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INTRODUCTION1.1 Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Voice over Internet Protocol is a general term for a family of t r a n s m i s s i o n technologies for delivery of voice communications over internet protocol networks such ast h e i n t e r n e t o r o t h e r p a c k e t - s w i t c h e d n e t w o r k s . O t h e r t e r m s frequently encountered andsynonymous with voice over internet protocol are internet protocol telephony, internettelephony, voice over broadband, broadband t e l e p h o n y , a n d b r o a d b a n d p h o n e . i n t e r n e t telephony refers to communications services voice, facsimile, and/or voice-messagingapplications that are transported via the internet, rather than the public switched telephone network.The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephone call are conversion of theanalog voice signal to digital format and compression/translation of the signal into internet protocol packets for transmission over the internet; the process is reversed at the receivingend. Voice over internet protocol systems employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of calls as well as audio codecs which encode speech allowingtransmission over an internet protocol network as digital audio via an audio stream. Codecuse is varied between different implementations of voice over internet protocol (and often arange of codecs are used); some implementations rely on narrowband and compressedspeech, while others support high fidInternet protocol instead of traditional analog systems. Some voice over internet p r o t o c o l s e r v i c e s n e e d o n l y a r e g u l a r p h o n e connection, while others allow you to maketelephone calls using an Internet c o n n e c t i o n i n s t e a d . S o m e v o i c e o v e r i n t e r n e t p r o t o c o l services may allow you only to call other people using the same service, but others may allowyou to call any telephone number - including local, long distance, wireless, and internationalnumbers. Voice over internet protocol is mainly concerned with the realization of telephone s e r v i c e o v e r i n t e r n e t p r o t o c o l - b a s e d n e t w o r k s s u c h a s t h e i n t e r n e t a n d i n t r a n e t . I n t e r n e t protocol telephony is currently breaking through to become one of the most important serviceon the net. The actual breakthrough was made possible by the high bandwidth available in anintranet and, increasingly, on the internet. Another fundamental reason is the cost associated with the various implementations.

A s i a n e t S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s L t d . P a g e |2 The public telephone network and the equipment makes it possible are taken f o r granted in most parts of the world. Availability of a telephone and access to low-cost, highquality worldwide network is considered to be essential in modern society (telephone areeven expected to work when the power off).There is, however, a paradigm shift beginning too c c u r s i n c e m o r e a n d m o r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s i n d i g i t a l f o r m a n d t r a n s p o r t e d v i a p a c k e t networks such as internet protocoland Frame Relay frames. Since data traffic, there has beenc o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t r a n s p o r t i n g v o i c e o v e r d a t a n e t w o r k s . S u p p o r t f o r v o i c e communications using the internet protocol, which is usually just called Voice over internet protocol or voice over internet protocol, has become especially attractive given the low-cost,flat-rate pricing of the public Internet. In fact, toll quality telephony over internet protocol hasnow become one of the key steps leading to the convergence of the voice, video, and datacommunications industries. The feasibility of carrying voice and signaling message over theinternet has already been demonstrated but delivering high-quality commercial products,establishing public services, and convincing users to buy into the vision are just beginning. Definition Voice over internet protocol can be defined as the ability to make telephone calls and t o s e n d facsimiles over internet protocol- based data networks with a suitable quality of service and a much superior cost/benefit. Equipment producers see Voice over i n t e r n e t protocol as a new opportunity to innovate and copete. The challenge for then is turning thisv i s i o n i n t o r e a l i t y b y q u i c k l y d e v e l o p i n g n e w v o i c e o v e r i n t e r n e t p r o t o c o l - e n a b l e d equipment. For Internet service providers, the possibility of introducing usage-based pricing a n d i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r t r a f f i c v o l u m e s i s v e r y a t t r a c t i v e . U s e r s a r e s e e k i n g n e w t y p e s o f integrated voice/data applications as well as cost benefits. Successfully delivering voice over packet networks presents a tremendous opportunity;

however, implementing the products is not as straightforward a task as it may first appear. This document examines the technologies,infrastructures, software, and systems that will be necessary to realize voice over internet protocol on a large scale. The types of applications that will both drive the market and benefitthe most from the convergence of voice and data networks will be identified. History of Voice Over Internet Protocol

A s i a n e t S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s L t d . P a g e |3 Voice over Internet Protocol owes its existence to the difference in price b e t w e e n long-distance connections and the use of data networks. This technology uses data networkss u c h a s t h e I n t e r n e t t o t r a n s m i t v o i c e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a s i m p l e P C . A t e l e p h o n e conversation is conducted via microphone and loudspeaker connected to the sound card.Microsoft NetMeeting is the most c o m m o n I n t e r n e t t e l e p h o n y p r o g r a m . I t s f e a t u r e s a l s o include Internet video communication (image telephony). Or, a specially adapter can be used t o h o o k s t a n d a r d telephones up to the data network. All devices that support the s a m e standard can be connected over one data network. Gateways are also available for connectingthese devices totelephones in the normal telephone network. These possibilities have led to the creation of IP- based telephone systems using voice over internet protocol