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Problem Set 6

MH2100 Solutions
For more practice: Stewart: Section 15.1; Section 15.2; Section 15.3, exercises Section 15.4, exercises Section 15.6, exercises Section 15.8, exercises Section 15.9, exercises

7-32, 5-27, 1-14, 7-12, 1-34.

37-54; 29-41; 21-24; 17-30;

Questions on understanding the lecture

E Assume that a region D R2 is bounded by half-lines = and = and the graph of a non-negative function = ( ) in polar coordinates. Show that

Area of D =

1 2

[ ( )]2

The area is
D ( ) 0

1 = 2

( ) :)

Calculating double and triple integrals

E For the following double integrals, draw the region of integration, change the order of integration, and evaluate them:
2 2
2

(a)
0

2 S
2

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

2 0 1

2
2

2
2

2
2 2

2
1
3

=
0 0

=
0

=
0

:)

(b)
0

3 S
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 0

1
3

1
3

3
1 1 0

=
0 0

=
0

=
0

:)

(c) S

3 4+

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 0

3 4+

1 3

=
0 0

3 4+

1 3

=
0

3 2 4+ 3

= ln(4 +

)
0

= ln

5 4

:)

E + S E

Compute the volume of the solid bounded by the surfaces = 6, and + = 8. The solid is shown in Figure 1. Its volume is For the triple integral
2 0 0 4
2

= 4,

4 0

8 6

64 . 3

:)

2+ 2

sketch the solid whose volume is taken and rewrite the integral as

Figure 1: Region of integration in Exercise 3

Figure 2: Region of integration in Exercise 4

Figure 3: Region of integration in Exercise 5 S The solid is a quarter of the cone (see Figure 2), the integral would be
2 0 2 0
2 2

:) , where the volume V is

Evaluate the triple integral =


2 3 0 0

2 3 V

bounded by the surfaces


1 0

= ,

= 1,
1 . 364

= 0.

It is

:)

3
E

Calculation with change of variables

Evaluate the area enclosed by the curve ( 2 + 2 )2 = ( 3 3 2 ), where > 0 is a parameter. Hint : You can re-write the equations dening the curve using polar coordinates, and then apply the result of Exercise 2. Next, you will have to take some care in nding the integration limits and .

In polar coordinates, the curve can be rewritten as


4

= (

cos3 3( cos )( sin )2 )

Or, = (cos3 3 cos sin2 ) Note that, we have cos(3 ) = cos( + 2 ) = cos cos(2 ) sin sin(2 ) = cos (cos2 sin2 ) 2 sin2 cos = cos3 3 cos sin2 Thus, the curve is given by = cos 3 in polar coordinates. Further, since 0, we + 2 3 + 2 or + 2 + 2 . must have cos 3 0, that is, 2 2 6 3 6 3 Further, we consider values of on a particular interval of length 2 . Here its 11 and then we see that solutions of cos 3 0 for convenient to let 6 6 6 11 3 5 7 9 6 are intervals 6 6 , 6 6 , 6 6 . Obviously, all three integrals are equal (it means that the curve has a rotational symmetry it doesnt change under rotation by 120 ). Apply the result in exercise 4, we conclude that the area is 3 2 E
6

2 6

3 ( ) = 2
2

2 6

cos 3 = 3
2

2 0

2 1 + cos 6 = 2 4

:)

Evaluate R2 (The improper integral R2 2 Cartesian coordinates and as 0


2

and use it to compute . 2 can be evaluated as 2 in polar coordinates).

2 2

in

In polar coordinates, we have


R2
2 2

0
2

=
0

= 2 2
0

On the other hand,



2 2 2

= and hence

= = .

2
2

:) 6

E ing solids: (a) (b) ( (c) ( S


2

Applying cylindrical or spherical coordinates, nd the volume of the follow2

+ + +

+ + +

2 ) ) 3

,
2

2 2

+ +

2 2

2 2

, where ).

> 0.

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

(a) Both spherical and cylindrical coordinates can be applied. In cylindrical coordinates, we have 2 + 2 2 and 2 2 , that is, 2 + ( )2 2 and ( )( + ) 0. Since 0 (as this follows from 2 2 + 2 + 2 0) and 0, it follows that . Moreover, the condition 2 + ( )2 2 implies that ( )2 2 2 which is meaningful only when . In this case, we have 2 2 2 2 . Note that we also have + and it is easy to 2 2 2 2 , now squaring (this is equivalent to (0 ) see that both sides and simplifying the expressions, its easy to see that this inequality is equivalent to ). Hence the volume is
2 0 0 2 +
2 2

= 2
0

+
3

= 2 2

1 3

2 3/ 2

= 2
0

+ 2

1 3

2 3/ 2

On the other hand, we can do the same in spherical coordinates. The region is given by 2 cos (and hence 0 ) and sin2 cos2 (and hence 2 0 4 ). Thus the volume is
2 0 0 /4 0 3 2 cos

2 sin

= cos4 4

16 3
/4

/4

cos3

sin

16 = 3

=
0

(b) First of all, notice that region is symmetric under reection from each of the planes O , O , and O and hence its enough to compute the volume for 0 and multiply the answer with 8. 7

Further, in spherical coordinates, we are considering is given by 2


2

0 implies that 0 cos2 ) =


4 2

. The volume 2

(sin2

cos 2

and hence cos 2 0, which implies


2 2 4

. Thus the answer is 2


3
4 2

cos 2

8
0

sin
2 0
2 4

4 = 3

( cos 2 )3/2 sin


1 2

4 3

(1 2 cos =
sin 2
2

3/ 2

sin

4 = 3

3 0

(1 2

2 3/ 2

Further, substituting 4 3 3 2 4 3 3 2

, we obtain
4

cos
0
2

4 3 = 3 2
1+cos 4 2

1 + cos 2 2 =

1 + 2 cos 2 + 4
2

4 3 3 2 3 = 3 2 16 4 2 0 and hence there are the 0; 0 0 0

(c) First, notice that ( 2 + following four cases: 0; 0

2 2

) 3 0;

implies 0 0

Also notice that changing signs of two of the three coordinates doesnt change the inequality. Hence we have for equal parts of the region, so we can nd the volume for 0 and multiply with 4. Further, in spherical coordinates we

have 3 cos

sin2 4
0

cos sin and hence the answer is


2 2

3 cos 0

sin2

cos sin

2 sin

= =

0
2 2

36
0
2

cos3
0

sin6

cos3 sin3 sin


2

36
0 1

cos sin
3 3 0 1

cos3

sin7 1 1 4 6

= 1 1 8 10 3 40

36
0

(1

(1

= 36

:)

Questions on logical thinking


][ ] = =1 [ ]. Assume that it can be partitioned into ][ ]

E Consider a rectangle [ smaller rectangles as [ ][

where ( )( )( )( ) = for = . Assume also that for each = 1 we either have Z or Z. Prove that either Z or Z. Note: This is a problem that looks quite dicult, but there is a very elegant but unexpected solution. This elegant solution is quite clever and not easy to come up with, so in order to help you along, I have outlined some steps you can follow below. (a) Show that
B A

sin 2 ( + )

= 0 for all R if and only if B A is an integer.


[ ][ ]

(b) Show that sin 2 ( + )

Z or Z if and only if = 0 for all R.

sin 2 ( + )

(c) With the small rectangles dened above, what is


][

sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )
]

(d) Hence, what is


[ ][

sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )
]

(e) The result can now be concluded. S


B A

(a) First, if B A Z then for any we have sin 2 ( + ) cos 2 ( + ) 1 [cos(2A+2)cos(2B+2)] = = 2 2 =A 1 [cos(2A + 2) cos(2A + 2 + 2 (B A))] = 0 = 2
Z B

since cos has period 2 . On the other hand, suppose B A Z. Then there exists an , that is = A for which we get, using the same calculation,
B A

sin 2 ( + )

==

1 [cos(2A + 2) cos(2A + 2 + 2 (B A))] = 2 1 1 [cos 0 cos 2 (B A)] = [1 cos 2 (B A)] = 0 2 2


Z =1

(b) We have
][

sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )

= =

sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )
indep. of

sin 2 ( + )

sin 2 ( + )
indep. of

sin 2 ( + )

sin 2 ( + ) Z or Z if

Thus, using the result from part (a), we see that we have and only if
[ ][

sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )
]

=0

for any R. 10

(c) Since by assumption,

Z or

Z, part (b) tells us that

][

sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )
]

for all , . (d) Since the small rectangles [ ][ ] dont overlap and their union is the big rectangle [ ][ ], we have by the additivity of integration and by part (c) that

][

sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )
]

= sin 2 ( + ) sin 2 ( + )
]

=1

][

=0

for all R. (e) Using part (d) together with part (b) again, tells us that E Evaluate the integral
2+ 2 2 2 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 1

Z or

Z.

:)

Hint: use two copies of polar coordinates for S Let Jacobian is = cos , = sin , = cos ,

and for =

respectively. 0 and 0. The

sin with

cos sin 0 0 sin cos 0 0 0 0 cos sin 0 0 sin cos

11

Hence the integral is


2 0 0 2
2 + 2 1 2 2

1 0

2 2 2

= 4
1
2

2 0

=
2

2 0

2 2

=0 = 1 1

= 2 1

2 0

2 2 1

1 2

= 2
0

+ 2

1 2

= 2 (cosh 1 1) :)

Modify spherical substitution to nd the volume of the solid


2 2 2 4

S Notice that the solid is symmetric under reection from each of the coordinate planes O , O , and O and hence its enough to nd the volume for 0 and multiply with 8. Further, let cos = cos sin = sin sin = This is a one-to-one map for > 0 since its a composition of spherical substitution, stretching, and square root. Thus we can use it for the given volume integral. Further, the Jacobian is cos sin cos cos sin sin sin sin sin cos cos sin cos sin 1 2 0 2 cos Expanding along the last row, we obtain 2 2
2 2

cos

sin

cos

sin 2

cos

sin

= sin 2 cos

Thus the answer is


1 0

4
0 0

sin cos

=4

2 8 2 [2 cos ]0 = 2 5 5

:)

12

5
E

Extra examples
2

Find the volume of the wedge cut from the cylinder = and = 0 for 0. Applying polar coordinates, nd the area given by
2

= 1 by planes

2 2

Here S

> 0. In polar coordinates, the region can be rewritten as


4

cos2

sin2 );

which is equivalent to
2

cos 2

Thus, we must have 2 Or equivalently, cos 2 which implies that + 2 2 + 2 3 3 1 2


2

cos 2

for any Z. We can take [ ] so that 2 [2 2 ]). In this case, the above inequalities imply that the only possible s we can take here are = 0 1 and we have So that 6 6 5 6 5 6 2 3 3 or 2 2 2 3 or + 2 2 2 3

13

It follows that the area of the region is given by


6

cos 2

56

cos 2

cos 2

5 6

First, we have
6

2
2

cos 2

= 2
2

1 2

sin 2 2

6
2
2

) 2 3 3 = 6

cos 2

1 = 2

(2

cos 2

Similarly, we have
56

cos 2

1 2

5 6

sin 2 2
2

56

1 6 (2 2 cos 2 = 2 2 3 3 2 ; = 6 12

cos 2

= 2
2

1 2

1 = 2

sin 2 2

5 6

6
2

3 3 = 12

5 6

(2

cos 2
2

By adding up these results, we obtain that the area is 3 3 2 3 E Applying some clever substitution, compute
A

:)

cos

where A is the trapezoidal region with vertices (1 0), (2 0), (0 2), and (0 1). S We consider the substitution = , = + so that = ( + )/2 = ( )/2 and in terms of , the region is given by 1/2 1 . Moreover, the Jacobian is given by 1 1 =2 1 1 14

Thus, we have cos


1

+ = 3 sin 1 2

=2
1 2

cos

=2
1 2

sin

=4 sin 1
1 2

:)

E faces S

Applying cylindrical coordinates, evaluate the volume bounded by the sur+ and ( 2 + 2 )2 = 2 , = 0 for > 0 and > 0. First, note that the curve (
4 2

2 2

) =2
2

can be rewritten as sin 2

=2

cos sin =

which is equivalent to
2

= sin 2

Thus, in the cylindrical coordinates, the volume is given by


/2 0 0 sin 2 0 (cos +sin ) /2 sin 2 2 0 0

= = Note that 1 3
/2 0

(cos + sin )

(cos + sin )(sin 2 )3/2

2 2 + cos 2 2 = 2 sin( + ) = 2 sin cos + cos sin 4 4 4 cos + sin = 2 sin which implies that 1 3
/2

(cos + sin )(sin 2 )


3/ 2

2 = 3

/2

sin( +
0

)(sin 2 )3/2 4

15

In the integral above, we substitute = + /4 to recast it as 2 /2 2 3/4 3/ 2 = sin( + )(sin 2 ) sin (sin 2( ))3/2 3 4 3 /4 4 0 3/4 3/4 2 2 = sin (sin(2 ))3/2 = sin ( cos 2 )3/2 3 /4 2 3 /4 2 3/4 = sin (1 2 cos2 )3/2 3 /4 We set 2 3 = cos
3/4 /4

in the above integral to recast it as

2 2

sin (1 2 cos2 )3/2

2 = 3

2 2

(1 2 2 )3/2 2 = 3

2 2 2 2

(1 ( 2 )2 )3/2

We further set

2 to recast the above integral as 2 3


2 2 2 2

(1 ( 2 )2 )3/2

= 2 1 3 2
1 1

(1

2 3/ 2

Lastly, we set

= sin with [/2 /2] to recast the integral above as 1 2 1 1 /2 2 3/ 2 (1 ) = (1 sin2 )3/2 sin 3 3 /2 2 1 /2 1 = cos4 3 /2

Now 1 3 =
/2 /2

cos4
/2 /2

1 3
2

/2 /2

1 + cos 2 2 = 1 + 12 3
/2 /2

1 3

/2 /2

1 cos2 2 + cos 2 + 4 4 = + = 12 24 8

1 +0+ 12 3

cos 2 4

1 + cos 4 8

Thus, the volume is 8 :)

16