You are on page 1of 9

o

=
SmU, 01 PetrcMmErOma

lADC/SPE 35119 Field Examples of Gas Migration Rates


R.D. Grace,* Grace, Shursen, Moore & Assocs.,
SPE and IAOC Member and the pressure increases at the surface could not be relied
CopyWht 1993, IADCISPE DrIIlnw Confe,anc.s This paper was ~pafed fw prewnlatcm at Uw 1S% WCASPE NW Orleans, Lowmana, 12-15 Mardi 199s Onlllng Cmfweti held m

and J.L. Shursen,

Consultant

upon to properly behavior.

analyze

and predict

influx

migration

and

In an effort to further illuminate subject, this paper chronicles

this interesting and vital well-documented in-

Thm paper wss seklod fcf pmmantnbon by the bUIC/SPE Progmn Commttea follmwng review of mfonn8tmn ccmtdned m an ab$trsci wbrmttad by the author(6) Contents of I(W paper as presented have not W reviewed by the %.aety of Petro!wm Engmeera or the InmrnaucmalAssouahcm of OrillIcg Contractors and are sub)ed to correcocmby lm aulhor[a) The material, as presentec, @es not necassanly reffed any powtmn of the IADC or SPE, The!r offiis, C+memkers Papers p+esenwd at lAOC/SPE moatmgs are subjecf 10 pabltca. tmn revww by Edtooal Ccmmma of the IAOC and SPE Perrmsmon to CCPYIS re$mcfed to sn ebstrti of not mcfe than 300 wcfds Iltusfrabonsmay n.d be aped The abstract shoukt wfw presented Wnta cmlam WWXUJCWS achmwk@mwnt & where and by whom the pLkanan, SPE P O Box 8333.s3s Rchwdmn TX

several

stances of influx migration under a variety of conditions. Field Examples Example I One of the most interesting examples of influx migration, or the lack thereof, occurred at the E.N. Ross No. I near Jackson, Mississippi.3 was taken. While on a trip at 19,419 sour gas influx The feet with 17.4 ppg oil base mud, a 260-barrel

75083-3836 U,S.A

Introduction
In recent years gas migration rates have become the center of considerable feet per hour. controversy. Historically, field personnel have used a rule of thumb that gas migrated at the rate of 1000 Early basic research illustrated that the factors For exaffecting the rate of bubble rise were quite complex. influx, mud properties, the eccentricity

The top of the influx can be calculated to be at

13,274 feet with a shut-in surface pressure of 3700 psi. we Ilbore schematic is presented as Figure 1. Since the influx entered the wellbore

in a continuous However,

bubble and was significantly

less dense than the mud, it was

anticipated that the migration would occur rapidly.

ample, the rate of rise was affected by the properties of the of the hole, and the size of the annulus, to name a few. The rate of rise was also affected by the manner in which the influx entered the wellbore. ent than if the influx bubble, rf the influx was dispersed in as a continuous the mud as small bubbles, the rise characteristics were differentered the wellbore A dispersed influx generally migrated much slower

that was not the case as indicated by the fact the surface pressure remained essentially constant for the next 17 days while snubbing equipment was being rigged up. After 17 days, the surface pressure slowly began to decline to approximately 2000 psi. Migration is most often accomHowever, in this panied by an increase in surface pressure. instance, the influx was migrating the 9-5/8 inch casing. Therefore, surface pressure declined.

from the 7 inch liner into the influx shortened and the

than a continuous bubble. It was generally began to migrate expected and observed that as an influx toward the surface, the surface pressure changes in surface The incremental In addition,

As illustrated in Figure 2, the top analysis coninflux had mi-

of the influx reached 10,200 feet. Six days later, during snubbing operations, 10,200 feet, ExampIe [n a total of 23 days, a significant 2 firmed that the top of the influx was indeed at approximately grated a total of only 3274 feet. In this example, a directional well was being The plastic drilled with a I I.2 ppg gel polymer mud system. viscosity was 29 and the yield point was 29, The wellbore schematic is presented as Figure 3. As ilhrstrated, 7 inch casing had been set at 2610 meters and a 6 inch hole was being cored at 2777 meters measured depth, 2564 meters true vertical depth. The angle of the wellbore was 38 degrees at an azimuth of 91 degrees.

would begin to increase. the travel of the influx.

pressure were utilized to determine the rate of rise and predict these techniques were expand the influx, analyze the problem. used to model the well control problem, protect the casing shoe, and otherwise However,

in many instances, the variables were too complex

to permit accurate calculations and analyses in field operations and the old rules of thumb were utilized. Recently, additional research has been presented migration.2 that It challenges the traditional concepts of influx

was suggests that what had been done in the past was oflen in error, that the rate of rise was as high as 18,000 feet per hour,

621

FIELD EXAMPLES OF GAS MIGRATION RATES

IADCLSPE 35119

With the bit at 1884 meters on a trip out of the hole, the well kicked and was shut in. The kick occurred at 0700 hours and a 12 barrel influx was recorded. The shut-in drillpipe The top of pressure was 830 psi and the shut-in casing pressure was 1040 psi, Analysis of the pressure data was conclusive. the influx was at 1428 meters or 4685 feet. While operations

and funnel viscosity of 40 seconds per liter.

The drill string

was pulled to 757 meters where a gain of 3 barrels was observed. The well was shut in with a total of six barrels gained. The shut-in drillpipe and shut-in casing pressure were equal at 350 psi. The kelly was picked up, the choke opened, and the well circulated. When the well was shut in the second time, presthe total gain was 1I 5 barrels and the shut-in drillpipe sure and shut-in casing pressure were equal at 1350 psi, it seems ironic that the influx did not migrate when the top of the influx was only 1335 meters from the surface in 10. I

were being conducted to strip back to bottom, the influx migrated reaching the surface at 1030 hours for a migration rate of 1339 feet per hour. Example a 200-barrel 3 At the Santa Fe Energy Bilbrey4 (Figure 4), kick was taken while on a trip at 14,080 feet,

ppg mud. For three days attempts were made to lubricate mud
into the hole. ing to migrate. During the next 24 hours, the drill string was stripped back to the bottom of the hole. A total of 7 barrels of gas was bled from the annulus during the stripping process. The remainder of the gas was at total depth and had to be circulated to the surface. However, the shut-in surface pressures remained stable at 1320 psi indicating that the influx was refus-

The density of the dispersed water base mud was 11.7 ppg, As shown in Figure 4, the top of the influx was at 8442 feet, The kick occurred at 1600 hours, face at 1000 hours the following gration rate of approximately Calculations cated the influx was initially hour. Calculations near the end resulted Example considerable 4 The The influx reached the surmorning for an average mi-

47o feet per hour. moving at a rate of 290 feet per that the influx influx was

based upon the rate of pressure increase indibased upon incremental pressure increases in the estimation ability to

moving at a rate of 400 feet per hour. calculate behavior Texas, the based upon changes in surface pressure has been the subject of debate. At a blowout near Abilene, opportunity was presented to test these techniques as well as to observe the migration rate of the gas through water. The wellbore schematic is presented as Figure 5. The well was controlled ever, blowout. by pumping mud down the drillpipe. formations were supercharged Howthe the upper during

Summary and Conclusions


Influx migration is a complicated phenomena, As illustrated In most in these examples, the influx may or may not migrate.

instances, it can be anticipated that the influx will migrate and if it does migrate, its rate can and usually will vary throughout the process. Normally, the migration rate will increase as the influx approaches the surface. [t can generally be anticipated that the surface pressure will increase as the influx migrates toward the surface and the increase in surface pressure can be used to analyze the conditions in the wellbore. However, as illustrated in Example 1, it is possible that, depending on the geometry of the wellbore

During the kill operations, a hole developed in the

drillpipe at 980 feet. After any pumping operation, gas would enter the drillpipe and migrate to the surface. On one occasion, drillpipe, afler pumping fresh water down the On another the gas migrated to the surface in one hour and 15 water was pumped in four 2measured in

and the physical properties of the influx, the surface pressure can actually decrease as the influx migrates upward. [n the examples presented, the highest rate of migration was 1339 feet per hour, which was observed in the wellbore inclined to 38 degrees. In the vertical wells, the highest miOn gration rate observed was 784 feet per hour in fresh water.

minutes for a migration rate of 784 feet per hour. occasion, as the gas migrated, was noted.

barrel increments and the resulting change in surface pressure The volume of water was carefully the suction tank of a service company cement pump truck. Us the 4-% inch drillpipe, 142 feet of hydrostatic pumped. two barrels of water represents On each occasion, the and 122 psi.

two occasions, one in 17.4 ppg oil base mud and one in 10.7 ppg water base mud, the influx did not migrate. In the examples studied and presented, the surface pressures could be relied upon to predict influx behavior and migration rate. [n all cases, well control personnel must rely This analysis and model of the situation. upon the conditions at the well to make every effort to analyze and model the condition of the well. blowout and prevent further will serve as the best effort to react to the conditions of the deterioration Failure to do so can cause a serious well control problem to

surface pressure declined by 120 psi when two barrels were It should be noted that although the water being the other fluids in the wellbore The annulus contained some water, and cement. The compressible. gas, mud, pumped was incompressible, were extremely combination drillpipe gas. Lhample 5 The wellbore schematic for the next example is presented as Figure 6. As illustrated, 7 inch casing was set at 2266 meters. After coring to a total depth of 2337 meters in 6 inch hole, a trip was commenced to retrieve the core. The gel polymer mud density was 10. I ppg, plastic viscosity 14 centipoise, yield point 16 pounds force per 100 square feet, of oil,

below 980 feet contained water, cement, mud, and

further deteriorate into a major disaster. References 1. Rader,

D.

W.,

Bourgoyne,

A.

T.

and

Ward,

R.

H.,

Factors Affecting

Bubble Rise Velocity

of Gas Kicks,

622

lADC/SPE 35119

R.D. GRACE

Journal of Petroleum 585,

Technology

May

1975, pages 571-

2. Tarvin, J. A., et. at., Gas Rises Rapidly Through Drilling Mud, IADC/SPE Drilling 1994. Alternative in Well Control, Conference, February 1994. Gulf 3. Grace, R. D., ~, Publishing Company, cation A Viable

4. Grace, R. D., Burton, Mike, and Cudd, Bob: Mud LubriSPE/IADC Well Control Conference. 1995.

S1 Metric Conversion Factora E-03 Cp x 1.0 E-01 ft X 3.048 E-02 ft x 9.290304 E-02 ft3 x 2,831685 E+OO in x 2,54*
Convmton faaof IS exact

= Pa. s = m = m3 = m3 . cm

623

Ps -3.700

psi

65 feet

Top of Liner at 13,9 eet

TD -

E. N. ROSS No. 2 Conditions after L


624

initial kick

Figure

Ps -1.961 @

20 inch conductor pipe Se~ at 70 feet Top of Cement at 850 feet

F
G

13 3/8 \

inch cosing set at 5,465

feet

)
/ <

u
D . . . . . . . . . ..,..

Top of Gos at 0,200

feet

/ / / G A Bubble height -3,678 \ feet

s
) Top of Liner at 13, .928 feet / / / / / .......... 17.4 F G M :

9 5/8

inch cosing set at 14,319 feet

\ > Top of fish at 18.046 7 5/8


feet

inch Liner at 18,.245 feet

H TD -0, ,4t9 feel

End of fish at 19.140 feet

E. N. Ross No. 2 Bubble migrotion Figure 2


625

,,
ShuL Pressure = 840 PS1 in Drillplpe A

Shut_ = 1040

In

Laslng
PSI

Pressure

JEnd 1887 of S+_ring ~ met_ers

.cj
Mud 11,2 ppg

12

Barrel

Gain

inch

casing met_ers

2610

ToLal aL Figure 3 38

DePLh degrees

2777

meLers

626

WELL BORE SCHEMATIC WITH IN FLUX SANTA FE ENERGY CO. BI LBREY 28-A FEDERAL NO. I LEA COUNTY NEW MEXICO NOVEMBER 1989
FIGIJRE . . d

J
BIT AT 1494

9,
MUD GAS L
I I

Xf

SURFACE PRESS Pt = 2700 PSI 13 3/8 AT 626

9 5/0

AT 4650

MuD DENSITY Pm =II,7VGAL

TOC

5500

TOP OF GAS INFLUX


WITH B422 200 BBL GAIN

FG .13.5*/GAL

7 AT 12,097

DST
SIBHP

13,913
PSI PSI FTP =8442

Q= 10 m AT 5100

TOTAL

OEPTH

14,080

627

Bridge

8 Ho .e in

5/8

inch FeeL

Cas lr lg

Drlllplpe (Q 980 Feet

Q! 720

T Figure
628

DePLh

4583

feet

ShutPressure = 1320

in

Drlllplpe A PS1

)(
Mud 101

Shut 1320

In

Casing

Pressure

PS1

End 757

of

SLrlng

met_ers

ppg
TOP of Gas 1335 mel_ers

115 Barrel

Gain

Gas

Inch

2266

meters

ToLal

DePLh

2337

met_ers

lgure b

629