You are on page 1of 4

1. When rock inside the Earth becomes hot enough, it melts.

This molten rock, or magma, is less dense than the surrounding solid rock. Just as an object that is less dense than water will float on the water, the relatively low density of the magma causes it to rise to the surface of the Earth. In the most common form of volcanism, the type caused by plate subduction, the magma rises and pools into areas beneath the surface called magma chambers. If the pressure continues to increase on the magma within the chamber, it may eventually breach the surface in an eruption. The eruption ceases when the magma chamber is fully or partially emptied, and the process of filling the chamber will begin again (so the process of eruption may occur again). Fissure eruptions occur as a result of a process of convection in the asthenosphere. Heated rock rises in the mantle, melts from decompression, and fills in the gaps created in the crustal rock at divergent plate boundaries. The mid-ocean ridge, the world's longest mountain range, is created from fissure eruptions. 'Hot spot' volcanoes (as in the Hawaiian Island Chain) erupt from a constant stream of molten material from a specific point in the Earth's mantle which remains constant as the plates move slowly across it. Eruptions here will be slow and fairly steady as the source and pressure of the magma is constant. The magma that flows from a chamber may harden to form a "plug" or a dome. This kind of structure may enlarge or be pushed upward when the magma cannot freely flow out. The pressure on these rocks is one factor that is monitored by vulcanologists when forecasting the possibility of another eruption from an existing volcano Eruptions in the deep ocean differ from eruptions on land for several reasons. The deep ocean eruptions are often tmes and depending on cause as well as location from basaltic magma. This type of magma is not known for its explosivity. The magma is the type that build the hawaiian volcanoes and more or less when erupting flows (Although it is capable of explosive eruptions). The other major factor is for an explosive eruption to be generated the magma must be very viscous to allow the build up of gas bubbles. The second half and what actually causes the explosive eruption is the explosive release of this gas. When an eruption occurs in the deep ocean it is not explosive due to the fact that the gas cannot decompress from the magma explosively due to the extreme pressures exerted by the water at such depth. Even if it were the right type of volcano that could generate explosive eruptions with the pressure it would be unable to do such a thing. Volcanoes form at both convergent and divergent boundaries. At convergent boundaries (except those involving two continental plates) one plate slides under another, introducing volatiles into the mantle, which allows some of it to melt and rise to form volcanoes. At divergent plate boundaries the young, thin crust reduces pressure on the upper mantle, reducing melting points and allowing magma to form. However, most volcanoes at divergent boundaries are deep underwater and so they usually are not noticed. When lava hits water it is cooled quickly, which makes it look very dark and have a glass like appearance. It is the same with most extrusive igneous rocks, meaning rock that is made from molten rock material (lava or magma) that cools on the surface of Earth, rather than underneath Earth. Because of the plate boundaries rubbing against each other, moving apart, or one going under the other. When they rub against each other and when on moves under the other, they create friction which causes earthquakes. And when they move apart, magma seeps through the gaps which the plate boundaries are moving apart from each other, and form volcanoes. Also when one plate boundaries goes under another, the one going underneath starts to turn into magma, which creates more pressure in the volcanoes nearby, which forces magma up and causes an eruption. Movement of high pressure magma underground typically occurs before a volcanic eruption. This magma is under such a high pressure that it can cause hydraulic fracturing of the surrounding rocks and even bulging of the crust. Both these events will release seismic waves (cause earthquakes). All these data help geologists predict that an eruption is about to occur. Generally, when a volcano produces a gentle eruption the lava has a very low viscosity (it is very runny). This allows the lava to spread out quickly after it has exited the volcano but before it cools and hardens. This means that the lava







will be able to spread further from the eruption site and thus gentle slopes are created. In a strong eruption, lava with a higher-viscosity is thrown out along with some rock fragments, this lava cannot flow as far away before it cools and so the volcano has steep slopes. 8. Different types of volcanoes erupt differently due to different compositions of the magma chambers as well as differnt magma types being present within the volcanoes. The three main types of magma are Basalt, Andesite, and Rhyolite. These erupt in very different manners. Basalt - Basalt eruptions are ften known as Hawaiian style eruptions, they are categorized by curtains of fire and long rift zones. The magma itself is very fluid in nature, it does not readily trap gasses to explosive levels and therefore has very placid and erupts in flows and layers. Volcanoes of this type are known as shield volcanoes. Andesite - This is an intermediate magma in its viscosity, it will flow but not as well as basalt does. This magma also has the ability to trap dissolved gasses to explosive levels. It is an intermediate viscosity and a volcano of this type would be a stratovolcano or cinder cones. Rhyolite - The most viscous basic form of magma, it does not want to flow and will build into lava domes around active vents. This magma is known for its ability to drive very powerful explosions through its ability to maintian dissolved gas and only let it escape through explosive decompression. A volcano of this type can be a Stratovolcano or a Caldera. No sometimes Magma will come through cracks in the ground and rock. Before an eruption occurs molten rocks rise up into chambers near the surface, causing the ground surface to bulge slightly.This causes Mini-Earthquakes near the volcano. Volcanoes can be beneficial to folks, not only in improving agriculture or as an energy source, but also economically in business opportunities and recreation and tourism ... includes Fertile Soils, Geothermal Energy, Mineral Resources, Industrial Products, Business Opportunities, Spas and Resorts, Recreation and Tourism Lahars are commonly initiated by: 1) large landslides of water-saturated debris, 2) heavy rainfall eroding volcanic deposits, 3) sudden melting of snow and ice near a volcanic vent by radiant heat or on the flanks of a volcano by pyroclastic flows, or 4) breakout of water from glaciers, crater lakes, or from lakes dammed by volcanic eruptions. Pyroclastic flows can be extremely destructive and deadly because of their high temperature and mobility. During the 1902 eruption of Mont Pelee (Martinique, West Indies), for example, a nuee ardente demolished the coastal city of St. Pierre, killing nearly 30,000 inhabitants. -- From: Tilling, 1990, The Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Past, Present, and Future: USGS General Interest Publication. Scientists use the term magma for molten rock underground and lava for molten rock (and contained gases) that breaks through the Earth's surface. Originating many tens of miles beneath the ground, magma commonly contains some crystals, fragments of surrounding (unmelted) rocks, and dissolved gases, but it is primarily a liquid composed principally of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, titanium, and manganese. Lava is red hot when it pours or blasts out of a vent but soon changes to dark red, gray, black, or some other color as it cools and solidifies. Very hot, gas-rich lava containing abundant iron and magnesium is fluid and flows like hot tar, whereas cooler, gas-poor lava high in silicon, sodium, and potassium flows sluggishly, like thick honey in some cases or in others like pasty, blocky masses. -- From: Tilling, Heliker, and Wright, 1987, Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future: USGS General Interest Publication and Tilling, 1985, Volcanoes: USGS General Interest Publication. More than 80 percent of the Earth's surface -- above and below sea level -- is of volcanic origin. Gaseous emissions from volcanic vents over hundreds of millions of years formed the Earth's earliest oceans and atmosphere, which supplied the ingredients vital to evolve and sustain life. Over geologic eons, countless volcanic eruptions have produced mountains, plateaus, and plains, which subsequent erosion and weathering have sculpted into majestic landscapes and formed fertile soils. -- From: Tilling, 1985, Volcanoes: USGS General Interest Publication. The violent separation of gas from lava may produce rock froth called pumice. Some of this froth is so light -- because of the many gas bubbles -- that it floats on water. -- From: Tilling, 1985, Volcanoes: USGS General Interest Publication. The steeper the subduction angle, the closer the arc will be to the trench. This is controlled by the age of the oceanic crust being subducted where in general the older the crust, the cooler and more dense it will be and so less buoyant and will sink more steeply. Volcanoes are usually less dangerous than other natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes. Volcanoes have a serious of hazards (e.g. lava flows, ash fall, pyroclastic flows, climate changes on a global scale) that

9. 10. 11.





16. 17.


relate into different dangers or risks. The risks when visiting an active volcano depend on which risk zones of the volcano are visited and for how long. 19. When there are no signs of an active magma chamber beneath the volcano (no unusual seismic activity, no volcanic gasses escaping etc.), and when there hasn't been any activity for a long time span (at least 10,000 years). 20. An active volcano is a volcano that has had at least one eruption during the past 10,000 years. An active volcano might be erupting or dormant. An erupting volcano is an active volcano that is having an eruption... A dormant volcano is an active volcano that is not erupting, but supposed to erupt again. An extinct volcano has not had an eruption for at least 10,000 years and is not expected to erupt again in a comparable time scale of the future. 21. Both volcanoes and geysers depend on a strong heat source in the underground, but they have completely different mecanisms. A geyser is a phenomenon on the surface, where ground water beneath the shallow surface is heated up until it explodes into boiling water and steam and then refills its plumbing system with fresh water, so that a new cycle can start. Geysers don't need to be at a volcano, but almost always occur in volcanic regions close to a volcano. A volcano does not need to have geysers around. 22. The United States and its territories contain 169 geologically active volcanoes, of which 54 volcanoes are a very high or high threat to public safety [National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS)]. Many of these volcanoes have erupted in the recent past and will erupt again in the foreseeable future. As populations increase, areas near volcanoes are being developed and aviation routes are increasing. As a result, more people and property are at risk from volcanic activity. Future eruptions could affect hundreds of thousands of people. To help prevent loss of life and property, the U.S. Geological Survey and its partners monitor these volcanoes, and issue warnings of impending eruptions. Real-time monitoring of volcanoes, with the use of volcano seismology, gas, thermal, and surface deformation measurements, permits scientists to anticipate with varying degrees of certainty, the style and timing of an eruption. While our present state of knowledge does not allow us to predict the exact time and place of eruptions, we can detect changes from usual behavior that precede impending eruptions. We communicate these changes in our volcano updates. The information in the volcano updates allows scientists, public officials, and people in communities at risk to make preparations that can reduce losses during an eruption. Because volcanoes can erupt with little warning, continuous monitoring is important even if a volcano is not showing signs of activity. 23. USGS scientists use instruments in the field and mounted on aircraft and satellites to measure surface temperatures and geothermal heat flux and look for thermal anomalies that may be precursor to an eruption or indicative of significant changes during an on-going eruption. Satellite-based thermal measurements can be made on a regular basis for near-real time thermal monitoring of any volcano in the world. Higher-resolution field-based and aircraftbased thermal measurements can be made episodically to understand the spatial details of thermal features. 24. By installing seismometers that send information continuously via radio to a central recording site (observatory), scientists can determine the sizes and locations of earthquakes near a volcano. They look for specific types of earthquakes that are often associated with volcanic activity, including long- period volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor. For more information, please see Monitoring Volcano Seismicity in our Activity Section. 25. Ground deformation (swelling, subsidence, or cracking) is measured with a variety of techniques, including Electronic Distance Meters (EDM), the Global Positioning System (GPS), precise leveling surveys, strainmeters, and tiltmeters. EDMs use lasers to accurately measure changes in distance between benchmarks (fixed points) with repeated measurements. GPS makes use of satellites orbiting the Earth to determine and track the locations of points. Strainmeters and tiltmeters are used to monitor subtle changes in shape of the ground surface. For more information, please see Monitoring Volcano Ground Deformation in our Activity Section. 26. Instruments to measure sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide can be mounted in aircraft to determine the quantity of gas being emitted on a daily basis. Such instruments can also be used in a ground-based mode. An instrument that detects carbon dioxide can be installed on a volcano and configured to send data continuously via radio to an observatory. Sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds can also be measured from space with instruments aboard satellites. For more information, please see Monitoring Volcanic Gases in our Activity Section. 27. Common symptoms of volcanic unrest include an increase in the frequency or intensity of earthquakes beneath a volcano; the occurrence of volcanic tremor; swelling, subsidence, or cracking of the ground; increased steam emission or small steam explosions; temperature changes as indicated by melting snow or ice; changes in existing fumaroles or

hot springs, or the appearance of new ones; and increased discharge of magmatic gases. Volcanologists assess the significance of volcanic unrest partly by monitoring the pace and intensity of such activity. It is important to remember that volcanic unrest is common and most times unrest does not lead to eruptions. By studying past unrest and eruptions, scientists can better figure out what might happen next at that volcano. 28. Yes. A variety of earthquake types can occur at a volcano that is getting ready to erupt. These include earthquakes caused by rocks breaking along faults or fractures, termed tectonic-type earthquakes. Another common type a longperiod or volcanic earthquake. These can occur when bubble-filled magma is on the move beneath a volcano. The differences between tectonic- type and volcanic-type earthquakes are so subtle that they can be distinguished only by using seismometers. 29. There are a few historic examples of simultaneous eruptions from volcanoes or vents located within about 10 km of each other, but it's very difficult to determine whether one might have caused the other. To the extent that these erupting volcanoes or vents have common or overlapping magma reservoirs and hydrothermal systems, magma rising to erupt from one volcano may effect the other volcano's "plumbing" system and cause some form of unrest, including eruptions. For example, the huge explosive eruption of Novarupta vent in Alaska triggered the summit of nearby Mt. Katmai volcano to collapse, thereby forming a new caldera (but no eruption!). For a few of the historic examples of simultaneous eruptions from nearby volcanoes, scientists actually consider the individual volcanoes or vents to be part of a larger volcano complex consisting of overlapping stratovolcanoes, cinder cones, fissures, vents, and even calderas. In such cases, the erupting vents (or volcano) are actually part of the same volcano complex. For example, Tavurvur and Vulcan cones that erupted at nearly the same time in September 1994 are vents located within Rabaul Caldera in Papua New Guinea. In such cases, one eruption does not really "trigger" a nearby vent to erupt; instead, moving magma "leaks" to the surface at multiple sites. In contrast to these examples of simultaneous eruptions at volcanoes with overlapping or related magma and hydrothermal systems, two of Earth's most active volcanoes that are located close to each other -- Mauna Loa and Kilauea in Hawaii -- have separate shallow magma reservoirs that don't seem to affect each other. Even though Kilauea Volcano is located on the southeastern flank of Mauna Loa (the summit calderas are only 33 km apart) and magma rising into both volcanoes originates from the same mantle hot spot, the chemistry of their magma is nevertheless distinct from each other. Furthermore analysis of the timing of historic eruptions strongly suggests that an eruption at one volcano does not cause or trigger an eruption at the other volcano. For more information here are a few examples of simultaneous eruptions from nearby volcanoes or vents. 30. Yes. Crater lakes atop volcanoes are typically the most acid, with pH values as low as 0.1 (very strong acid). Normal lake waters, in contrast, have relatively neutral pH values near 7.0. The crater lake at El Chichon volcano in Mexico had a pH of 0.5 in 1983 and Mount Pinatubo's crater lake had a pH of 1.9 in 1992. The acid waters of these lakes are capable of causing burns to human skin but are unlikely to dissolve metal quickly. Gases from magma that dissolve in lake water to form such acidic brews include carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. However, the movie's rapidly formed acidic lake capable of dissolving an aluminum boat in a matter of minutes is unrealistic.