Complete formulas for basic math
Algebra
Trigonometry
Trigonometric Identies
Analytic Geometry
Solid Mensuration
Differential and Integral Calculus\

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Complete formulas for basic math
Algebra
Trigonometry
Trigonometric Identies
Analytic Geometry
Solid Mensuration
Differential and Integral Calculus\

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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LOGARITHM

x

b

b N N x log

Properties

1 log

log

log

log

log log

log log log

log log ) log(

,

_

+

a

b

x

x

x n x

y x

y

x

y x xy

a

b

n

REMAINDER AND FACTOR THEOREMS

Given:

) (

) (

r x

x f

Remainder Theorem: Remainder = f(r)

Factor Theorem: Remainder = zero

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

A

AC B B

Root

C Bx Ax

2

4

0

2

2

t

+ +

Sum of the roots = - B/A

Products of roots = C/A

MIXTURE PROBLEMS

Quantity Analysis: A + B = C

Composition Analysis: Ax + By = Cz

WORK PROBLEMS

Rate of doing work = 1/ time

Rate x time = 1 (for a complete job)

Combined rate = sum of individual rates

Man-hours (is always assumed constant)

2

2 2

1

1 1

. .

) )( ker (

. .

) )( ker (

work of quantity

time s Wor

work of quantity

time s Wor

ALGEBRA 2

UNIFORM MOTION PROBLEMS

Vt S

Traveling with the wind or downstream:

2 1

V V V

total

+

Traveling against the wind or upstream:

2 1

V V V

total

DIGIT AND NUMBER PROBLEMS

+ + u t h 10 100 2-digit number

where: h = hundreds digit

t = tens digit

u = units digit

CLOCK PROBLEMS

where: x = distance traveled by the

minute hand in minutes

x/12 = distance traveled by the hour

hand in minutes

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PROGRESSION PROBLEMS

a

1

= first term

a

n

= n

th

term

a

m

= any term before a

n

d = common difference

S = sum of all n terms

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION (AP)

- difference of any 2 no.s is constant

- calcu function: LINEAR (LIN)

] ) 1 ( 2 [

2

) (

2

,...

) (

1

1

2 3 1 2

d n a

n

S

a a

n

S

etc a a a a d

d m n a a

n

m n

+

+

+

GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION (GP)

- RATIO of any 2 adj, terms is always constant

- Calcu function: EXPONENTIAL (EXP)

<

<

>

n r

r

a

S

r

r

r a

S

r

r

r a

S

a

a

a

a

r

r a a

n

m n

m n

n

& 1

1

1

1

) 1 (

1

1

) 1 (

1

1

1

2

3

1

2

HARMONIC PROGRESSION (HP)

- a sequence of number in which their reciprocals

form an AP

- calcu function: LINEAR (LIN)

Mean middle term or terms between two terms

in the progression.

COIN PROBLEMS

Penny = 1 centavo coin

Nickel = 5 centavo coin

Dime = 10 centavo coin

Quarter = 25 centavo coin

Half-Dollar = 50 centavo coin

DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS

If the number of equations is less than the

number of unknowns, then the equations are

called Diophantine Equations.

ALGEBRA 3

Fundamental Principle:

If one event can occur in m different ways, and

after it has occurred in any one of these ways, a

second event can occur in n different ways, and

then the number of ways the two events can

occur in succession is mn different ways

PERMUTATION

Permutation of n objects taken r at a time

)! (

!

r n

n

nP

r

Permutation of n objects taken n at a time

! n nP

n

Permutation of n objects with q,r,s, etc. objects

are alike

!... ! !

!

s r q

n

P

Permutation of n objects arrange in a circle

)! 1 ( n P

n

th

term

Common

difference

Sum of ALL

terms

Sum of ALL

terms

Sum of ALL

terms, r >1

Sum of ALL

terms, r < 1

n

th

term

ratio

Sum of ALL

terms,

r < 1 , n =

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COMBINATION

Combination of n objects taken r at a time

! )! (

!

r r n

n

nC

r

Combination of n objects taken n at a time

1

n

nC

Combination of n objects taken 1, 2, 3n at a

time

1 2

n

C

BINOMIAL EXPANSION

Properties of a binomial expansion: (x + y)

n

1. The number of terms in the resulting expansion is

equal to n+1

2. The powers of x decreases by 1 in the

successive terms while the powers of y increases

by 1 in the successive terms.

3. The sum of the powers in each term is always

equal to n

4. The first term is x

n

while the last term in y

n

both

of the terms having a coefficient of 1.

r

th

term in the expansion (x + y)

n

r

th

term = nC

r-1

(x)

n-r+1

(y)

r-1

term involving y

r

in the expansion (x + y)

n

y

r

term = nC

r

(x)

n-r

(y)

r

sum of coefficients of (x + y)

n

Sum = (coeff. of x + coeff. of y)

n

sum of coefficients of (x + k)

n

Sum = (coeff. of x + k)

n

(k)

n

PROBABILITY

Probability of an event to occur (P)

outcomes total

outcomes successful of number

P

_

_ _ _

Probability of an event not to occur (Q)

Q = 1 P

MULTIPLE EVENTS

Mutually exclusive events without a common

outcome

P

A or B

= P

A

+ P

B

Mutually exclusive events with a common

outcome

P

A or B

= P

A

+ P

B

P

A&B

Dependent/Independent Probability

P

AandB

=P

A

P

B

REPEATED TRIAL PROBABILITY

P = nC

r

p

r

q

n-r

p = probability that the event happen

q = probability that the event failed

VENN DIAGRAMS

Venn diagram in mathematics is a diagram

representing a set or sets and the logical,

relationships between them. The sets are drawn

as circles. The method is named after the British

mathematician and logician John Venn.

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PLANE

TRIGONOMETRY

ANGLE, MEASUREMENTS &

CONVERSIONS

1 revolution = 360 degrees

1 revolution = 2 radians

1 revolution = 400 grads

1 revolution = 6400 mils

1 revolution = 6400 gons

Relations between two angles (A & B)

Complementary angles A + B = 90

Supplementary angles A + B = 180

Explementary angles A + B = 360

Angle () Measurement

NULL = 0

ACUTE 0 < < 90

RIGHT = 90

OBTUSE 90 < < 180

STRAIGHT =180

REFLEX 180 < < 360

FULL OR PERIGON = 360

Pentagram golden triangle (isosceles)

36

72 72

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

A

A

A

A

A

A

A A A

B A A

B A

B A

B A

B A

B A

B A

B A B A B A

B A B A B A

A A

A A

A A

cot 2

1 cot

2 cot

tan 1

tan 2

2 tan

sin cos 2 cos

cos sin 2 2 sin

cot cot

1 cot cot

) cot(

tan tan 1

tan tan

) tan(

sin sin cos cos ) cos(

sin cos cos sin ) sin(

sec tan 1

csc cot 1

1 cos sin

2

2 2

2

2 2

2 2

2

2

t

t

t

t

t

t t

+

+

+

m

m

m

SOLUTIONS TO OBLIQUE TRIANGLES

SINE LAW

C

c

B

b

A

a

sin sin sin

COSINE LAW

a

2

= b

2

+ c

2

2 b c cos A

b

2

= a

2

+ c

2

2 a c cos B

c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

2 a b cos C

AREAS OF TRIANGLES AND

QUADRILATERALS

TRIANGLES

1. Given the base and height

bh Area

2

1

2. Given two sides and included angle

sin

2

1

ab Area

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3. Given three sides

2

) )( )( (

c b a

s

c s b s a s s Area

+ +

4. Triangle inscribed in a circle

r

abc

Area

4

5. Triangle circumscribing a circle

rs Area

6. Triangle escribed in a circle

) ( a s r Area

QUADRILATERALS

1. Given diagonals and included angle

sin

2

1

2 1

d d Area

2. Given four sides and sum of opposite angles

2

2 2

cos ) )( )( )( (

2

d c b a

s

D B C A

abcd d s c s b s a s Area

+ + +

3. Cyclic quadrilateral is a quadrilateral

inscribed in a circle

) ( 4

) )( )( (

2

) )( )( )( (

Area

bc ad bd ac cd ab

r

d c b a

s

d s c s b s a s Area

+ + +

+ + +

+ bd ac d d

2 1

Ptolemys Theorem

4. Quadrilateral circumscribing in a circle

rs Area

2

d c b a

s

abcd Area

+ + +

THEOREMS IN CIRCLES

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SIMILAR TRIANGLES

2 2 2 2

2

1

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

h

H

c

C

b

B

a

A

A

A

SOLID GEOMETRY

POLYGONS

3 sides Triangle

4 sides Quadrilateral/Tetragon/Quadrangle

5 sides Pentagon

6 sides Hexagon

7 sides Heptagon/Septagon

8 sides Octagon

9 sides Nonagon/Enneagon

10 sides Decagon

11 sides Undecagon

12 sides Dodecagon

15 sides Quidecagon/ Pentadecagon

16 sides Hexadecagon

20 sides Icosagon

1000 sides Chillagon

Let: n = number of sides

= interior angle

= exterior angle

Sum of interior angles:

S = n = (n 2) 180

Value of each interior angle

n

n ) 180 )( 2 (

Value of each exterior angle

n

360

180

Sum of exterior angles:

S = n = 360

Number of diagonal lines (N):

) 3 (

2

n

n

N

Area of a regular polygon inscribed in a circle of

radius r

,

_

n

nr Area

360

sin

2

1

2

Area of a regular polygon circumscribing a

circle of radius r

,

_

n

nr Area

180

tan

2

Area of a regular polygon having each side

measuring x unit length

,

_

n

nx Area

180

cot

4

1

2

PLANE GEOMETRIC FIGURES

CIRCLES

r d nce Circumfere

r

d

A

2

4

2

2

Sector of a Circle

180

360

2

1

2

1

(deg)

) (

(deg)

2

2

r

r s

r

A

r rs A

rad

Segment of a Circle

A

segment

= A

sector

A

triangle

ELLIPSE

A = a b

PARABOLIC SEGMENT

bh A

3

2

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TRAPEZOID

h b a A ) (

2

1

+

PARALLELOGRAM

sin

2

1

sin

2 1

d d A

bh A

ab A

RHOMBUS

sin

2

1

2

2 1

a A

ah d d A

SOLIDS WITH PLANE SURFACE

Lateral Area = (No. of Faces) (Area of 1 Face)

Polyhedron a solid bounded by planes. The bounding

planes are referred to as the faces and the intersections

of the faces are called the edges. The intersections of the

edges are called vertices.

PRISM

V = Bh

A

(lateral)

= PL

A

(surface)

= A

(lateral)

+ 2B

where: P = perimeter of the base

L = slant height

B = base area

Truncated Prism

,

_

heights of number

heights

B V

PYRAMID

B A A

A A

Bh V

lateral surface

faces lateral

+

) ( ) (

) (

3

1

Frustum of a Pyramid

) (

3

2 1 2 1

A A A A

h

V + +

A

1

= area of the lower base

A

2

= area of the upper base

PRISMATOID

) 4 (

6

2 1 m

A A A

h

V + +

A

m

= area of the middle section

REGULAR POLYHEDRON

a solid bounded by planes whose faces are congruent

regular polygons. There are five regular polyhedrons

namely:

A. Tetrahedron

B. Hexahedron (Cube)

C. Octahedron

D. Dodecahedron

E. Icosahedron

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N

a

m

e

T

y

p

e

o

f

F

A

C

E

N

o

.

o

f

F

A

C

E

S

N

o

.

o

f

E

D

G

E

S

N

o

.

o

f

V

E

R

T

I

C

E

S

F

o

r

m

u

l

a

s

f

o

r

V

O

L

U

M

E

T

e

t

r

a

h

e

d

r

o

n

O

c

t

a

h

e

d

r

o

n

H

e

x

a

h

e

d

r

o

n

D

o

d

e

c

a

h

e

d

r

o

n

I

c

o

s

a

h

e

d

r

o

n

T

r

i

a

n

g

l

e

S

q

u

a

r

e

P

e

n

t

a

g

o

n

T

r

i

a

n

g

l

e

T

r

i

a

n

g

l

e

4

6

4

6

8

86

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

0

2

0

2

0

3

0

1

2

3

1

2 2

x

V

3

x

V

3

3

2

x

V

3

6

6

.

7

x

V

3

1

8

.

2

x

V

Where: x = length of one edge

SOLIDS WITH CURVED SURFACES

CYLINDER

V = Bh = KL

A

(lateral)

= P

k

L = 2 r h

A

(surface)

= A

(lateral)

+ 2B

P

k

= perimeter of right section

K = area of the right section

B = base area

L= slant height

CONE

rL A

Bh V

lateral

) (

3

1

FRUSTUM OF A CONE

L r R A

A A A A

h

V

lateral

) (

(

3

) (

2 1 2 1

+

+ +

SPHERES AND ITS FAMILIES

SPHERE

2

) (

3

4

3

4

r A

r V

surface

SPHERICAL LUNE

is that portion of a spherical surface bounded by the

halves of two great circles

90

(deg)

2

) (

r

A

surface

SPHERICAL ZONE

is that portion of a spherical surface between two parallel

planes. A spherical zone of one base has one bounding

plane tangent to the sphere.

h r A

zone

2

) (

SPHERICAL SEGMENT

is that portion of a sphere bounded by a zone and the

planes of the zones bases.

) 3 (

3

2

h r

h

V

) 3 3 (

6

) 3 (

6

2 2 2

2 2

h b a

h

V

h a

h

V

+ +

+

SPHERICAL WEDGE

is that portion of a sphere bounded by a lune and the

planes of the half circles of the lune.

270

(deg)

3

r

V

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SPHERICAL CONE

is a solid formed by the revolution of a circular sector

about its one side (radius of the circle).

) ( ) ( ) (

) (

3

1

one lateralofc zone surface

zone

A A A

r A V

+

SPHERICAL PYRAMID

is that portion of a sphere bounded by a spherical

polygon and the planes of its sides.

540

3

E r

V

E = [(n-2)180]

E = Sum of the angles

E = Spherical excess

n = Number of sides of the given spherical polygon

SOLIDS BY REVOLUTIONS

TORUS (DOUGHNUT)

a solid formed by rotating a circle about an axis not

passing the circle.

V = 2

2

Rr

2

A

(surface)

= 4

2

Rr

ELLIPSOID

abc V

3

4

OBLATE SPHEROID

a solid formed by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis.

It is a special ellipsoid with c = a

b a V

2

3

4

PROLATE SPHEROID

a solid formed by rotating an ellipse about its major axis.

It is a special ellipsoid with c=b

2

3

4

ab V

PARABOLOID

a solid formed by rotating a parabolic segment about its

axis of symmetry.

h r V

2

2

1

SIMILAR SOLIDS

3

2

1

2

2

1

2 2 2

2

1

3 3 3

2

1

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

,

_

A

A

V

V

l

L

r

R

h

H

A

A

l

L

r

R

h

H

V

V

ANALYTIC

GEOMETRY 1

RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM

x = abscissa

y = ordinate

Distance between two points

2

1 2

2

1 2

) ( ) ( y y x x d +

Slope of a line

1 2

1 2

tan

x x

y y

m

Division of a line segment

2 1

1 2 2 1

r r

r x r x

x

+

+

2 1

1 2 2 1

r r

r y r y

y

+

+

Location of a midpoint

2

2 1

x x

x

+

2

2 1

y y

y

+

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STRAIGHT LINES

General Equation

Ax + By + C = 0

Point-slope form

y y

1

= m(x x

1

)

Two-point form

) (

1

1 2

1 2

1

x x

x x

y y

y y

Slope and y-intercept form

y = mx + b

Intercept form

1 +

b

y

a

x

Slope of the line, Ax + By + C = 0

B

A

m

Angle between two lines

,

_

2 1

1 2 1

1

tan

m m

m m

Note: Angle is measured in a counterclockwise

direction. m

2

is the slope of the terminal side while m

1

is

the slope of the initial side.

Distance of point (x

1

,y

1

) from the line

Ax + By + C = 0;

2 2

1 1

B A

C By Ax

d

+ t

+ +

Note: The denominator is given the sign of B

Distance between two parallel lines

2 2

2 1

B A

C C

d

+

Slope relations between parallel lines:

m

1

= m

2

Line 1 Ax + By + C

1

= 0

Line 2 Ax + By + C

2

= 0

Slope relations between perpendicular lines:

m

1

m

2

= 1

Line 1 Ax + By + C

1

= 0

Line 2 Bx Ay + C

2

= 0

PLANE AREAS BY COORDINATES

1 3 2 1

1 3 2 1

, ,.... , ,

, ,.... , ,

2

1

y y y y y

x x x x x

A

n

n

Note: The points must be arranged in a counter clockwise

order.

LOCUS OF A MOVING POINT

The curve traced by a moving point as it moves in a

plane is called the locus of the point.

SPACE COORDINATE SYSTEM

Length of radius vector r:

2 2 2

z y x r + +

Distance between two points P

1

(x

1

,y

1

,z

1

) and

P

2

(x

2

,y

2

,z

2

)

2

1 2

2

1 2

2

1 2

) ( ) ( ) ( z z y y x x d + +

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ANALYTIC

GEOMETRY 2

CONIC SECTIONS

a two-dimensional curve produced by slicing a plane

through a three-dimensional right circular conical surface

Ways of determining a Conic Section

1. By Cutting Plane

2. Eccentricity

3. By Discrimination

4. By Equation

General Equation of a Conic Section:

Ax

2

+ Cy

2

+ Dx + Ey + F = 0 **

Cutting plane Eccentricity

Circle Parallel to base e 0

Parabola Parallel to element e = 1.0

Ellipse none e < 1.0

Hyperbola Parallel to axis e > 1.0

Discriminant Equation**

Circle B

2

- 4AC < 0, A = C A = C

Parabola B

2

- 4AC = 0

A C

same sign

Ellipse B

2

- 4AC < 0, A C

Sign of A

opp. of B

Hyperbola B

2

- 4AC > 0 A or C = 0

CIRCLE

A locus of a moving point which moves so that its

distance from a fixed point called the center is constant.

Standard Equation:

(x h)

2

+ (y k)

2

= r

2

General Equation:

x

2

+ y

2

+ Dx + Ey + F = 0

Center at (h,k):

A

E

k

A

D

h

2

;

2

Radius of the circle:

A

F

k h r +

2 2 2

or F E D r 4

2

1

2 2

+

PARABOLA

a locus of a moving point which moves so that its always

equidistant from a fixed point called focus and a fixed line

called directrix.

where: a = distance from focus to vertex

= distance from directrix to vertex

AXIS HORIZONTAL:

Cy

2

+ Dx + Ey + F = 0

Coordinates of vertex (h,k):

C

E

k

2

substitute k to solve for h

Length of Latus Rectum:

C

D

LR

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AXIS VERTICAL:

Ax

2

+ Dx + Ey + F = 0

Coordinates of vertex (h,k):

A

D

h

2

substitute h to solve for k

Length of Latus Rectum:

A

E

LR

STANDARD EQUATIONS:

Opening to the right:

(y k)

2

= 4a(x h)

Opening to the left:

(y k)

2

= 4a(x h)

Opening upward:

(x h)

2

= 4a(y k)

Opening downward:

(x h)

2

= 4a(y k)

Latus Rectum (LR)

a chord drawn to the axis of symmetry of the curve.

LR= 4a for a parabola

Eccentricity (e)

the ratio of the distance of the moving point from the

focus (fixed point) to its distance from the directrix (fixed

line).

e = 1 for a parabola

ELLIPSE

a locus of a moving point which moves so that the sum of

its distances from two fixed points called the foci is

constant and is equal to the length of its major axis.

d = distance of the center to the directrix

STANDARD EQUATIONS:

Major axis is horizontal:

1

) ( ) (

2

2

2

2

b

k y

a

h x

Major axis is vertical:

1

) ( ) (

2

2

2

2

a

k y

b

h x

General Equation of an Ellipse:

Ax

2

+ Cy

2

+ Dx + Ey + F = 0

Coordinates of the center:

C

E

k

A

D

h

2

;

2

If A > C, then: a

2

= A; b

2

= C

If A < C, then: a

2

= C; b

2

= A

KEY FORMULAS FOR ELLIPSE

Length of major axis: 2a

Length of minor axis: 2b

Distance of focus to center:

2 2

b a c

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Length of latus rectum:

a

b

LR

2

2

Eccentricity:

d

a

a

c

e

HYPERBOLA

a locus of a moving point which moves so that the

difference of its distances from two fixed points called the

foci is constant and is equal to length of its transverse

axis.

d = distance from center to directrix

a = distance from center to vertex

c = distance from center to focus

STANDARD EQUATIONS

Transverse axis is horizontal

1

) ( ) (

2

2

2

2

b

k y

a

h x

Transverse axis is vertical:

1

) ( ) (

2

2

2

2

b

h x

a

k y

GENERAL EQUATION

Ax

2

Cy

2

+ Dx + Ey + F = 0

Coordinates of the center:

C

E

k

A

D

h

2

;

2

If C is negative, then: a

2

= C, b

2

= A

If A is negative, then: a

2

= A, b

2

= C

Equation of Asymptote:

(y k) = m(x h)

Transverse axis is horizontal:

a

b

m t

Transverse axis is vertical:

b

a

m t

KEY FORMULAS FOR HYPERBOLA

Length of transverse axis: 2a

Length of conjugate axis: 2b

Distance of focus to center:

2 2

b a c +

Length of latus rectum:

a

b

LR

2

2

Eccentricity:

d

a

a

c

e

POLAR COORDINATES SYSTEM

x = r cos

y = r sin

2 2

y x r +

x

y

tan

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SPHERICAL

TRIGONOMETRY

Important propositions

1. If two angles of a spherical triangle are equal,

the sides opposite are equal; and conversely.

2. If two angels of a spherical triangle are

unequal, the sides opposite are unequal, and

the greater side lies opposite the greater

angle; and conversely.

3. The sum of two sides of a spherical triangle is

greater than the third side.

a + b > c

4. The sum of the sides of a spherical triangle is

less than 360.

0 < a + b + c < 360

5. The sum of the angles of a spherical triangle is

greater that 180 and less than 540.

180 < A + B + C < 540

6. The sum of any two angles of a spherical

triangle is less than 180 plus the third angle.

A + B < 180 + C

SOLUTION TO RIGHT TRIANGLES

NAPIER CIRCLE

Sometimes called Nepers circle or Nepers pentagon, is

a mnemonic aid to easily find all relations between the

angles and sides in a right spherical triangle.

Napiers Rules

1. The sine of any middle part is equal to the

product of the cosines of the opposite parts.

Co-op

2. The sine of any middle part is equal to the

product of the tangent of the adjacent parts.

Tan-ad

Important Rules:

1. In a right spherical triangle and oblique angle

and the side opposite are of the same quadrant.

2. When the hypotenuse of a right spherical

triangle is less than 90, the two legs are of the

same quadrant and conversely.

3. When the hypotenuse of a right spherical

triangle is greater than 90, one leg is of the first

quadrant and the other of the second and

conversely.

QUADRANTAL TRIANGLE

is a spherical triangle having a side equal to 90.

SOLUTION TO OBLIQUE TRIANGLES

Law of Sines:

C

c

B

b

A

a

sin

sin

sin

sin

sin

sin

Law of Cosines for sides:

C b a b a c

B c a c a b

A c b c b a

cos sin sin cos cos cos

cos sin sin cos cos cos

cos sin sin cos cos cos

+

+

+

Law of Cosines for angles:

c B A B A C

b C A C A B

a C B C B A

cos sin sin cos cos cos

cos sin sin cos cos cos

cos sin sin cos cos cos

+

+

+

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AREA OF SPHERICAL TRIANGLE

180

2

E R

A

R = radius of the sphere

E = spherical excess in degrees,

E = A + B + C 180

TERRESTRIAL SPHERE

Radius of the Earth = 3959 statute miles

Prime meridian (Longitude = 0)

Equator (Latitude = 0)

Latitude = 0 to 90

Longitude = 0 to +180 (eastward)

= 0 to 180 (westward)

1 min. on great circle arc = 1 nautical mile

1 nautical mile = 6080 feet

= 1852 meters

1 statute mile = 5280 feet

= 1760 yards

1 statute mile = 8 furlongs

= 80 chains

Derivatives

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u u u

dx

d

dx

du

u u u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

dx

d

u

dx

du

u

dx

d

u

dx

du

e

u

dx

d

dx

du

e e

dx

d

dx

du

a a a

dx

d

u

dx

du

c

u

c

dx

d

u

dx

du

u

dx

d

dx

du

nu u

dx

d

v

dx

dv

u

dx

du

v

v

u

dx

d

dx

du

v

dx

dv

u uv

dx

d

dx

dv

dx

du

v u

dx

d

dx

dC

a

a

u u

u u

n n

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

1

1

) (sin

cot csc ) (csc

tan sec ) (sec

csc ) (cot

sec ) (tan

sin ) (cos

cos ) (sin

) (ln

log

) (ln

) (

ln ) (

2

) (

) (

) (

0

,

_

,

_

+

+ +

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dx

du

u u

u h

dx

d

dx

du

u u

u h

dx

d

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u hu hu

dx

d

dx

du

u hu hu

dx

d

dx

du

u h u

dx

d

dx

du

u h u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

dx

du

u

u

dx

d

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

1

1

) (csc

1

1

) (sec

1

1

) (sinh

1

1

) (tanh

1

1

) (cosh

1

1

) (sinh

coth csc ) (csc

tanh sec ) (sec

csc ) (coth

sec ) (tanh

sinh ) (cosh

cosh ) (sinh

1

1

) (csc

1

1

) (sec

1

1

) (cot

1

1

) (tan

1

1

) (cos

+

DIFFERENTIAL

CALCULUS

LIMITS

Indeterminate Forms

1 , , 0 , - , ) ( 0) ( , ,

0

0

0 0

LHospitals Rule

.....

) ( "

) ( "

) ( '

) ( '

) (

) (

x g

x f

Lim

x g

x f

Lim

x g

x f

Lim

a x a x a x

Shortcuts

Input equation in the calculator

TIP 1: if x 1, substitute x = 0.999999

TIP 2: if x , substitute x = 999999

TIP 3: if Trigonometric, convert to RADIANS then

do tips 1 & 2

MAXIMA AND MINIMA

Slope (pt.) Y Y Concavity

MAX 0 (-) dec down

MIN 0 (+) inc up

INFLECTION - No change -

HIGHER DERIVATIVES

n

th

derivative of x

n

! ) ( n x

dx

d

n

n

n

n

th

derivative of xe

n

X n

n

n

e n x xe

dx

d

) ( ) ( +

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TIME RATE

the rate of change of the variable with respect to time

dt

dx

+

= increasing rate

dt

dx

= decreasing rate

APPROXIMATION AND ERRORS

If dx is the error in the measurement of a quantity x,

then dx/x is called the RELATIVE ERROR.

RADIUS OF CURVATURE

"

] ) ' ( 1 [

2

3

2

y

y

R

+

INTEGRAL

CALCULUS 1

C u udu u

C u udu u

C u udu

C u udu

C u udu

C u udu

C e du e

C

a

a

du a

C u

u

du

n C

n

u

du u

du u g du u f du u g u f

C au adu

C u du

u u

u

u

n

n

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

+

csc cot csc

sec tan sec

cot csc

tan sec

sin cos

cos sin

ln

ln

) 1 ....( ..........

1

) ( ) ( )] ( ) ( [

2

2

1

> +

< +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

,

_

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+

vdu uv udv

a u C

a

u

a u a

du

a u C

a

u

a u a

du

C

u

a

a

a u u

du

C

a

u

a u

du

C

a

u

a u

du

C u udu

C u udu

C hu udu hu

C hu udu hu

C u udu h

C u udu h

C u udu

C u udu

C

a

u

u au

du

C

a

u

a

a u u

du

C

a

u

a u a

du

C

a

u

u a

du

C u u udu

C u u udu

C u udu

C u udu

.... .......... coth

1

.... .......... tanh

1

sinh

1

cosh

sinh

sinh ln coth

cosh ln tanh

csc coth csc

sec tanh sec

coth csc

tanh sec

sinh cosh

cosh sinh

1 cos

2

sec

1

tan

1

sin

cot csc ln csc

tan sec ln sec

sin ln cot

sec ln tan

1

2 2

1

2 2

1

2 2

1

2 2

1

2 2

2

2

1

2

1

2 2

1

2 2

1

2 2

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PLANE AREAS

Plane Areas bounded by a curve and the coordinate

axes:

2

1

) (

x

x

curve

dx y A

2

1

) (

y

y

curve

dy x A

Plane Areas bounded by a curve and the coordinate

axes:

2

1

) (

) ( ) (

x

x

down up

dx y y A

2

1

) (

) ( ) (

y

y

left right

dy x x A

Plane Areas bounded by polar curves:

2

1

2

2

1

d r A

CENTROID OF PLANE AREAS

(VARIGNONS THEOREM)

Using a Vertical Strip:

2

1

x

x

x dA x A

2

1

2

x

x

y

dA y A

Using a Horizontal Strip:

2

1

2

y

y

x

dA x A

2

1

y

y

y dA y A

CENTROIDS

Half a Parabola

h y

b x

5

2

8

3

Whole Parabola

h y

5

2

Triangle

h h y

b b x

3

2

3

1

3

2

3

1

LENGTH OF ARC

,

_

+

2

1

2

1

x

x

dx

dx

dy

S

,

_

+

2

1

2

1

y

y

dy

dy

dx

S

,

_

,

_

2

1

2 2 z

z

dz

dz

dy

dz

dx

S

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INTEGRAL

CALCULUS 2

TIP 1: Problems will usually be of this nature:

Find the area bounded by

Find the area revolved around..

TIP 2: Integrate only when the shape is IRREGULAR,

otherwise use the prescribed formulas

VOLUME OF SOLIDS BY REVOLUTION

Circular Disk Method

2

1

2

x

x

dx R V

Cylindrical Shell Method

2

1

2

y

y

dy RL V

Circular Ring Method

2

1

) (

2 2

x

x

dx r R V

PROPOSITIONS OF PAPPUS

First Proposition: If a plane arc is revolved about a

coplanar axis not crossing the arc, the area of the surface

generated is equal to the product of the length of the arc

and the circumference of the circle described by the

centroid of the arc.

r dS A

r S A

2

2

Second Proposition: If a plane area is revolved

about a coplanar axis not crossing the area, the volume

generated is equal to the product of the area and the

circumference of the circle described by the centroid of

the area.

r dA V

r A V

2

2

CENTROIDS OF VOLUMES

2

1

x

x

x dV x V

2

1

y

y

y dV y V

WORK BY INTEGRATION

Work = force distance

2

1

2

1

y

y

x

x

Fdy Fdx W

; where F = k x

Work done on spring

) (

2

1

2

1

2

2

x x k W

k = spring constant

x

1

= initial value of elongation

x

2

= final value of elongation

Work done in pumping liquid out of the

container at its top

Work = (density)(volume)(distance)

Force = (density)(volume) = v

Specific Weight:

Volume

Weight

water

= 9.81 kN/m

2

SI

water

= 45 lbf/ft

2

cgs

Density:

Volume

mass

water

= 1000 kg/m

3

SI

water

= 62.4 lb/ft

3

cgs

subs

= (substance) (

water

)

1 ton = 2000lb

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MOMENT OF INERTIA

Moment of Inertia about the x- axis:

2

1

2

x

x

x

dA y I

Moment of Inertia about the y- axis:

2

1

2

y

y

y

dA x I

Parallel Axis Theorem

The moment of inertia of an area with respect to any

coplanar line equals the moment of inertia of the area

with respect to the parallel centroidal line plus the area

times the square of the distance between the lines.

2

Ad Ix I

o x

Moment of Inertia for Common Geometric

Figures

Square

3

3

bh

I

x

12

3

bh

I

xo

Triangle

12

3

bh

I

x

36

3

bh

I

xo

Circle

4

4

r

I

xo

Half-Circle

8

4

r

I

x

Quarter-Circle

16

4

r

I

x

Ellipse

4

3

ab

I

x

4

3

b a

I

y

FLUID PRESSURE

dA h w F

A h A h w F

F = force exerted by the fluid on one side of

the area

h = distance of the c.g. to the surface of liquid

w = specific weight of the liquid ()

A = vertical plane area

Specific Weight:

Volume

Weight

water

= 9.81 kN/m

2

SI

water

= 45 lbf/ft

2

cgs

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MECHANICS 1

VECTORS

Dot or Scalar product

cos Q P Q P

z z y y x x

Q P Q P Q P Q P + +

Cross or Vector product

sin Q P Q P

z y x

z y x

Q Q Q

P P P

k j i

Q P

EQUILIBRIUM OF COPLANAR FORCE

SYSTEM

Conditions to attain Equilibrium:

0

0

0

int) (

) (

) (

po

axis y

axis x

M

F

F

Friction

F

f

= N

tan =

= angle of friction

if no forces are applied except for the weight,

=

CABLES

PARABOLIC CABLES

the load of the cable of distributed horizontally along the

span of the cable.

Uneven elevation of supports

2 2

2 2

2 2

1 1

2

2

2

1

2

1

) (

) (

2 2

H wx T

H wx T

d

wx

d

wx

H

+

+

Even elevation of supports

10 >

d

L

2

2

2

2

8

H

wL

T

d

wL

H

+

,

_

3

4 2

5

32

3

8

L

d

L

d

L S +

L = span of cable

d = sag of cable

T = tension of cable at support

H = tension at lowest point of cable

w = load per unit length of span

S = total length of cable

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CATENARY

the load of the cable is distributed along the entire length

of the cable.

Uneven elevation of supports

2 1

2 2

2

1 1

1

2 2

2

2

2

2 2

1

2

1

2 2

1 1

ln

ln

x x Span

c

y S

c x

c

y S

c x

c S y

c S y

wc H

wy T

wy T

+

,

_

,

_

+

+

Total length of cable = S

1

+ S

2

Even elevation of supports

x Span

c

y S

c x

c S y

wc H

wy T

2

ln

2 2 2

,

_

Total length of cable = 2S

MECHANICS 2

RECTILINEAR MOTION

Constant Velocity

S = Vt

Constant Acceleration: Horizontal Motion

aS V V

at V V

at t V S

2

2

1

2

0

2

0

2

0

t

t

t

+ (sign) = body is speeding up

(sign) = body is slowing down

Constant Acceleration: Vertical Motion

gH V V

gt V V

gt t V H

2

2

1

2

0

2

0

2

0

t

t

t

+ (sign) = body is moving down

(sign) = body is moving up

Values of g,

SI (m/s

2

) English (ft/s

2

)

general 9.81 32.2

estimate 9.8 32

exact 9.806 32.16

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Variable Acceleration

dt

dV

a

dt

dS

V

PROJECTILE MOTION

2 2

0

2

2

0

0

cos 2

tan

2

1

) sin (

) cos (

V

gx

x y

gt t V y

t V x

t

t

Maximum Height and Horizontal Range

g

V

x

ht

g

V

y

2 sin

max

2

sin

2

0

2

2

0

Maximum Horizontal Range

Assume: V

o

= fixed

= variable

45

2

0

max

g

V

R

ROTATION (PLANE MOTION)

Relationships between linear & angular

parameters:

r V

r a

V = linear velocity

= angular velocity (rad/s)

a = linear acceleration

= angular acceleration (rad/s

2

)

r = radius of the flywheel

Linear Symbol Angular Symbol

Distance

S

Velocity

V

Acceleration

A

Time

t t

Constant Velocity

= t

Constant Acceleration

2

2

1

2

0

2

0

2

0

t

t

t

t

t t

+ (sign) = body is speeding up

(sign) = body is slowing down

DALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE

Static conditions maybe produced in a body possessing

acceleration by the addition of an imaginary force called

reverse effective force (REF) whose magnitude is

(W/g)(a) acting through the center of gravity of the body,

and parallel but opposite in direction to the acceleration.

a

g

W

ma REF

,

_

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UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

motion of any body moving in a circle with a constant

speed.

gr

WV

r

mV

F

c

2 2

r

V

a

c

2

F

c

= centrifugal force

V = velocity

m = mass

W = weight

r = radius of track

a

c

= centripetal acceleration

g = standard gravitational acceleration

BANKING ON HI-WAY CURVES

Ideal Banking: The road is frictionless

gr

V

2

tan

Non-ideal Banking: With Friction on the road

gr

V

2

) tan( + ; tan

V = velocity

r = radius of track

g = standard gravitational acceleration

= angle of banking of the road

= angle of friction

= coefficient of friction

Conical Pendulum

T = W sec

gr

V

W

F

2

tan

h

g

f

2

1

frequency

BOUYANCY

A body submerged in fluid is subjected by an

unbalanced force called buoyant force equal to

the weight of the displaced fluid

F

b

= W

F

b

= V

d

F

b

= buoyant force

W = weight of body or fluid

= specific weight of fluid

V

d

= volume displaced of fluid or volume of

submerged body

Specific Weight:

Volume

Weight

water

= 9.81 kN/m

2

SI

water

= 45 lbf/ft

2

cgs

ENGINEERING

MECHANICS 3

IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

Impulse = Change in Momentum

0

mV mV t F

F = force

t = time of contact between the body and the force

m = mass of the body

V

0

= initial velocity

V = final velocity

Impulse, I

t F I

Momentum, P

mV P

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LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

In every process where the velocity is changed, the

momentum lost by one body or set of bodies is equal to

the momentum gain by another body or set of bodies

Momentum lost = Momentum gained

'

2 2

'

1 1 2 2 1 1

V m V m V m V m + +

m

1

= mass of the first body

m

2

= mass of the second body

V

1

= velocity of mass 1 before the impact

V

2

= velocity of mass 2 before the impact

V

1

= velocity of mass 1 after the impact

V

2

= velocity of mass 2 after the impact

Coefficient of Restitution (e)

2 1

'

1

'

2

V V

V V

e

Type of collision e Kinetic Energy

ELASTIC

100%

conserved

1 0 > < e

INELASTIC

Not 100%

conserved

0 e

PERFECTLY

INELASTIC

Max Kinetic

Energy Lost

1 e

Special Cases

d

r

h

h

e

tan cot e

Work, Energy and Power

Work

S F W

Force Distance Work

Newton (N) Meter Joule

Dyne Centimeter ft-lb

f

Pound (lb

f

) Foot erg

Potential Energy

Wh mgh PE

Kinetic Energy

2

2

1

mV KE

linear

2

2

1

I KE

rotational

V = r

I = mass moment of inertia

= angular velocity

Mass moment of inertia of rotational

INERTIA for common geometric figures:

Solid sphere:

2

5

2

mr I

Thin-walled hollow sphere:

2

3

2

mr I

Solid disk:

2

2

1

mr I

Solid Cylinder:

2

2

1

mr I

Hollow Cylinder:

) (

2

1

2 2

inner outer

r r m I

m = mass of the body

r = radius

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POWER

rate of using energy

V F

t

W

P

1 watt = 1 Newton-m/s

1 joule/sec = 107 ergs/sec

1 hp = 550 lb-ft per second

= 33000 lb-ft per min

= 746 watts

LAW ON CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it

can be change from one form to another

Kinetic Energy = Potential Energy

WORK-ENERGY RELATIONSHIP

The net work done on an object always

produces a change in kinetic energy of the

object.

Work Done = KE

Positive Work Negative Work = KE

Total Kinetic Energy = linear + rotation

HEAT ENERGY AND CHANGE IN PHASE

Sensible Heat is the heat needed to change the

temperature of the body without changing its phase.

Q = mcT

Q = sensible heat

m = mass

c = specific heat of the substance

T = change in temperature

Specific heat values

C

water

= 1 BTU/lbF

C

water

= 1 cal/gmC

C

water

= 4.156 kJ/kg

C

ice

= 50% C

water

C

steam

=

48% C

water

Latent Heat is the heat needed by the body to change

its phase without changing its temperature.

Q = mL

Q = heat needed to change phase

m = mass

L = latent heat (fusion/vaporization)

(+) = heat is entering (substance melts)

() = heat is leaving (substance freezes)

Latent heat of Fusion solid to liquid

Latent heat of Vaporization liquid to gas

Values of Latent heat of Fusion and

Vaporization,

L

f

= 144 BTU/lb

L

f

= 334 kJ/kg

L

f ice

= 80 cal/gm

L

v boil

= 540 cal/gm

L

f

= 144 BTU/lb

= 334 kJ/kg

L

v

= 970 BTU/lb

= 2257 kJ/kg

1 calorie = 4.186 Joules

1 BTU = 252 calories

= 778 ftlb

f

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF HEAT

ENERGY

When two masses of different temperatures are

combined together, the heat absorbed by the lower

temperature mass is equal to the heat given up by the

higher temperature mass.

Heat gained = Heat lost

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THERMAL EXPANSION

For most substances, the physical size increase with an

increase in temperature and decrease with a decrease in

temperature.

L = LT

L = change in length

L = original length

= coefficient of linear expansion

T = change in temperature

V = VT

V = change in volume

V = original volume

= coefficient of volume expansion

T = change in temperature

Note: In case is not given; = 3

THERMODYNAMICS

In thermodynamics, there are four laws of very

general validity. They can be applied to systems

about which one knows nothing other than the

balance of energy and matter transfer.

ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

stating that thermodynamic equilibrium is an

equivalence relation.

If two thermodynamic systems are in thermal

equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal

equilibrium with each other.

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

about the conservation of energy

The increase in the energy of a closed system

is equal to the amount of energy added to the

system by heating, minus the amount lost in the

form of work done by the system on its

surroundings.

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

about entropy

The total entropy of any isolated

thermodynamic system tends to increase over

time, approaching a maximum value.

THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS,

about absolute zero temperature

As a system asymptotically approaches

absolute zero of temperature all processes

virtually cease and the entropy of the system

asymptotically approaches a minimum value.

This law is more clearly stated as: "the entropy

of a perfectly crystalline body at absolute zero

temperature is zero."

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STRENGTH OF

MATERIALS

SIMPLE STRESS

Area

Force

Stress

Axial Stress

the stress developed under the action of the force acting

axially (or passing the centroid) of the resisting area.

A

P

axial

axial

P

axial

Area

axial

= axial/tensile/compressive stress

P = applied force/load at centroid of xsectional area

A = resisting area (perpendicular area)

Shearing stress

the stress developed when the force is applied parallel to

the resisting area.

A

P

s

P

appliedl

Area

s

= shearing stress

P = applied force or load

A = resisting area (sheared area)

Bearing stress

the stress developed in the area of contact (projected

area) between two bodies.

dt

P

A

P

b

P A

baering

b

= bearing stress

P = applied force or load

A = projected area (contact area)

d,t = width and height of contact, respectively

Units of

SI mks/cgs English

N/m

2

= Pa

kN/m

2

= kPa

MN/m

2

= MPa

GN/m

2

= Gpa

N/mm

2

=

MPa

Kg/cm

2

lb

f

/m

2

= psi

10

3

psi = ksi

10

3

lb

f

= kips

Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

= 14.7 psi

= 1.032 kg

f

/cm

2

= 780 torr

= 1.013 bar

= 1 atm

= 780 mmHg

101.325 kPa

= 29.92 in

Thin-walled Pressure Vessels

A. Tangential stress

t

D

t

r

T

2

B. Longitudinal stress (also for Spherical)

t

D

t

r

L

4 2

T

= tangential/circumferential/hoop stress

L

= longitudinal/axial stress, used in spheres

r = outside radius

D = outside diameter

= pressure inside the tank

t = thickness of the wall

F = bursting force

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SIMPLE STRAIN / ELONGATION

Strain ratio of elongation to original length

L

= strain

= elongation

L = original length

Elastic Limit the range beyond which the material

WILL NOT RETURN TO ITS ORIGINAL SHAPE when

unloaded but will retain a permanent deformation

Yield Point at his point there is an appreciable

elongation or yielding of the material without any

corresponding increase in load; ductile materials and

continuous deformation

Ultimate Strength it is more commonly called

ULTIMATE STRESS; its the hishes ordinate in the curve

Rupture Strength/Fracture Point the stress at failure

Types of elastic deformation:

a. Due to axial load

HOOKES LAW ON AXIAL DEFORMATION

Stress is proportional to strain

ility compressib E

Elasticity of Modulus Bulk E

Shear in Modulus E

Elasticity of Modulus E

Elasticity of Modulus s Young Y

v

V V V

s s s

1

'

AE

PL

= elongation

P = applied force or load

A = area

L = original length

E = modulus of elasticity

= stress

= strain

b. Due to its own mass

AE

mgL

E

gL

2 2

2

= elongation

= density or unit mass of the body

g = gravitational acceleration

L = original length

E = modulus of elasticity or Youngs modulus

m = mass of the body

c. Due to changes in temperature

) (

i f

T T L

= elongation

= coefficient of linear expansion of the body

L = original length

T

f

= final temperature

T

i

= initial temperature

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d. Biaxial and Triaxial Deformation

x

z

x

y

= Poissons ratio

= 0.25 to 0.3 for steel

= 0.33 for most metals

= 0.20 for concrete

min

= 0

max

= 0.5

TORSIONAL SHEARING STRESS

Torsion refers to twisting of solid or hollow

rotating shaft.

Solid shaft

3

16

d

T

Hollow shaft

) (

16

4 4

d D

TD

= torsional shearing stress

T = torque exerted by the shaft

D = outer diameter

d = inner diameter

Maximum twisting angle of the shafts fiber:

JG

TL

= angular deformation (radians)

T = torque

L = length of the shaft

G = modulus of rigidity

J = polar moment of inertia of the cross

32

4

d

J

Solid shaft

32

) (

4 4

d D

J

Hollow shaft

G

steel

= 83 GPa;

E

steel

= 200 GPa

Power delivered by a rotating shaft:

min 3300

2

sec 550

2

60

2

2

lb ft TN

P

lb ft TN

P

rpm

TN

P

rps TN P

T P

hp

hp

rpm

rpm

T = torque

N = revolutions/time

HELICAL SPRINGS

,

_

+

R

d

d

PR

4

1

16

3

,

_

m m

m

d

PR 615 . 0

4 4

1 4 16

3

where,

r

R

d

D

m

mean mean

elongation,

4

3

64

Gd

n PR

= shearing stress

= elongation

R = mean radius

d = diameter of the spring wire

n = number of turns

G = modulus of rigidity

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ENGINEERING

ECONOMICS 1

SIMPLE INTEREST

Pin I

) 1 ( in P F +

P = principal amount

F = future amount

I = total interest earned

i = rate of interest

n = number of interest periods

Ordinary Simple Interest

360

days

n

12

months

n

Exact Simple Interest

365

days

n

ordinary year

366

days

n

leap year

COMPOUND INTEREST

n

i P F ) 1 ( +

Nominal Rate of Interest

mN n

m

NR

i

Effective Rate of Interest

( )

Annual if equal NR ER

m

NR

ER

i ER

m

m

;

1 1

1 1

,

_

+

+

i = rate of interest per period

NR = nominal rate of interest

m = number of interest periods per year

n = total number of interest periods

N = number pf years

ER = effective rate of interest

Mode of Interest m

Annually 1

Semi-Annually 2

Quarterly 4

Semi-quarterly 8

Monthly 12

Semi-monthly 24

Bimonthly 6

Daily 360

Shortcut on Effective Rate

ANNUITY

Note: interest must be effective rate

Ordinary Annuity

i i

i A

P

i

i A

F

n

n

n

) 1 (

] 1 ) 1 [(

] 1 ) 1 [(

+

+

A = uniform periodic amount or annuity

Perpetuity or Perpetual Annuity

i

A

P

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LINEAR / UNIFORM GRADIENT SERIES

G A

P P P +

1

]

1

+

+

n n

n

G

i

n

i i

i

i

G

P

) 1 ( ) 1 (

1 ) 1 (

1

]

1

+

n

i

i

i

G

F

n

G

1 ) 1 (

1

]

1

+

1 ) 1 (

1

n

G

i

n

i

G A

Perpetual Gradient

2

i

G

P

G

UNIFORM GEOMETRIC GRADIENT

1

]

1

+ +

i q

i q

C P

n n

1 ) 1 ( ) 1 (

if q i

1

]

1

+ +

i q

i q

C F

n n

) 1 ( ) 1 (

if q i

q

Cn

P

+

1

q

i Cn

P

n

+

+

1

) 1 (

if q = i

1

sec

first

ond

q

C = initial cash flow of the geometric gradient series

which occurs one period after the present

q = fixed percentage or rate of increase

ENGINEERING

ECONOMICS 2

DEPRECIATION

Straight Line Method (SLM)

n

C C

d

n

0

D

m

= md

C

m

= C

0

D

m

d = annual depreciation

C

0

= first cost

C

m

= book value

C

n

= salvage or scrap value

n = life of the property

D

m

= total depreciation after m-years

m = m

th

year

Sinking Fund Method (SFM)

1 ) 1 (

) (

0

+

n

n

i

i C C

d

i

i d

D

m

m

] 1 ) 1 [( +

C

m

= C

0

D

m

i = standard rate of interest

Sum of the Years Digit (SYD) Method

1

]

1

+

+

) 1 (

) 1 ( 2

) (

0

n n

m n

C C d

n m

1

]

1

+

+

) 1 (

) 1 2 (

) (

0

n n

m m n

C C D

n m

2

) 1 ( +

n n

SYD

C

m

= C

0

D

m

SYD = sum of the years digit

d

m

= depreciation at year m

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Declining Balance Method (DBM)

m

o

m

n

o

n

C

C

k

C

C

k

1

1

Matheson Formula

m

m

k C C ) 1 (

0

1

0

) 1 (

m

m

k kC d

D

m

= C

0

C

m

k = constant rate of depreciation

CAPITALIZED AND ANNUAL COSTS

P C CC +

0

CC = Capitalized Cost

C

0

= first cost

P = cost of perpetual maintenance (A/i)

OMC i C d AC + + ) (

0

AC = Annual Cost

d = Annual depreciation cost

i = interest rate

OMC = Annual operating & maintenance cost

BONDS

n n

n

erest cpd anuity

i

C

i i

i Zr

P

P P P

) 1 ( ) 1 (

] 1 ) 1 [(

int

+

+

+

+

P = present value of the bond

Z = par value or face value of the bond

r = rate of interest on the bond per period

Z

r

= periodic dividend

i = standard interest rate

n = number of years before redemption

C = redemption price of bond

BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS

Total income = Total expenses

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