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Vierendeel Bridge Grammene Belgium

Vierendeel girder and frame


Vierendeel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 1

Arthur Vierendeel (18521940) born in Leuven, Belgium was a university professor and civil engineer. The Vierendeel structure he developed was named after him. His work, Cours de stabilit des constructions (1889) was an important reference during more than half a century. His first bridge was built 1902 in Avelgen, crossing the Scheldt river

Vierendeel structures

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Berlin Pedestrian Bridge

Vierendeel structures

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Berlin HBF:

Vierendeel frame

Vierendeel elevator shaft

Vierendeel detail

Vierendeel structures

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Vierendeel girder and frame


Named after 19th century Belgian inventor, Vierendeel girders and frames are bending resistant
1 2 3 4 1-bay girder Gravity load Lateral load Articulated Inflection points 5 6 7 8 3-bay girder Gravity load Lateral load Articulated Inflection points 1 2 3 4 5 Base girder Global shear Global moment Bending Chord forces 6 7 8 9 10 Pin joints Strong web Strong chord Shear Chord shear One-way girders 1 Plain girder 2 Prismatic girder 3 Prismatic girder Space frames 4 2-way 5 3-way 6 3-D

Vierendeel structures

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Salk Institute, La Jolla Architect: Louis Kahn Engineer: Komendant and Dubin

Viernedeel girders of 65 span, provide adaptable interstitial space for evolving research needs

Perspective section and photo, courtesy Salk Institute


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Yale University Library Architect/Engineer: SOM 1 2 3 Vierendeel facade Vierendeel elements Cross section The library features five-story Vierndeel frames Four concrete corner columns support the frames Length direction span: 131 feet Width direction span: 80 feet Faades are assembled from prefab steel crosses welded together at inflection points The tapered crosses visualize inflection points

Vierendeel structures

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Commerzbank, Frankfurt Architect: Norman Foster Engineer: Ove Arup Floors between sky gardens are supported by eight-story high Vierendeel frames which also resist lateral load

Vierendeel structures

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Commerzbank, Frankfurt Architect: Norman Foster Engineer: Ove Arup Vierendeel elevation / plan

Vierendeel / floor girder

Vierendeel / floor girder joint detail

Vierendeel structures

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Vierendeel structures

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Vierendeel steel girder Assume: 10 tubing, allowable bending stress Fb = 0.6x46 ksi Girder depth d = 6, span 10 e = 10x10 DL= 18 psf LL = 12 psf = 30 psf Uniform load w = 30 psf x 20 / 1000 Joint load P = 0.6 x 10 Max shear V = 9 P/2 = 9 x 6/2 CHORD BARS Shear (2 chords) Vc = V/2 = 27/2 Chord bending (k) Mc = Vc e/2 = 13.5x5 Chord bending (k) Mc = 67.5 k x12 Moment of Inertia I = Mc c/Fb = 810 k x 5/27.6 ksi 2nd bay chord shear Vc = (VP)/2 = (27-6)/2 2nd chord bending Mc = Vc e/2 = 10.5 x 5 2nd chord bending Mc = 52.5 k x 12 WEB BAR (2nd web resists bending of 2 chords) Web bar bending Mw = Mc end bay + Mc 2nd bay Mw = 810 + 630 Moment of Inertia I = Mw c/Fb = 1440 k x 5/27.6 ksi
Vierendeel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Fb= 27.6 ksi L = 100

w = 0.6 klf P= 6 k V = 27 k Vc = 13.5 k Mc = 67.5 k Mc = 810 k I = 147 in4 Vc = 10.5 k Mc = 52.5 k Mc = 630 k Mw=1,440 k I = 261 in4
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Load

Shear

Bending

Chord bars Moment of Inertia required Use ST10x10x5/16

I= 147 in4 I= 183>147

Web bars Moment of Inertia required Use ST10x10x1/2

I= 261 in4 I= 271>261

Vierendeel structures

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14

Sport Center, University of California Davis Architect: Perkins & Will Engineer: Leon Riesemberg Given the residential neighborhood, a major objective was to minimize the building height by several means: The main level is 10 below grade Landscaped berms reduce the visual faade height Along the edge the roof is attached to bottom chords to articulates the faade and reduce bulk Assume Bar cross sections 16x16 tubing, 3/16 to 5/8 thick Frame depth d = 14 (max. allowed for transport) Module size: 21 x 21 x 14 ft Width/length: 252 x 315 ft Fb = 27.6 ksi Structural tubing Fb = 0.6 Fy = 0.6x46 ksi DL = 22 psf LL = 12 psf (60% of 20 psf for tributary area > 600 ft2) = 34 psf Note: two-way frame carries load inverse to deflection ratio: r = L14/(L14+L24) = 3154/(3154+2524) r = 0.71 Uniform load per bay w = 0.71 x 34 psf x 21/1000 w = 0.5 klf
Vierendeel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 15

Modules: 21x21x14

Design end chords Joint load P = w x 21 = 0.5klf x 21 P = 10.5 k Max. shear V = 11 P /2 = 11 x 10.5 / 2 V = 58 k Chord shear (2 chords) Vc = V/2 = 58 k / 2 Vc = 29 k Chord bending Mc = Vc e/2 = 29x 21x12/2 Mc= 3654 k Moment of Inertia required I = Mc c /Fb = 3654 x 8/27.6 ksi I = 1059 in4 Check mid-span compression Global moment M = 3969 k M = w L2/8 = 0.5 x 2522/8 Compression (d=1416=12.67) C = M/d= 3969 k/ 12.67 C = 313 k

Vierendeel structures

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16

Chord bars Moment of Inertia required Use ST16x16x1/2 Check mid-span chord stress Compression Allowable compression Note: End-bay bending governs

I= 1059 in4 I= 1200

C = 313 k Pall = 728 k 313 <<728

Vierendeel structures

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17

Commerzbank, Frankfurt Design edge girder Assume: Tributary area End bay width Loads: 70 psf DL+ 30 psf LL Allowable stress Fb =0.6 x36 Girder shear V = 60x20x 100 psf/1000 Bending moment M = V e/2 = 120x20/2 Required section modulus S = M/Fb = 1200 k x 12/ 21.6 ksi Use W40x192 Note: check also lateral load Variable bay widths equalize bending stress Load at corners increases stability

60x20 e = 20 =100 psf Fb = 21.6 ksi V = 120 k M = 1200 k S = 667 in3 S = 706 in3

Vierendeel structures

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18

Vierendeel steel girder Assume: 10 tubing, allowable bending stress Fb = 0.6x46 ksi Girder depth d = 6, span 10 e = 10x10 DL= 18 psf LL = 12 psf = 30 psf

Fb= 27.6 ksi L = 100

Uniform load w = 30 psf x 20 / 1000 w = 0.6 klf Joint load P = 0.6 x 10 P= 6 k Max shear V = 9 P/2 = 9 x 6/2 V = 27 k CHORD BARS Vc = 13.5 k Shear (2 chords) Vc = V/2 = 27/2 Chord bending Mc = Vc e/2 = 13.5 x (10x12)/ 2 Mc = 810 k Moment of Inertia I = Mc c/Fb = 810 k x 5/27.6 ksi I = 147 in4 2nd bay chord shear Vc = (VP)/2 = (27-6)/2 Vc = 10.5 k 2nd chord bending Mc = Vc e/2 = 10.5 x 120/2 Mc = 630 k WEB BAR (2nd web resists bending of 2 chords) Web bar bending Mw = Mc end bay + Mc 2nd bay Mw = 810 + 630 Mw=1,440 k Moment of Inertia I = Mw c/Fb = 1440 k x 5/27.6 ksi I = 261 in4
Vierendeel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 19

Commerzbank, Frankfurt Design edge girder Assume: Tributary area End bay width Loads: 70 psf DL+ 30 psf LL Allowable stress Fb =0.6 x36 Girder shear V = 60x20x 100 psf/1000 Bending moment M = V e/2 = 120x20/2 Required section modulus S = M/Fb = 1200 k x 12/ 21.6 ksi Use W40x192 Note: check also lateral load Variable bay widths equalize bending stress Load at corners increases stability

60x20 e = 20 =100 psf Fb = 21.6 ksi V = 120 k M = 1200 k S = 667 in3 S = 706 in3

Vierendeel structures

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Scheepsdale Revolving Bridge Bruges, Belgium 1933


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Railroad Bridge
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Dallvazza Bridge Swiss, 1925

Gellik Railroad Bridge Belgium

Anderlecht Railroad Bridge Belgium

Osera de Ebro Bridge, Zaragoza, Spain, 2002

Pedestrian Bridge
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Vierendeel Space Frame


Vierendeel structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 28

Vierendeel girder and frame endure


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