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# Alternating current – an electrical current that first moves one direction, then the opposite

## direction with a regular frequency.

amp – unit of electric current; equivalent to C/s
ampere – full name of the unit amp
coulomb – unit used to measure quantity of electric charge; equivalent to the charge resulting
from the transfer of 6.24 billion particles such as the electron.
coulomb’s law – relationship between charge, distance, and magnitude of the electrical force
between two bodies.
direct current – an electrical current that always moves one direction.
electric circuit – maintains an electrical potential, a continuous conducting path for a current to
follow, and a device where work is done by the electrical potential; a switch in the circuit is used
to complete or interrupt the conducting path.
electric current – the flow of electric charge.
electric generator – a mechanical device that uses wire loops rotating in a magnetic field to
produce electromagnetic induction in order to generate electricity.
electric field – force field produced by an electrical charge.
electrical conductors – materials that have electrons that are free to move throughout the
materials; for example, metals.
electrical resistance – the property of opposing or reducing electric current.
electromagnet – a magnet formed by a solenoid that can be turned on and off by turning the
current on and off.
electromagnetic induction – process in which current is induced by moving a loop of wire in a
magnetic field or by changing the magnetic field.
electrostatic charge – an accumulated electric charge on an object from a surplus or deficiency
of electrons; also called the “static electricity”.
force field – a model describing action at a distance by giving the magnitude and direction of
force on a unit particle; considers a charge or a mass to alter the space surrounding it and a
second charge or mass to interact with the altered space with a force.
fundamental charge – smallest common charge known; the magnitude of the charge of an
electron and proton, which is 1.60 x 10 to the -19th coulomb.
magnetic domain – tiny physical regions in a permanent magnets, approximately 0.01 to 1 mm,
that have magnetically aligned atoms, giving the domain an overall polarity.
magnetic field – model used to describe how magnetic forces on moving charges act at a
distance.
magnetic poles – the ends, or sides, of a magnet about which the force of the magnetic attraction
seems to be concentrated.
ohm – unit of resistance; equivalent to volts/amps.
Ohm’s law – the electric potential difference is directly proportional to the product of the current
times the resistance.
transformer – a device consisting of a primary coil of wire connected to a source of alternating
current and secondary coil of wire in which electromagnetic induction increases or decrease the
voltage of the source.
volt – unit of potential difference equivalent to J/C.
watt – metric unit for power; equivalent to J/s.
Key Terms

alternating current (p. 157) - an electric current that first moves one direction, then the
opposite direction with a regular frequency

## ampere (p. 155) - full name of the unit amp

coulomb (p. 150) - unit used to measure quantity of electric charge; equivalent to the charge
resulting from the transfer of 6.24 billion particles such as the electron

Coulomb’s law (p. 150) - relationship between charge, distance, and magnitude of the
electrical force between two bodies

direct current (p. 157) - an electrical current that always moves in one direction

electric circuit (p. 154) - consists of a voltage source that maintains an electrical potential, a
continuous conducting path for a current to follow, and a device where work is done by the
electrical potential; a switch in the circuit is used to complete or interrupt the conducting path

## electric field (p. 151) - force field produced by an electrical charge

electric generator (p. 173) - a mechanical device that uses wire loops rotating in a magnetic
field to produce electromagnetic induction in order to generate electricity

electrical conductors (p. 149) - materials that have electrons that are free to move
throughout the material; for example, metals

electrical resistance (p. 157) - the property of opposing or reducing electric current

electromagnet (p. 169) - a magnet formed by a solenoid that can be turned on and off by
turning the current on and off

electromagnetic induction (p. 171) - process in which current is induced by moving a loop
of wire in a magnetic field or by changing the magnetic field

electrostatic charge (p. 148) - an accumulated electric charge on an object from a surplus
or deficiency of electrons; also called "static electricity"

force field (p. 151) - a model describing action at a distance by giving the magnitude and
direction of force on a unit particle; considers a charge or a mass to alter the space
surrounding it and a second charge or mass to interact with the altered space with a force

fundamental charge (p. 155) - smallest common charge known; the magnitude of the
charge of an electron and a proton, which is 1.60 ⋅ 10-19 coulomb

magnetic domain (p. 165) - tiny physical regions in permanent magnets, approximately 0.01
to 1 mm, that have magnetically aligned atoms, giving the domain an overall polarity

magnetic field (p. 163) - model used to describe how magnetic forces on moving charges
act at a distance

magnetic poles (p. 163) - the ends, or sides, of a magnet about which the force of magnetic
attraction seems to be concentrated

## ohm (p. 157) - unit of resistance; equivalent to volts/amps

Ohm’s law (p. 159) - the electric potential difference is directly proportional to the product of
the current times the resistance

transformer (p. 174) - a device consisting of a primary coil of wire connected to a source of
alternating current and a secondary coil of wire in which electromagnetic induction increases
or decreases the voltage of the source