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1. SAMPLING THEOREM VERIFICATION
Aim:
To verify the sampling theorem.

Apparatus Required:

1. Sampling theorem verification trainer kit
2. Function Generator (1MHz)
3. Dual trace oscilloscope (20 MHz)

Theory:
The analog signal can be converted to a discrete time signal by a process
called sampling. The sampling theorem for a band limited signal of finite
energy can be stated as,
A band limited signal of finite energy, which has no frequency component
higher than W Hz is completely described by specifying the values of the
signal at instants of time separated by 1/2W seconds.
It can be recovered from knowledge of samples taken at the rate of 2W per
second.
Circuit Diagram:


Fig: 1 Sampling Circuit

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Fig: 2 Reconstructing Circuit
Procedure:
1. The circuit is connected as per the circuit diagram shown in the fig 1.
2. Switch on the power supply. And set at +11V and -11V.
3. Apply the sinusoidal signal of approximately 4V (p-p) at 105Hz frequency
and pulse signal of 11V (p-p) with frequency between 100Hz and 4 KHz.
4. Connect the sampling circuit output and AF signal to the two inputs of
oscilloscope
5. Initially set the potentiometer to minimum level and sampling frequency to
200Hz and observe the output on the CRO. Now by adjusting the
potentiometer, vary the amplitude of modulating signal and observe the
output of sampling circuit. Note that the amplitude of the sampling pulses
will be varying in accordance with the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Design the reconstructing circuit. Depending on sampling frequency, R &
C values are calculated using the relations F
s
= 1/T
s
, T
s =
RC. Choosing
an appropriate value for C, R can be found using the relation R=T
s
/C
7. Connect the sampling circuit output to the reconstructing circuit shown in
Fig 2
8. Observe the output of the reconstructing circuit (AF signal) for different
sampling frequencies. The original AF signal would appear only when the
sampling frequency is 200Hz or more.




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Observations:





(a)











(b)

(c)
Fig: 3 Waveforms of (a) Modulating signal (b) Sampling signal (c) Sampled signal

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Fig: 4 Output Waveform for Reconstructing Circuit

Inferences:
For the case fs=2f
m
, although the successive cycles of spectrum are
not overlapping they are touching each other. In this case the original
spectrum can be recovered from the sampled spectrum using a low pass filter
with cut off frequency f
m



For the case f
s
<2f
m
, the successive cycles of the sampled spectrum will
overlap each other and hence in this case the original spectrum cannot be
extracted out of the spectrum Hence for reconstruction without distortion it is
necessary that
f
s
>=2f
m


Questions:

1. What is aliasing effect?
A. The original analog waveform can be recovered from the PAM type
samples simply by low pass filtering them If fs <f
nyquist
(2f
m
) then overlapping
of adjacent spectrum replicates occurs. This is know as aliasing .Due to
under- sampling (for f
s
<2f
m
) exact analog waveform can not be recovered,
2. What is the function of Op-amps in this circuit and what is the effect of
frequency of sampling signal?
A. Op-amps acts as voltage followers, if the f
s
<2f
m ,
then distorted waveform is
observed, so to recover the exact signal the sampling signal frequency
should be maintained greater than or equal to the 2f
m.
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2. PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION &
DEMODULATION
Aim:
To generate the Pulse Amplitude modulated and demodulated signals.

Apparatus required:

Name of the Apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity
Resistors
1K, 10K, 100K, 5.8K,
2.2K,
Each one
Transistor BC 107 2
Capacitor 10F, 0.001F each one
CRO 30MHz 1
Function generator 1MHz 1
Regulated Power Supply 0-30V,1A 1
CRO Probes --- 1

Theory:
PAM is the simplest form of data modulation .The amplitude of uniformly spaced
pulses is varied in proportion to the corresponding sample values of a continuous
message m (t).
A PAM waveform consists of a sequence of flat-topped pulses.
The amplitude of each pulse corresponds to the value of the message signal x (t)
at the leading edge of the pulse.
The pulse amplitude modulation is the process in which the amplitudes of
regularity
spaced rectangular pulses vary with the instantaneous sample values of a
continuous message signal in a one-one fashion.
A PAM wave is represented mathematically as,

S (t) =

[1+K
a
x (nT
s
)] P (t-nT
s
)
N= -
Where
x (nT
s
) ==> represents the n
th
sample of the message signal x(t)
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K= ==> is the sampling period.
K
a
==> a constant called amplitude sensitivity
P (t) ==>denotes a pulse
PAM is of two types
1) Double polarity PAM ==> This is the PAM wave which consists of both
positive and negative pulses shown as
2) Single polarity PAM ==> This consists of PAM wave of only either negative
(or)
Positive pulses. In this the fixed dc level is added to the signal to ensure single
polarity signal. It is represented as


Fig: 1 Bipolar PAM signal



Fig: 2 Single polarity PAM







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Circuit Diagram:


Fig: 3 Pulse Amplitude Modulation Circuit


Fig: 4 Demodulation Circuit
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram shown in the fig 3
2. Set the modulating frequency to 1KHz and sampling frequency to 12KHz
3. Observe the o/p on CRO i.e. PAM wave.
4. Measure the levels of E
max
& E
min
.
5. Feed the modulated wave to the low pass filter as in fig 4.
6. The output observed on CRO will be the demodulated wave.
7. Note down the amplitude (p-p) and time period of the demodulated wave.
Vary the amplitude and frequency of modulating signal. Observe and note
down the changes in output.
8. Plot the wave forms on graph sheet.
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Observations:







(a)






(b)






(c)
Fig: 5 Waveforms of (a) Modulating signal (b) Sampling signal (c) PAM Wave


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Fig:6 Output Waveform for Demodulation Circuit


Inference:
The amplitudes of regularly spaced pulses are varied in proportional
corresponding sample values of a continuous message signal.


Questions:

1. What is the function of the transistors Q
1
&Q
2
?
A. Transistor Q
1
acts as an amplifier and Q
2
acts as a voltage follower.

2. What happens when the pulse train frequency is less than message signal
frequency?
A. Distorted output is observed.

3. What is the effect of amplitude of sampling signal, VCC on output?
A. If the amplitude of the sampling signal is varied then the PAM signal
amplitude is also varied.




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3. PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AND
DEMODULATION
Aim:
To generate the pulse width modulated and demodulated signals

Apparatus required:

Name of the Apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity
Resistors 1.2k, 1.5 k, 8.2 k 1,1,2
Capacitors 0.01 F, 1 F 2,2
Diode 0A79 1
CRO 0-30, MHz 1
Function Generator 1MHz 1
RPS 0-30v,1A 1
IC 555
Operating tem :SE 555 -55
o
C to 125
o
C
NE 555 0
o
to 70
o
C
Supply voltage :+5V to +18V
Timing :Sec to Hours
Sink current :200mA
Temperature stability :50 PPM/
o
C
change in temp or 0-005% /
o
C.
1
CRO Probes -- 1


Theory:

Pulse Time Modulation is also known as Pulse Width Modulation or Pulse Length
Modulation. In PWM, the samples of the message signal are used to vary the
duration of the individual pulses. Width may be varied by varying the time of
occurrence of leading edge, the trailing edge or both edges of the pulse in
accordance with modulating wave. It is also called Pulse Duration Modulation.




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Circuit Diagram:

Fig: 1 Pulse Width Modulation Circuit


Fig: 2 Demodulation Circuit

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram shown in fig 1.
2. Apply a trigger signal (Pulse wave) of frequency 2 KHz with amplitude of
5v (p-p).
3. Observe the sample signal at the pin3.
4. Apply the ac signal at the pin 5 and vary the amplitude.
5. Note that as the control voltage is varied output pulse width is also varied.
6. Observe that the pulse width increases during positive slope condition &
decreases under negative slope condition. Pulse width will be maximum at
the +ve peak and minimum at the ve peak of sinusoidal waveform. Record
the observations.
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7. Feed PWM waveform to the circuit of Fig.2 and observe the resulting
demodulated waveform.

Observations:

S.No.
Control voltage
(V
P-P
)
Output pulse
width (m sec)
1 0 20
2 1 24
3 3 56
4 4 88






Amplitude: 5v (p-p)
Frequency:1KHz

(a)

(b)
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(c)
Fig: 3 Waveforms of (a) Modulating Signal (b) Trigger Signal (c) PWM Wave



Fig: 4 Output Waveform for Demodulation Circuit


Inference:
Width of the pulse (carrier) varies according to the Amplitude of continuously
varying modulating signal, at maximum amplitude of modulating signal the width
of the pulse is also maximum, at minimum amplitude of modulating signal the
width of the pulse is also minimum i.e. the variation in the width of the pulse is
proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal.



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Questions:
1. Write the advantage of PWM compared with PPM?
A. The PWM has the advantage that it still works when synchronization
between transmitter and receiver fails. In such a situation, PPM will not
work.
2. Write the disadvantage of PWM compared with PPM?
A. For message transmission, the wide pulses of PWM require more energy
than PPM.
3. What is the effect of trigger, control voltage amplitude on output signal?

A. If the amplitude of the trigger and control voltage is varied then the output
of the amplitude is also varied.


















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4. PULSE POSITION MODULATION &
DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate pulse position modulation and demodulation signals and to study
the effect of amplitude of the modulating signal on output.

Apparatus required:

Name of the apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity
Resistors 3.9k, 3k, 10k, 680k Each one
Capacitors 0.01F, 60F 2,1
Function Generator 1MHz 1
RPS 0-30v,1A 1
CRO 0-30MHz 1
IC 555
Operating tem :SE 555 -55
o
C to 125
o
C
NE 555 0
o
to 70
o
C
Supply voltage :+5V to +18V
Timing :Sec to Hours
Sink current :200mA
Temperature stability :50 PPM/
o
C
change in temp or 0-005% /
o
C.
1
CRO Probes ---- 1

Theory:
In Pulse Position Modulation, both the pulse amplitude and pulse duration are
held constant but the position of the pulse is varied in proportional to the
sampled values of the message signal. Pulse time modulation is a class of
signaling techniques that encodes the sample values of an analog signal on to
the time axis of a digital signal and it is analogous to angle modulation
techniques. The two main types of PTM are PWM and PPM. In PPM the
analog sample value determines the position of a narrow pulse relative to the
clocking time. In PPM rise time of pulse decides the channel bandwidth. It has
low noise interference.



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Circuit Diagram:


Fig: 1 Pulse Position Modulation Circuit


Fig: 2 Demodulation Circuit





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Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram as shown in the fig 1.
2. Observe the sample output at pin 3 and observe the position of the pulses
on CRO and adjust the amplitude by slightly increasing the power supply.
Also observe the frequency of pulse output.
3. Apply the modulating signal, sinusoidal signal of 2V
(p-p)
(ac signal) 2v (p-p)
to the control pin 5 using function generator.
4. Now by varying the amplitude of the modulating signal, note down the
position of the pulses.
5. During the demodulation process, give the PPM signal as input to the
demodulated circuit as shown in Fig.2.
6. Observe the o/p on CRO.
7. Plot the waveform.
Observations:
Time period(ms) Modulating
signal
Amplitude(V
p-p
)
Pulse width ON
(ms)
Pulse width OFF
(ms)
Total Time
period(ms)
2 0.03 0.03 0.06
4 0.04 0.02 0.06
6 0.06 0.02 0.08





(a)





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(b)

Fig: 3 Waveforms of (a) Free Running Signal (b) Modulating Signal



Fig: 4 Output Waveform for Demodulation Circuit

Inferences:

At maximum amplitude of modulating signal, the position of pulse is maximum
and at minimum amplitude of modulating signal the position of pulse is
minimum. and the position of the pulse is varied in proportional to the amplitude
of the modulating signal.



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Questions:
1. What is the need of transistor in the demodulation circuit?
A. It converts the PPM to PWM.

2. How PPM is obtained from PWM signal?
A. PPM is obtained by applying the PWM signal to a monostable pulse
generator that trigger on trailing edges at its input and produced output
pulses of fixed duration

3. What is the effect of amplitude of the modulating signal on the output?
A. Time interval between the sampling pulses is varied in accordance with
the modulating signal.


















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5. TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING AND
DEMULTIPLEXING

Aim:
1. To study the 4 channel analog multiplexing and de multiplexing
2. To study the effect of sampling frequency on output signal
characteristics.
3. To study the effect of input signal amplitude on the output signal
characteristics.
Apparatus required:
1. Time Division Multiplexing and de multiplexing trainer Kit.
2. Dual Trace oscilloscope

Theory:
In PAM, PPM the pulse is present for a short duration and for most of the time
between the two pulses no signal is present. This free space between the pulses
can be occupied by pulses from other channels. This is known as Time Division
Multiplexing. Thus, time division multiplexing makes maximum utilization of the
transmission channel. Each channel to be transmitted is passed through the low
pass filter. The outputs of the low pass filters are connected to the rotating
sampling switch (or) commutator. It takes the sample from each channel per
revolution and rotates at the rate of f
s
. Thus the sampling frequency becomes f
s

the single signal composed due to multiplexing of input channels. These
channels signals are then passed through low pass reconstruction filters. If the
highest signal frequency present in all the channels is f
m
, then by sampling
theorem, the sampling frequency f
s
must be such that f
s
2f
m
. Therefore, the time
space between successive samples from any one input will be T
s
=1/f
s
, and
T
s
1/2f
m
.






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Circuit Diagram:

Fig: 1 Time Division Multiplexing And Demultiplexing Circuit
Procedure:
There are 4 signal sources;
a) AF Signal generator
b) Triangular wave generator
c) Square wave generator and
d) Sine wave generator
1. Connect these four signals to four inputs of the Multiplexer. Adjust each signal
amplitude to be with in +/-2V (p-p) and frequency non-over lapping within a
frequency band of 300Hz.
2. Connect A, B output of 7476 to A
1
, B
l
inputs of Multiplexer.
3. Adjust the frequency of IC 8038 (Square wave, triangular wave generator) to
be around 32 KHz, so that each of the Four channels are sampled at 8 KHz.
4. Adjust the pulse width of 555 timers to be around 10secs.
5. Observe the 4 output pin 11 of 7476 on one channel 1and TDM output pin 13
of CD4052 on second channel of oscilloscope. Synchronize scope Internal-CH
1 mode. All the multiplexed channels are observed during the full period of the
clock (1/32 KHz).
6. Connect TDM output to comparator ve input and saw tooth wave to +ve
Input. Observe the Comparator output. The PAM pulses are now converted in
to PWM pulses.
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7. Connect the PWM pulses to TDM input of De multiplexer at pin 3 of second
CD4052. Observe the individual outputs Y0, Y1, Y2, and Y3 at pin 1, 5, 2 & 4
of CD4052 respectively. The PWM pulses corresponding to each channels
are now separated as 4 streams.
8. Take one output and connect it to Low Pass Filter and the Low Pass Filter
output to Amplifier. Observe the output of the amplifier in conjunction with the
corresponding input. Repeat this for all 4 inputs. This is the Demodulated
TDM output. Any slight variation in frequency, amplitude is reflected in the
corresponding output.

Observations:

Input Signal Multiplexed output
S.No Type of Signal Amplitude
(V
p-p
)
Time period
(ms)
Time
Slot(ms)
No. of
cycles
1 AF signal 2 3.4 1.5 7
2 Sine wave 2 3.4 3.6 2
3 Square wave 2 3.4 2.4 1
4 Triangular wave 2 3.4 2 1






(a)
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(b)
Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) AF Signal and Triangular Wave (b) Square and Sine
Wave


Fig: 3 Multiplexed Output Waveform











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(a)






(b)

Fig: 4 Output Waveforms for (a & b) Demultiplexing Circuit

Inference:
Time division multiplexing and de multiplexing are observed.








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Questions:

1. What is TDM?
A. The TDM process produces a bandwidth expansion factor N
independent message sources into a time slot equal to sampling
interval.

2. Applications of TDM?
A. Telephony.

3. What is the effect of amplitude and frequency of input signals on
output?
A. If the amplitude and frequency of the output signal is varied in
accordance with the input signal.
















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6. PULSE CODE MODULATION AND
DE MODULATION

Aim:
To obtain the pulse code modulation and de modulation signals.

Apparatus required:
1. PCM trainer kit
2. Dual Trace Oscilloscope.

Theory:
Pulse Code Modulation is known as digital pulse modulation technique. In fact,
the pulse code modulation technique that the message signal is subjected to a
great number of operations. It consists of 3 main parts i.e., transmitter,
transmission path and receiver. The essential operations in the transmitter of a
PCM system are sampling, quantizing and encoding. Sampling is the operation in
which an analog signal is sampled according to the sampling theorem resulting in
a discrete time signal. The quantizing and encoding operations are usually
performed in the same circuit which is known as an ADC. Also, the essential
operations in the receiver are regeneration of impaired signals, decoding and
demodulation of the train of quantized samples. These operations are usually
performed in the same circuit which is known as digital to analog converter.
Further at intermediate points along the transmission route from the transmitter to
the receiver, regenerative repeaters are used to reconstruct the transmitted
sequence of coded pulses in order to combat the accumulated effects of signal
distortion and noise. The quantization refers to the use of a finite set of amplitude
levels and the selection of a level nearest to a particular sample value of the
message signal as the representation the system at transmission in which
sampled and quantized values of an analog signal are transmitted via a
sequence of code words is called Pulse Code Modulation. Two most commonly
used versions are the differential pulse code modulation and delta modulation.
The PCM communication system is shown in Fig1. In the circuit is often called an
analog to digital converter. The functional block that performs the task of
accepting binary digits and generating appropriate sequences of levels is called a
digital to analog converter. The bandwidth of PCM will be much greater than that
of the message. PCM is used to convert analog signals to binary form. Low pass
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filter may be used to reduce the quantization noise and it yields the original
message signal.

Circuit Diagram:



Fig: 1 Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation Circuit

Procedure:

1. Make the connections as per the diagram as shown in the Fig.1.and
switch on the power supply of the trainer kit.
2. Clock generator generates a 20 KHz clock .This can be given as
input to the timing and control circuit and observe the sampling
frequency f
s
=

2 KHz approximately at the output of timing and control
circuit.
3. Apply the signal generator output of 6V
(p-p)
approximately to the A to
D converter input and note down the binary word from LEDs i.e. LED
ON represents 1 & OFF represents 0
4. Feed the PCM waveform to the demodulator circuit and observe the
waveform at the output of D/A which is quantized level.

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Observations:



Amplitude: 7v (p-p)
Frequency: 100Hz

(a)






Amplitude: 6v (p-p)
Frequency: 2 KHz


(b)






Amplitude: 3.68v (p-p)

(c)
Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Modulating Signal (b) Sampling Signal (c) PCM output
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Amplitude: 6.4v (p-p)
Time period: 8ms
Frequency: 122.2Hz


Fig: 3 Output Waveform for Demodulation Circuit


Apply the DC control voltage

Bit sequence
DC voltage(v)
MSB LSB
-4

1100 0111
-3

1010 1101
-2

1001 0111
4

0001 0111
5

0011 1111


Inference:
Recovery of the transmitter information does not depend on the height, width (or)
energy content of the individual pulses but only on their presence or absence.
Thus noise immunity of a PCM signal is much more than any analog pulse
modulation signal.



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Questions:
1. What is the need of parallel to serial converter?
A. To transmit all the bits in one channel.

2. What is the use of companding?
A. Companding is used to overcome quantizing noise in PCM.

3. What are the applications of PCM?
A. Because of high immune to noise it can be used for storage systems in
CD recording.





















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7. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE CODE MODULATION AND
DEMODULATION

Aim:
To study the differential PCM & demodulation by sending variable
frequency sine wave & variable DC signal input.
Apparatus required:
1. AF oscillator
2. DPCM modulator
3. DPCM demodulator
4. Connecting wires
5. CRO - 30MHz
6. Variable DC Source 1
Theory:
In this DPCM instead of transmitting a base band signal m(t) we send the
difference signal of K
th
sample and (k-1)
th
sample value. The advantage here is
fewer levels are required to quantize the difference than the required to quantize
m(t) and correspondingly, fewer bits will be needed to encode the levels. If we
know the post behaviour of a signal up to a certain time, it is possible to make
some interference about its future values this is called prediction. The filter
designed to perform the prediction is called a predictor. The difference between
the interest and the predictor o/p is called the prediction error.

Circuit Diagram:


Fig:1 Differential Pulse Code Modulation Circuit

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Fig: 2 Differential Pulse Code Demodulation Circuit

Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental kit.
2. Apply the variable DC signal of amplitude 6v(p-p) with frequency of 80Hz
to the input terminals of DPCM modulator.
3. Observe the sampling signal of amplitude 5v (p-p) with frequency 20KHz
on channel 1 of a CRO.
4. Observe the output of DPCM on the second channel.
5. By adjusting the DC voltage potentiometer, observe the DPCM output.
6. During the demodulation connect DPCM output to the input of
demodulator and observe the output of DPCM demodulator.
Observations:





Amplitude: 5v(p-p)
Frequency:20KHz
(a)
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Amplitude: 6v(p-p)
Frequency:80Hz
(b)





Amplitude: 3.68v (p-p)




(c)
Fig: 3 Waveforms of (a) Sampling Signal (b) Modulating Signal (c) DPCM Output







Amplitude: 5.8v (p-p)
Step width: 1.4ms

(a)
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-
(b)

Fig. 4 Output of (a) D/A Converter (b) Demodulated


Inference:
The DPCM wave forms were generated and they are demodulated for DC input
signals. By using DPCM the overall bit rate is decreases and number of bits
required to transmit one sample is also reduced

Questions:
1. What is the effect sampling signal?
A. Sampling time interval should be greater than the A to D conversion time.
2. Write the advantage of DPCM compared with PCM?
A. It reduce the transmission bandwidth and for a constant signal to quantizing
noise ratio and a sampling rate of 8khz, the DPCM provides a saving of about
8-16 bit per second over standard PCM.
3. What is the one bit version of DPCM?
A. Delta Modulation is the one bit version of DPCM.




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8. DELTA MODULATION
Aim:
To obtain the delta modulation and demodulation signals.
Apparatus required:
1. Delta Modulation & Demodulation Kit
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 0-30MHz
Theory:
Delta modulation uses a single bit PCM code to achieve digital transmission of
analog signals with conventional PCM each code is binary representation of both
the sign and magnitude of a particular sample. With delta modulation, rather than
transmit a coded representation of the sample, only a single bit is transmitted,
which indicates whether that sample is larger or smaller than the previous
sample. The algorithm for a delta modulation system is quite simple. If the
current sample is smaller than the previous sample, a logic 0 is transmitted. If the
current sample is larger than the previous sample, a logic 1 is transmitted. The
input analog is sampled and converted to a PAM signal, which is compared to
the output of the DAC. The output of the DAC is a voltage equal to the
regenerated magnitude of the previous sample, which was stored in the up/down
counter as a binary number, The up/down counter is incremented or
decremented depending on whether the previous sample is larger or smaller than
the current sample. The up/down counter is clocked at a rate equal to the sample
rate. Therefore, the up/down counter is updated after each comparison.

Block Diagram:

Fig: 1 Delta Modulation Circuit

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Fig: 2 Delta Demodulation Circuit
Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental board.
2. Connect the clock signal of frequency of 10KHz,with amplitude of 5v(p-p)
to the delta modulator circuit.
3. Connect the modulating signal of amplitude 5v(p-p) and frequency of of
0.2KHz modulating input of the delta modulator
And observe the same on channel 1 of a Dual Trace oscilloscope.
4. Observe the Delta Modulator output on channel 2.
5. Connect this Delta modulator output to the Demodulator
6. Also connect the clock signal to the demodulator.
7. Observe the Demodulator output with and without RC filter on CRO.

Observations:








(a)

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(b)


(c)

Fig: 3 Waveforms (a) Clock input (b) Delta modulation output & message signal
(c) D/A converter output









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Fig: 4 Output Waveform for demodulating signal

Inference:
Delta Modulation signal is generated and demodulated.

Questions:
1. What is the slope overload effect?
A. In general the step size we choose to quantize is fixed. So under
maximum slope of the signal this step size becomes small to follow the
steep of the input waveform. This condition is called slope - overload and
the resulting quantizing error is called slope overload noise.

2. What is granular noise?
A. Granular noise corresponds to the error due to quantization in the 1 bit
coding process.

3. Write the advantage of DM over PCM?
A. Dm transmits only one bit for one sample, thus the signaling rate and
channel bandwidth is very small, where as in PCM 4,8,or 6 bits are used per
sample.

4. What is the effect of the Low Pass Filter cut off frequency on output of
demodulator?
A. If the modulating signal frequency is higher than the low pass filter cut off
frequency the signal will be attenuated.

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9. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

Aim:
To generate the waveforms of frequency shift keying
Apparatus required:
Name of the apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity
Resistors 33k 2
Capacitors 0.01F, 100pF Each one
Function Generator 0-1MHz 1
RPS 0-30V, 1A 1
CRO 0-30MHz 1
IC 8038
Supply voltage - 18V or 36V
Power dissipation 750mW
1
CRO Probes ---- 1

Theory:
FSK signaling schemes find a wide range of applications in low-speed digital
data transmission system. FSK schemes are not as efficient as PSK interms of
power and bandwidth utilization. In binary FSK signaling the waveforms are used
to convey binary digits 0 and 1 respectively. The binary FSK waveform is a
continuous, phase constant envelope FM waveform. The FSK signal bandwidth
in this case is of order of 2MHz, which is same as the order of the bandwidth of
PSK signal.










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Circuit Diagram:

Fig: 1 Frequency Shift Keying

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1
2. Apply the (binary) Data input of amplitude 20V (p-p) with frequency of 6 KHz
from function generator to pin no.7.
3. Give the power supply of 10v to the appropriate pins.
4. Observe the FSK output at pin no.2.
5. Now note down the mark and space frequencies for different carrier
frequencies.
6. Calculate the maximum frequency deviation and modulation index.
7. Repeat the steps (5) and (6) for different pulse durations of binary input.






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Observations:




Amplitude: 5v (p-p)
Frequency: 50 KHz

(a)





Amplitude: 20v (p-p)
Frequency: 6 KHz
Positive width: 90.80s
Negative width: 87.42s

(b)


Amplitude: 5.8v (p-p)
Time period: 48s
Frequency: 20.83 KHz
Positive width: 12.45s
Negative width: 35.55s


(c)
Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Carrier wave (b) Data input (c) FSK Wave

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Amplitude: 14.2v (p-p)
Frequency: 5.6 KHz
Time Period: 178s





Fig: 3 Output Waveform for Demodulated Signal

Inference:
The frequency of the sinusoidal carrier is switched depending upon the i/p
binary signal

Questions:

1. Write the advantage of FSK compared to ASK?
A. It has constant modulated signal envelope and equal conditional error
probability for both the digits.

2. What is the disadvantage of FSK compared with ASK & PSK?
A. The bandwidth of FSK signal is higher than that of ASK &PSK signal

3. What is the effect of R1, C2 values on the output?
A. If R1, C2 values are changed the time period of the carrier will change.




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10. PHASE SHIFT KEYING
Aim:
To generate the waveforms of phase shift keying.

Apparatus required:

Name of the apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity
Diodes(IN4007) Max Voltage:45V 4
Transformers 7V-0-7V 2
Function Generator 0-1MHz 2
CRO 0-30MHz 1
CRO Probes ---- 1

Theory:
Circuit diagram of PSK as shown in Fig.1. The phase of carrier is shifted between
two values is called Phase Shift Keying. The amplitude of carrier remains
constant. Phase Shift Keying is also called Phase Reversal Keying. The
performance of PSK is more than ASK. PSK is a non linear modulation. PSK
needs a complicated. Synchronous circuit at the receiver. The bandwidth of PSK
is 2f
m
.

Circuit Diagram:


Fig: 1 Phase Shift Keying Circuit
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Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental board.
2. Apply the carrier signal of amplitude7v (p-p) with frequency of 4 KHz to the
modulator input and observe the signal on the channel of the CRO.
3. Apply the modulating signal of amplitude 6V (p-p) and frequency of 0.5 KHz
to pin.11.
4. Observe the output of PSK modulator on the channel 2 of the CRO.

Observations:






(a)






Amplitude: 6v (p-p)
Frequency: 1 KHz

(b)
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Amplitude: 6v (p-p)


(c)

Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Carrier signal (b) Modulating signal (c) PSK output

Inference:
The PSK waveform was generated for different message signals .and the phase
of the carrier is switched depending upon the input binary signal
Questions:
1. Drawback of DPSK compared to BPSK?
A DPSK uses two successive bits for its reception .error in the first bit creates
error in the second bit. Therefore error propagation in DPSK is more .on the
other hand in BPSK single bit can go in error since detection of each bit is
independent
2. Write the advantage of BPSK over the BPSK?
A Bandwidth requirement of BPSK is double the bandwidth requirement of
BPSK
3. What is the effect of carrier amplitude on the output?
A. The amplitude of the output can be varied by changing the carrier amplitude.
4. What is the effect of modulating signal frequency on the output?
A. The phase difference interval can be varied by changing the frequency of the
modulating signal



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11. DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION
AND DEMODULATION
Aim:
To study the various steps involved in generating the differential phase
shift keyed signal and the binary signal from the received DPSK signal

Apparatus required:
1. DPSK trainer board
2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (0-30MHz)
Theory:
The differentially coherent PSK signaling scheme make use of a technique
designed to get around the need for a coherent reference signal at the receiver.
In the DPSK scheme, the phase reference for demodulation is derived from the
phase of the carrier during the preceding signaling interval, and the receiver
decodes the digital information based on the differential phase.
Circuit Diagram:


Fig: 1 Differential Phase Shift Keying Circuit


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Procedure:
1. Switch on the experimental board.
2. Check the carrier signal and the data generator signals initially.
3. Apply the carrier signal of amplitude 6v (p-p) with frequency of1KHz to the
carrier input, the data input of amplitude 5v (p-p) with frequency of 600Hz
to the data input and bit clock of amplitude 5v (p-p) with and frequency of
1 KHz to the DPSK modulator.
4. Observe the DPSK wave of amplitude 5.6v (p-p) and frequency of 1 KHz
with respect to the input data generated signal of dual trace oscilloscope.
5. Give the output of the DPSK modulator signal to the input of demodulator,
give the bit clock output to the bit clock input to the demodulator and also
give the carrier output to the carrier input of demodulator.
6. Observe the demodulator output with respect to data generator signal.

Observations:

(a)




(b)
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(c)






(d)


Amplitude: 5.6v
Frequency: 1.16 KHz
Time period: 860s

(e)
Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Carrier signal (b) Bit clock (c) Data input (d) Differential
data (e) DPSK wave

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Fig: 3 Output Waveform for demodulated Wave

Inference:
The DPSK waveform was generated and demodulated for the binary
message signal.

Questions:

1. Write the advantage of DPSK?
A. DPSK does not need a synchronous carrier at the demodulator


2. What is the drawback of DPSK compared to PSK system?
A. DPSK uses two successive bits for its reception .error in the first bit creates
error in the second bit. Therefore error propagation in Dpsk is more .on the
other hand in BPSK single bit can go in error since detection of each bit is
independent.

3. What is the effect of carrier amplitude on the output of DPSK?
A. The amplitude of the DPSK is same as the amplitude of the carrier signal
if it is varied the amplitude of the DPSK will vary.




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12. AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING
Aim:
To generate the waveforms of Amplitude Shift Keying.

Apparatus required:

Name of the Apparatus Specifications/Range Quantity
Resistors 1.2K, 3
Transistor BC 107 2
CRO 30MHz 1
Function generator 0-1MHz 1
Regulated Power Supply 0-30V, 1A 1
CRO Probes --- 1

Theory:

The binary ASK system was one of the earliest form of digital modulation used in
wireless telegraphy. In an binary ASK system binary symbol 1 is represented by
transmitting a sinusoidal carrier wave of fixed amplitude A
c
and fixed frequency f
c

for the bit duration T
b
where as binary symbol 0 is represented by switching of the
carrier for T
b
seconds. This signal can be generated simply by turning the carrier
of a sinusoidal oscillator ON and OFF for the prescribed periods indicated by the
modulating pulse train. For this reason the scheme is also known as on-off shift
testing. Let the sinusoidal carrier can be represented by Ec (t) =A
c
cos (2f
c
t)
then the binary ASK signal can be represented by a wave s(t) given by S(t) =
A
c
cos(2f
c
t), symbol 1 ASK signal can be generated by applying the incoming
binary data and the sinusoidal carrier to the two inputs of a product modulator.
The resulting output is the ASK wave. The ASK signal which is basically product
of the binary sequence and carrier signal has a same as that of base band signal
but shifted in the frequency domain by f
c
. The band width of ASK signal is
infinite but practically it is 3/T
b
.





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Circuit Diagram:


Fig: 1 Amplitude Shift Keying Circuit

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the supply.
3. Apply the sinusoidal carrier signal from the function generator to the collector
terminal of the transistor with 10v (p-p) amplitude and10KHz frequency.
4. Apply the Binary signal from the pulse generator to the Base terminal of the
transistor with 5v (p-p) amplitude and 2 KHz frequency.
5. Observe the output of ON/OFF keying from ASK modulator circuit using CRO.
6. Now vary the Amplitude and frequency of the binary signal and observe the
output changes of ASK modulated Wave & compare it with the modulating
data signal applied to the modulator input.







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Observations:


(a)




Amplitude: 4v (p-p)
Frequency: 2 KHz

Amplitude: 4v (p-p)
Frequency:2KHz

(b)

Fig: 2 Waveforms of (a) Carrier signal (b) Data signal & ASK wave

Inference:
The ASK waveform was generated for different values of message signal. And
amplitude of the carrier is switched depending on the input binary signal



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Questions:

1. Why we are not preferred ASK over PSK and FSK?
A Because of constant amplitude of FSK & PSK the effect of non linearties,
noise interference is minimum on signal detection However these effects are
more pronounced on Ask

2. What is another name of ASK modulation scheme?
A. ON OFF Keying
3. What is the Effect of carrier amplitude, frequency, V cc on the output?
A. The amplitude of the output varies depending upon the V cc and the amplitude
of the carrier.


















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APPENDIX

Name of the
component
Important Specifications Pin Diagram
74LS00
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low Max- 80mA

74LS08
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High Max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low Max- 80mA

74LS74
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Power supply current - 8.0mA


74138
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High Max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low Max- 80mA


74194
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA


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74LS374
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
High level input voltage min 2V
Low level input voltage max 0.8V
High level output current max -2.4mA
Low level output current max- 24mA
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C


74151
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA

74LS163
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA


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74LS164
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA


74165
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Free air operating temperature- 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Supply Current max 36mA
Clock frequency 25MHz
Pulse width (Clock) 25ns



74168
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Power supply current 34mA


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74193
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Clock frequency 25MHz
Supply Current max 34mA

74LS86
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA

74LS90
Supply Voltage Min 4.75V
Supply Voltage Max 5.25V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Output Current High max - -0.4mA
Output Current Low max - 80mA

LM311
Input voltage Range - -14.5V to 13V
Voltage gain 40V/mV
Saturation voltage 1.5V
Positive Supply Current 7.5mA
Negative Supply Current 5mA

LM324
Wide power supply rating 3V to 32V
Operating temperature Range 0
o
C to
+70
o
C
Storage temperature - (-65
o
C to +150
o
C)

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DAC0800
Supply Voltage 5V
Operating temperature Range (-55
o
C to
+125
o
C)
Power Dissipation -500mW
Input current 5mA
Storage temperature - (-65
o
C to +150
o
C)

ADC0800
Supply voltage 5V
Clock range 50 to 800KHz
Operating temperature Range (-55
o
C to
+125
o
C)
Power supply current 20mA

CD4051
Supply voltage - +5V to 18V
Operating temperature Range (-40
o
C to
+80
o
C)
Storage temperature - (-65
o
C to +150
o
C)
Power dissipation 700mW

CD4052
Supply voltage - +5V to 18V
Operating temperature Range (-40
o
C to
+80
o
C)
Storage temperature - (-65
o
C to +150
o
C)
Power dissipation 700mW

8038
Simultaneous outputs sine wave
Square wave and Triangle
Low distortion 1%
High linearity 01%
Easy to use 50% reduction in external
components
Wide frequency range of operation 0.001
Hz to 1.0Mhz
Variable duty cycle 2% to 98%




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Supply voltage - 18V or 36V total
Power dissipation 750mW
Input voltage (any pin) Not to exceed
supply voltages
Input current (pins 4 and 5 ) 25mA
Operating temperature range: 55
o
C to
+125
o
C

A741
Supply Voltage 22V
Power Dissipation 500mW
Differential input voltage 30V
Input voltage 15V
Operating Temperature -55
o
to +125
o
C
Storage Temperature range -55
o
to
+150
o
C

TL084
Supply Voltage 18V
Power Dissipation 680mW
Input voltage 15V
Operating Temperature -0
o
to +70
o
C
Storage Temperature range -65
o
to
+150
o
C


IC 555
Operating tem :SE 555 -55
o
C to 125
o
C
NE 555 0
o
to 70
o
C
Supply voltage :+5V to +18V
Timing :Sec to Hours
Sink current :200mA
Temperature stability :50 PPM/
o
C change
in temp or 0-005% /
o
C.










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REFERENCES:

Digital Communications - by John Proakis, TMH
Communication Systems - by Simon Hay kin, John Wiley
Communication Systems by Sanjay Sharma
Digital Communication Fundamentals & Applications by
Bernard Sklar
Principles of Digital Communications by P.Chakrabarthi