForceonToothTips Allowsonlyforceonedgethatneighborsnon ferrousobjects Halfteethforcecomponentsaddedtogether AddtoExpressionCache

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HarmonicAnalysisOverview
Atechniquetodeterminethesteadystateresponseofastructureto sinusoidal(harmonic)loadsofknownfrequency. Input: Harmonicloads(forces,pressures,andimposeddisplacements)ofknown magnitudeandfrequency. (ObtainedfromMaxwell) Maybemultipleloadsallatthesamefrequency. Output: HarmonicdisplacementsateachDOF,usuallyoutofphasewiththeapplied loads. Otherderivedquantities,suchasstressesandstrains.

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ANSYSAcoustics
Structuralbornenoise(onewayVibroAcoustics)
ANSYSAcousticsStructures(FFTsACTRANSolver)

VibroAcoustics
ANSYSMechanical(APDLSolver)

AeroAcoustics
ANSYSCFD

Nonlinearfluidstructureinteraction
ANSYSCFD+ANSYSMechanical

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AeroAcousticsANSYSCFDApproaches
Directcalculation:
ResolvetheacousticpressurefluctuationsaspartoftheCFD solution CoupleCFDwithspecializedacousticscodes,Boundary ElementMethods(BEM),Hybridzonalmethods AcousticwavesarenottrackedwithCDFsolution Calculatewavepropagationusingspecializedcodes(ACTRAN, SYSNOISE)

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AeroAcousticsimulationofAutomotive FrontEndModulecoolingfans
byusingFLUENTsAcousticmodule
CourtesyofHyundaiMOBIS,Korea

Computationaldomain GeometryofCoolingFans

PressureContours
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Soundpressure fluctuations FlowPathlines through calculatedatthe receiverposition

SubwooferExample(ANSYSCFD) (nonlinearfluidwithstructure)

FluidStructureInteractionSolution

TransientPressures

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Acoustic StructuralExample Coupled


AcousticEnergy Source TargetObject: NestedCylindrical Cans

ScatteredAcoustic Radiation

FEAModel quarterSymmetry Hemispherical Domain

AnimationofAcoustic Pressure(Pa)

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