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A PROJECT REPORT ON SELECTION AND RECRUITMENT PROCESS IN WIPRO"

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CERTIFICATE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE

REASERCH- METHODOLOGY
COMPANY PROFILE LITRATURE SURVEY SCOPE QUESTIONAAIRE DATA ANALYSIS FINDINGS SUGGESTIONS BIBLOGRAPHY CONCLUSION

4 6 8 10 15 22 40 43 51 52 53

CONTENTS

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

Human Resource is a basic need of any work to be done. According to ARTHUR LEWIS:

There are great differences in development between countries which seem to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquire into the difference in human behaviors

The project report is all about recruitment and selection process thats an important part of any organization. Recruitment highlights each applicants skills, talents and experience. Their selection involves developing a list of qualified candidates, defining a selection strategy, identifying qualified candidates, thoroughly evaluating qualified candidates and selecting the most qualified candidate. It is said if right person is appointed at right place the half work has been done. In this project I have tried to cover all the important point that should be kept in mind while recruitment and selection process and have conducted a research study through a questionnaire that I got it filled with all the sales managers of the WIPRO and tried to find out which methods and various other information related to recruitment and selection and tries to come to a conclusion at what time mostly the
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manpower planning is done , what are the various method used for recruiting the candidates and on what basis the selections is done.

OBJECTIVE

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OBJECTIVE

a. To study the recruitment and selection procedure followed in WIPRO

b. To study the various sources of recruitment followed in WIPRO.

c. To learn what is the process of recruitment and selection that should be followed.

d. To search or headhunt people whose skill fits into the Companys values.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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REASERCH METHODOLOGY

Research was carried out at WIPRO. Ltd to find out the Recruitment

and selection process.

DATA COLLECTION: Primary Data:


Primary data was collected through survey method by distributing questionnaires to Branch manager and other sales manager. The questionnaires were carefully designed by taking into account the parameters of my study.

Secondary Data:
The Secondary Data is that which is already collected and stored or we can say already saved or ready data by others. The Secondary Data was collected from books, magazines, web sites and by going through the records of the organization.

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COMPANY PROFILE

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COMPANY PROFILE
Wipro started as a vegetable oil company in 1947 from an old mill founded byAzim Premji's father. When his father died in 1966, Azim, graduate in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, took on the leadership of the company at the age 21. He repositioned it and transformed Wipro (Western India Vegetable Products Ltd) into a consumer goods company that produced hydrogenated cooking oils/fat company, laundry soap, wax and tin containers and later set up Wipro Fluid Power to manufacture hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders in 1975. At that time, it was valued at $2 million. In 1977, when IBM was asked to leave India, Wipro entered the information technology sector. In 1979, Wipro began developing its own computers and in 1981, started selling the finished product. This was the first in a string of products that would make Wipro one of India's first computer makers. The company licensed technology from Sentinel Computers in the United States and began building India's first mini-computers. Wipro hired managers who were computer savvy, and strong on business experience. In 1980 Wipro moved in software development and started developing customized software packages for their hardware customers. This expanded their IT business and subsequently invented the first Indian 8086 chip. Since 1992, Wipro began to grow its roots off shore in United States and by2000 Wipro Ltd ADRs were listed on the New York Stock Exchange with over 25 years in the Information
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Technology business, Wipro Technologies is the largest outsourced R & D Services provider and one of the pioneers in the remote delivery of IT services. Being a global provider of consulting, IT Services, outsourced R&D, infrastructure outsourcing and business process services, we deliver technology-driven business solutions that meet the strategic objectives of our Global 2000 customers. Wipro today employs 96,000 people in over 50 countries. A career at Wipro means to learn and grow continuously, opportunities to work on the latest technologies alongside the finest minds in the industry, competitive salaries, stock options and excellent benefits.

Wipro IT Business, a division of Wipro Limited (NYSE:WIT), is amongst the largest global IT services, BPO and Product Engineering companies. In addition to the IT business, Wipro also has leadership position in niche market segments of consumer products and lighting solutions. The company has been listed since 1945 and started its technology business in 1980. Today, Wipro generates USD 6 billion (India GAAP figure 2009-10) of annual revenues. Its equity shares are listed in India on the Mumbai Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange; as well as on the New York Stock Exchange in the US.

Wipro makes an ideal partner for organizations looking at transformational IT solutions because of its core capabilities, great human resources, commitment to quality and the global infrastructure to deliver a wide range of technology and business consulting solutions and services, 24/7. Wipro enables business results by being a transformation catalyst. It offers integrated portfolio of services to its
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clients in the areas of Consulting, System Integration and Outsourcing for keyindustry verticals.

LEADERSHIP AT WIPRO
With more than 100,000 associates from over 70 nationalities and 72 plus global delivery centers in over 55 countries, Wipros services span financial services, retail, transportation, manufacturing, healthcare services, energy and utilities, technology, telecom and media. Wipros unwavering focus has been on business transformation with matchless innovation in service delivery and business models. More than 800 active clients that include governments, educational institutes,
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utility services, and over 150 Global Fortune 500 enterprises have benefited from this approach. Wipro is at the forefront of technological and business co-innovation with 136 patents and invention disclosures. With enhanced business performance at the core of its deliveries due to its strong R&D and Innovation focus, Wipro gets an enviable 95 percent repeat business. We make our clients business more efficient through a combination of process transformation, outsourcing, consulting and technology products and services. As the worlds first SEI CMM Level 5 Company, Wipro endeavors to deliver reliability and effectiveness to its customers by maintaining high standards in service offerings through robust internal processes and people management systems.

INNOVATION AT WIPRO
One of the worlds largest third party R&D services provider, Wipro caters to product engineering requirements in multiple domains. Most of the technology that you come across in daily life - airplanes, automobile navigation systems, cell phones, computing servers, drug delivery devices, microwaves, printers, refrigerators, set top boxes, TVs - will find a Wipro component in them. Our service portfolio includes product strategy and architecture, application and embedded software, electronic and mechanical hardware, system testing, compliance and certification and product sustenance and support.

Wipro believes that certain core technologies have a significant impact on business competitiveness going forward. Towards that direction, Wipros Research and Development activity is currently focused on Cloud Computing, Collaboration, Green Technologies, Mobility Applications, Social Computing, Information
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Management and Security. World over, businesses are transforming constantly, in order to get better and better. Wipro provides the right insight, technology and support to help businesses transform, making business functions simpler, faster and better. In other words, Wipro transforms businesses that help transform lives.

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LITRATURE SURVEY

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MEANING OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Human Resource plays a crucial role in the development process of the modern economics. ARTHUR LEWIS observed

There are great differences in development between countries which seem to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquire into the difference in human behaviors
Human resource management is the management of employees skill, knowledge, abilities, talent, aptitude, creativity, ability etc. Different terms are used for denoting Human Resource Management they are labor management, labor administration labor management relationship, employee employer relationship, industrial relationship, human capital management, human assent management etc. Though these terms can be used differently widely, the basic nature of distinction lies in the scope or coverage and evolutionary stage. In simple sense, human resource management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements.

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FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Administration:


Strategic planning, organizational evaluation, County Board relations, policy recommendations, supervision of department staff

Benefits:
Health insurance, dental insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, retirement benefits, vacation, sick leave, paid holidays, section 125 plan, donor program, educational incentive, uniform allowance, and others.

Compensation:
Salary and benefit surveys, job evaluation, job descriptions evaluation, job descriptions

Employee relation:
Disciplinary processes, incident investigations, complaint/grievance procedures, labor-management relations.

Employee services:
Enrollment in benefits, employee discounts for recreational spots, resolution of enrollment or claim problems, employee newsletter, Educational assistance, employee service awards.

Fiscal:
Staffing budgets, departmental budget, accounts payable, insurance receivables,
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insurance fund management, total package costing, Insurance receivables, insurance fund management, total package costing.

Health and safety:


Employee assistance, workers compensation claims, drug testing, safety compliance and training.

Leaves of absence:
State and/or Federal Family and Medical Leave rights, County approved leaves of absence, rights upon return to work, light duty assignments for temporary periods.

Payroll administration:
Computer-based or manual evaluation systems, supervisory training, compliance with timeliness standards

Performance appraisal:
Employee files, litigation files, payroll records, safety records and other administrative files

Record-keeping:
Job posting, advertising, testing administration, employment background investigations, post-offer employment testing. interviews,

Recruitment:
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Recruitment is defined as a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures fir meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ to employ effective measures for attracting the manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an effective workforce

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Selection:
After identifying the sources of human resources, searching for prospective employees and stimulation helps to apply for jobs in an organization, the management has to perform the function of selecting the right man at right job and at the right time.

Separations and terminations:


Rights upon termination of employee, severance benefits, unemployment compensation, exit interviews.

Training and development:


County-wide needs assessment, development of supervisory and management skills, employee training and workshops. Benefits orientation for new and transferring employees, Supervisory newsletter.

Salary and benefits:


Salary/wage plans, employee benefits

Importance of Human Resource Management


Attract highly qualified and competent people Ensures that the selected candidate stays longer with the company. Make sure that there is match between cost and benefit. Helps the organization to create more culturally diverse workforce.

Whereas, the poor quality of selection means extra cost on training and supervision. Furthermore, when recruitment fails to meet organizational needs for talent, a typical response is to raise entry level pay scales. This can distort
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traditional wages and salary relationship in organization, resulting in unavoidable consequences. Thus the effectiveness of the recruitment process can play a major role in determining the resources that must be expended on other HR activates and their ultimate success.

HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS

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RECRUITMENT

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RECRUITMENT
Recruitment is defined as, a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce. Edwin B. Flippo defined recruitment as the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. In simple words recruitment can be defined as a linking function joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.

PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. Specifically, the purposes and needs are: Determine the present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel-planning and job-analysis activities. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly, under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. Induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company. Infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. Develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. Search for talent globally and not just within the company.

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Methods of Recruitment Internal Methods: 1. Promotions and Transfers This is a method of filling vacancies from internal resources of the company to achieve optimum utilization of a staff member's skills and talents. Transfer is the permanent lateral movement of an employee from one position to another position in the same or another job class assigned to usually same salary range. Promotion, on the other hand is the permanent movement of a staff member from a position in one job class to a position in another job class of increased responsibility or complexity of duties and in a higher salary range.

2. Job Posting Job Posting is an arrangement in which a firm internally posts a list of open positions (with their descriptions and requirements) so that the existing employees who wish to move to different functional areas may apply. It is also known as Job bidding. It helps the qualified employees working in the organization to scale new heights, instead of looking for better perspectives outside. It also helps organization to retain its experienced and promising employees. 3. Employee Referrals It is a recruitment method in which the current employees are encouraged and rewarded for introducing suitable recruits from among the people they know. The
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logic behind employee referral is that it takes one to know one. Benefits of this method are as follows: Quality Candidates Cost savings Faster recruitment cycles Incentives to current employees

On the other hand it is important for an organization to ensure that nepotism or favoritism does not happen, and that such aspects do not make inroads into the recruitment process.

Indirect External Recruitment Methods 1. Advertisements Advertisements are the most common form of external recruitment. They can be found in many places (local and national newspapers, notice boards, recruitment fai rs) and should include some important information relating to the job (job title, pay package, location, job description, how to apply-either by CV or application form, etc). Where a business chooses to advertise will depend on the cost of advertising and the coverage needed i.e. how far away people will consider applying for the job.

2. Third Party Methods Walk-ins: Walk-ins is relatively inexpensive, and applicants may be filed and processed whenever vacancies occur. Walk-ins provide an excellent public relations opportunity because well-treated applicants are likely to inform others. On the other hand, walk-ins show up randomly, and there may be no match with available openings. This is particularly true for jobs requiring specialized skills.

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Public and private employment agencies: Public and private employment agencies are established to match job openings with listings of job applicants. These agencies also classify and screen applicants. Most agencies administer worksample tests, such as typing exams, to applicants. E-Recruiting: There are many methods used for e-recruitment, some of the important methods are as follows: a. Job boards: These are the places where the employers post jobs and search for candidates. One of the disadvantages is, it is generic in nature. b. Employer web sites: These sites can be of the company owned sites, or a site developed by various employers. c. Professional websites: These are for specific professions, skills and not general in nature. Gate Hiring and Contractors: The concept of gate hiring is to select people who approach on their own for employment in the organization. This happens mostly in the case of unskilled and semi-skilled workers. Gate hiring is quite useful and convenient method at the initial stage of the organization when large number of such people may be required by the organization

According to the Advertisement tactic and strategy in personnel Recruitment, three main points need to be borne in the mind before an advertisement in inserted. 1. First, to visualize the type of applicants one is trying to recruit. 2. Second, to write out a list of advantages the company offers, or why should the reader join the company. 3. Third, to decide where to run the advertisement , not only in which area, but also in which newspaper having a local, state or a nation- wide circulation.

Evaluation of the recruitment method

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The following are the evaluation of the recruitment method 1. Number of initial enquires received which resulted in completed application forms 2. Number of candidates recruited. 3. Number of candidates retained in the organization after six months. 4. Number of candidates at various stages of the recruitment and selection process, especially those short listed. DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE RECRUITMENT STRATEGY EVALUATION OF SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT Time-lapse data: They show the time lag between the dates of requisition for manpower supply from a department to the actual date of filling the vacancies in that department. For example, a company's past experience may indicate that the average number of days from application to interview is 10, from interview to offer is 7, from offer to acceptance is 10 and from acceptance to report for work is 15. Therefore, if the company starts the recruitment and selection process now, it would require 42 days before the new employee joins its ranks. Armed with this information, the length of the time needed for alternative sources of recruitment can be ascertained - before pinning hopes on a particular source that meets the recruitment objectives of the company.

Yield ratios: These ratios indicate the number of leads/ contacts needed to generate a given number of hires at a point at time. For example, if a company needs 10 management trainees in the next six months, it has to monitor past yield ratios in order to find out the number of candidates to be contacted for
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this purpose. On the basis of past experience, to continue the same example, the company finds that to hire 10 trainees, it has to extend 20 offers. If the interview-to-offer ratio is 3:2, then 30 interviews must be conducted. If the invitees to interview ratio is 4:3 then, as many as 40 candidates must be invited. Lastly, if contacts or leads needed to identify suitable trainees to invite are in 5:1 ratio, then 200 contacts are made.

Surveys and studies: Surveys may also be conducted to find out the suitability of a particular source for certain positions. For example', as pointed out previously, employee referral has emerged as a popular way of hiring people in the Information Technology industry in recent times in India. Correlation studies could also be carried out to find out the relationship between different sources of recruitment and factors of success on the job. In addition to these, data on employee turnover, grievances, and disciplinary action would also throw light on the relative strengths of a particular source of recruitment for different organizational positions. Before finally identifying the sources of recruitment, the human resource managers must also look into the cost or hiring a candidate. The cost per hire can be found out by dividing the recruitment cost by the number of candidates hired.

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Factors affecting Recruitment


There are two types of factors that affect the Recruitment of candidates for the company. Internal factors : Companys pay package Quality of work life Organizational culture Companys size Companys product Growth rate of the company Role of trade unions Cost of recruitment

External factors :

Supply and demand factors Employment rate Labor market condition Political, legal and government factors Information system

Factors to be considered while formulating recruitment policies


The following factors should be considered while formulating the policies Government polices Recruitment sources Recruitment needs Recruitment cost Organizational and personal policies

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INDUCEMENTS TO RECRUITMENT Organisational inducements are all the positive features and benefits offered by an organization that serves to attract job applicants to the organisation. Three inducements need specific mention here, they are: Compensation: Starting salaries, frequency of pay increases, incentives and fringe benefits can all serve as inducements to potential employees. Career Opportunities: These help the present employees to grow personally and professionally and also attract good people to the organization. The feeling that the company takes care of employee career aspirations serves as a powerful inducements to potential employees. Image or Reputation: Factors that affect an organisations reputation include its general treatment of employees, the nature and quality of its products and services and its participation in worthwhile social endeavors. CONSTRAINTS Poor image: If the image of the firm is perceived to be low( due to factors like operation in the declining industry, poor quality products, nepotism etc), the likelihood of attracting large number of qualified applicants is reduced. Unattractive jobs: if the job to be filled is not very attractive, most prospective candidates may turn indifferent and may not even apply. This is especially true of job that is boring, anxiety producing, devoid of career growth opportunities and generally not rewards performance in a proper way (e.g. jobs in post office and railways).

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Government policy: Government policies often come in the way of recruitment as per the rules of company or on the basis of merit and seniority. Policies like reservations (scheduled castes, scheduled tribe etc) have to be observed. Conservative internal policies: Firms which go for internal recruitments or where labor unions are very active, face hindrances in recruitment and selection planning.

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Recruitment: Relationship with other activities

CENTRALISED V/s DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. Some organizations like commercial banks resort to centralized recruitment while some organizations like the Indian Railway resort to decentralized recruitment practices. Personnel department at the central office performs all the functions of recruitment in case of centralised recruitment and personnel departments at unit level/zonal level perform all the functions of recruitment concerning to the jobs of the respective unit or zone.
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SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categories: internal sources and external sources. Both have their own merits and demerits.

Internal Sources:Persons who are already working in an organization constitute the internal sources. Retrenched employees, retired employees, dependents of deceased employees may also constitute the internal sources. Whenever any vacancy arises, someone from within the organization is upgraded, transferred, promoted or even demoted.

External Sources:External sources lie outside an organization. Here the organization can have the services of: (a) Employees working in other organizations; (b) Jobs aspirants registered with employment exchanges; (c) Students from reputed educational institutions; (d) Candidates referred by unions, friends, relatives and existing employees; (e) Candidates forwarded by search firms and contractors; (f) Candidates responding to the advertisements, issued by the organization; (g) Unsolicited applications/ walk-ins.

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Merits and Demerits of Recruiting people from within

Merits

Demerits

1) Economical: The cost of recruiting internal candidates is minimal. No expenses are incurred on advertising. 2) Suitable: The organization can pick the right candidates having the requisite skills. The candidate can choose a right vacancy where their talents can be fully utilized. 3) Reliable: The organization has the knowledge about suitability of a candidate for a position. Known devils are better than unknown angels!

1) Limited Choice: The organization is forced to select candidates from a limited pool. It may have to sacrifice quality and settle down for less qualified candidates. 2) Inbreeding: It discourages entry for talented people, available outside an organization. Existing employees may fail to behave in innovative ways and inject necessary dynamism to enterprise activities. 3) Inefficiency: Promotions based on length of service rather than merit, may prove to be a blessing for inefficient candidate. They do not work hard and prove their worth.

4) Satisfying: A policy of preferring people from within offers regular promotional avenues for employees. It motivates them to work hard and earn promotions. They will work with loyalty commitment and enthusiasm. 4) Bone of contention: Recruitment from within may lead to infighting among employees aspiring for limited, higher level positions in an organization. As years roll by, the race for premium positions may end up in a bitter race.

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Merits and Demerits of External sources of Recruitment

Merits

Demerits

Wide Choice: The organization has the freedom to select candidates from a large pool. Persons with requisite qualifications could be picked up.

Expenses: Hiring costs could go up substantially. Tapping multifarious sources of recruitment is not an easy task either.

Infection of fresh blood: People with special skills and knowledge could be hired to stir up the existing employees and pave the way for innovative ways of working.

Time consuming: It takes time to advertise, screen, to test and test and to select suitable employees. Where suitable ones are not available, the process has to be repeated.

Motivational force: It helps in motivating internal employees to work hard and compete with external candidates while seeking career growth. Such a competitive atmosphere would help an employee to work to the best of his abilities.

De-motivating: Existing employees who have put in considerable service may resist the process of filling up vacancies from outside. The feeling that their services have not been recognized by the organization, forces then to work with less enthusiasm and motivation.

Long term benefits: Talented people could


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join the ranks, new ideas could find meaningful expression, a competitive atmosphere would compel people to give out their best and earn rewards, etc.

Uncertainty: There is no guarantee that the organization ultimately will be able to hire the services of suitable candidates. It may end up hiring someone who does not fit and who may not be able to adjust in the new setup.

Theories Regarding Recruitment


Recruitment is two way street; it takes a recruiter has a choice whom to recruit, same way the prospective employee also has taken the decision whether or not to apply for the given job vacancy. The individual take the decision usually on three different basic theories:

The objective theory The critical contact theory The subjective theory
The objectives theory views that the process of organizational choice as being one of weighing and evaluating set of measurable characteristic of employment offers, such pay, benefits , location, opportunity for advancement, the nature of job to performed, and education opportunities. Whereas, the critical contact theory suggests that the typical candidates is unable to make a meaningful differentiation of organizations offers in terms of objective or subjective factors, because of his limited or very short contact with the organization. Choice can be made only when applicant can readily perceive the factors such as the behavior of the recruiters, the nature of the physical facilities, and such as the efficiency in processing paper work association with the
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application. On the other hand, the subjective theory emphasizes the congruence. Here the choices are made on highly personal and emotional basis.

Evaluation of recruitment process


The following are the evaluation of the recruitment process: o o o o o Return rate of application sent out. Number of suitable candidates for selection. Retention and performance of the candidate selection. Cost of recruitment Time lapsed data. o Comments on image projected.

PHILSOPHIES OF RECRUITEMT
Basically there are two Philosophies of recruitment. These are as follows:

1. REALISTIC JOB PREVIEWS (RJP)


Realistic Job Previews provides complete job related information to the applicants so that they can make the right decision before taking up the jobs. It includes positive and the negative aspects of the job.

2. JOB COMPATIBILITY QUESTIONNAIRE: (JCQ)


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Job compatibility Questionnaire was developed to determine whether an applicants preference for the work match the characteristic of the job. The JCQ is designed to collect information on all aspects of the job which have a bearing in on employee performance, absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction. The underlying assumption of JCQ is that, greater the compatibility between an applicants preference for the job and characteristic of the job as perceived by the job seeker, the greater the probability of employee effectiveness and longer the tenor.

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SELECTION

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SELECTION
Introduction The size of the labour market, the image of the company, the place of posting, the nature of job, the compensation package and a host of other factors influence the manner of aspirants are likely to respond to the recruiting efforts of the company. Through the process of recruitment the company tries to locate prospective employees and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various levels. Recruiting, thus, provides a pool of applicants for selection. Definition To select means to choose. Selection is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organisation. The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. Purpose The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job in an organisation best, to find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet this goal, the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age, qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates. The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it is directly affects the amount and quality of employees work. Any mismatch in this regard can cost an organisation a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms of training and operating costs. In course of time, the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even circulate negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the company in the long run. Effective election, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the fit between people the job.
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The Process Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next one. The time and emphasis place on each step will definitely vary from one organisation to another and indeed, from job to job within the same organisation. The sequence of steps may also vary from job to job and organisation to organisation. For example some organisations may give more importance to testing while others give more emphasis to interviews and reference checks. Similarly a single brief selection interview might be enough for applicants for lower level positions, while applicants for managerial jobs might be interviewed by a number of people.

STEPS IN SELECTION PROCESS

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1. Reception A company is known by the people it employs. In order to attract people with talents, skills and experience a company has to create a favourable impression on the applicants right from the stage of reception. Whoever meets the applicant initially should be tactful and able to extend help in a friendly and courteous way. Employment possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly. If no jobs are available at that point of time, the applicant may be asked to call back the personnel department after some time. 2. Screening Interview A preliminary interview is generally planned by large organisations to cut the cost of selection by allowing only eligible candidates to go through the further stages in selection. A junior executive from the Personnel Department may elicit responses from the applicants on important items determining the suitability of an applicant for a job such as age, education, experience, pay expectations, aptitude, location, choice etc. this courtesy interview as it is often called helps the department screen out obvious misfits. If the department finds the candidate suitable, a prescribed application form is given to the applicants to fill and submit. 3.Application Blank Application blank or form is one of the most common methods used to collect information on the various aspects of the applicants academic, social, demographic, work related background and references. It is a brief history sheet of employees background. Usefulness of Application Blank or Form Application blank is highly useful selection tool, in that way it serves three important purposes: 1. It introduces the candidate to the company in a formal way. 2. It helps the company to have a cross-comparison of the applicants; the company can screen and reject candidates if they fail to meet the eligibility criteria at this stage itself.
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3. It can serve as a basis to initiate a dialogue in the interview.

4.Selection Testing Selection tests or the employment tests are conducted to assess intelligence, abilities, and personality trait. A test is a standardized, objective measure of a persons behaviour, performance or attitude. It is standardised because the way the tests is carried out, the environment in which the test is administered and the way the individual scores are calculatedare uniformly applied. It is objective in that it tries to measure individual differences in a scientific way giving very little room for individual bias and interpretation. Some of them are 1. Intelligence Tests: These are mental ability tests. They measure the incumbents learning ability and the ability to understand instructions and make judgements. The basic objective of such test is to pick up employees who are alert and quick at learning things so that they can be offered adequate training to improve their skills for the benefit of the organization. 2. Aptitude Test: Aptitude test measure an individuals potential to learn certain skills- clerical, mechanical, mathematical, etc. These tests indicate whether or not an individual has the capabilities to learn a given job quickly and efficiently. In order to recruit efficient office staff, aptitude tests are necessary 3. Personality Test: The definition of personality, methods of measuring personality factors and the relationship between personality factors and actual job criteria has been the subject of much discussion. Researchers have also questioned whether applicants answer all the items truthfully or whether they try to respond in a socially desirable manner. Regardless of these objections, many people still consider personality as an important component of job success. 4. Simulation Tests: Simulation exercise is a tests which duplicate many of the activities and problems an employee faces while at work.
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5. Graphology Test: Graphology involves using a trained evaluator to examine the lines, loops, hooks, stokes, curves and flourishes in a persons handwri ting to assess the persons personality and emotional make-up. 6. Polygraph (Lie-Detector) tests: the polygraph records physical changes in the body as the tests subject answers a series of questions. It records fluctuations in respiration, blood pressure and perspiration on a moving roll of graph paper. The polygraph operator forms a judgement as to whether the subjects response was truthful or deceptive by examining the biological movements recorded on the paper.

TEST AS SELECTION TOOL: Tests are useful selection devices in that they uncover qualifications and talents that cant be detected otherwise. They can be used to predict how well one would perform if one is hired, why one behaves the way one does, what situational factors influence employee productivity, etc. Tests also provide unbiased information that can be put to scientific and statistical analysis. However, tests suffer from sizeable errors of estimate. Most psychological tests also have one common weakness, that is, we cant use scal es which have a known zero point and equal intervals. An intelligence test, for example starts at an arbitrary point, where a person may not be able to answer question properly. This does not mean that the person is totally lacking in intelligence. Likewise, a person who is able to answer all the 10 questions correctly cannot be called twice as intelligent as the one who was able to answer only 5.

SELECTION INTERVIEW: Interview is the oral examination of candidates for employment. This is the most essential step in the selection process. In this step the
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interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidates through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observations during the interview. Interview gives the recruiter an opportunity To size up the candidate personally; To ask question that are not covered in the tests; To make judgments on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence; To assess subjective aspects of the candidate facial expressions, appearance, nervousness and so forth; To give facts to the candidates regarding the company, its policies, etc. and promote goodwill towards the company. Types of interviews: Several types of interviews are commonly used depending on the nature and importance of the position to be filled within an organization. In a non directive interview the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind. There is no specific format to be followed.

In a patterned interview, the employer follows a pre-determined sequence of questions. Here the interviewee is given a special form containing questions regarding his technical competence, personality traits, attitudes, motivation, etc. In a structured or situational interview, there are fixed job related questions that are presented to each applicant. In a panel interview several interviewers question and seek answers from one applicant. The panel members can ask new and incisive questions based on their expertise and experience and elicit deeper and more meaningful expertise from candidates.

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Interviews can also be designed to create a difficult environment where the applicants confidence level and the ability to stand erect in difficult situations are put to test. These are referred to as the stress interview. This is basically an interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of, often, rude, annoying or embarrassing questions.

Steps in interview process: Interview is an art. It demands a positive frame of mind on part of the interviewers. Interviewers must be treated properly so as to leave a good impression about the company in their minds. HR experts have identified certain steps to be followed while conducting interviews:

PREPARATION: Establishing the objective of the interview Receiving the candidates application and resume Keeping tests score ready, along with interview assessment forms Selecting the interview method to be followed Choosing the panel of experts who would interview the candidates Identifying proper room for environment

1.RECEPTION: The candidate should be properly received and led into the interview room. Start the interview on time. 2.INFORMATION EXCHANGE:
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State the purpose of the interview, how the qualifications are going to be matched with skills needed to handle the job. Begin with open-ended questions where the candidate gets enough freedom to express himself. Focus on the applicants education, training, work experience, etc. Find unexplained gaps in applicants past work or college record and elicit facts that are not mentioned in the resume. 3.EVALUATION: Evaluation is done on basis of answers and justification given by the applicant in the interview. 4. PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATION: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. 5.REFERENCE CHECKS: Once the interview and medical examination of the candidate is over, the personnel department will engage in checking references. Candidates are required to give the names of 2 or 3 references in their application forms. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidates academic achievements or from the applicants previous employer, who is well versed with the applicants job performance and sometimes from the co-workers.

HIRING DECISION: The line manager has to make the final decision now whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through different techniques discussed earlier. The line manager has to take adequate care in taking the final decision because of economic, behavioral and social implications of the selection decisions. A careless decision of rejecting a candidate would impair the morale of the people and they suspect the selection procedure and the very basis of selection in a particular organization.

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A true understanding between line managers and personnel managers should be established so as to facilitate good selection decisions. After taking the final decision, the organization has to intimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. The organization sends the appointment order to the successful candidates either immediately or after sometime depending upon its time schedule. Interviewing Mistakes: May have been influenced by cultural noise, snap judgments, halo effect, stereotyping, first impression etc.

BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE SELETION


The main objective of selection process is to hire people having competence and commitment towards the given job profile. But due to some reason the main purpose of effectively selecting candidates is defeated. These reasons are 1. Perception or the Halo effect: Many a times the interviewer selects a candidate according to the perception he has or he made up while talking or looking at the individual. This way he does not see through the caliber or the efficiency of the individual and many times it leads to the selection of the wrong candidates. 2. Fairness: During the selection process the interviewer does not select the individual on the basis of his knowledge and hence the right type of the candidates is not selected. 3. Pressure: The people from the HR department and also have a lot of pressure from the top management and from other top class people for selecting the candidates they want. This ways the purpose of effective selection process of effective selection process is defeated as they have to select that individual whether
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or not he is capable of the job that is being offered.

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DATA ANALYSIS

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DATA ANALYSIS

1)

What are the sources for recruitment and selection


EXTERNAL 8% INTERNAL 18%

BOTH 74%

About 75% of the manager say that they prefer both internal as well as external
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source for recruitment and selection where as only 9% go for internal source and 18% go for external sources.

2)

Which method do you mostly prefer for recruitment and selection way of recruitment
OTHERS 3% INDIRECT 32%

DIRECT 65%

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About 65% of the mangers go for direct recruitment and selection and 32% go for indirect and only 3 % go for third party recruitment way.

3)

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When do you prefer to go for manpower planning


YEARLY QUARTERLY SITUATIONAL BASED

10%

30% 60%

Around 50% of the managers go for Quarterly manpower planning and 20 % do not follow any pattern they dont have any fixed time where as 20% go for yearly.

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4)

What are the sources for external recruitment are preferred


placement agencies 8% CASUAL APPLICANTS 25%

CAMPUS INTERVIEW 34%

DATA BANK 33%

Around 34% of managers go for campus interviews, 33% go for data bank, 25% from the casual application that are received and only 8% go for any placement agencies.

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5)

What form of interview did you prefer


OTHERS 17% PERSONAL 44%

VIDEO CONFERENCING 22%

TELEPHONIC 17%

Most of the managers Prefer Personal interviews, 30% prefer to take telephonic interviews where as only 20% go for video conferencing and rest 10% adopt some other means of interviews

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6)

Which criteria do you consider in recruitment and selection?

EXPERIENCE 25% BOTH 50% QUALIFICATION 25%

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50% of the managers consider both experience and qualification as criteria in recruitment and selection, 25% consider experience alone and the other 25 consider qualification.

7)

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Which category of employees do you prefer while recruiting from other firms

TOP LEVEL 25% LOW LEVEL 40%

MIDDLE LEVEL 35%

40% of the managers prefer employees from low level or 1 rated firms, 35% prefer from middle level firms, whereas 25% prefer employees from top level firms.

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FINDINGS
Most of the managers go with both internal and external mode of recruitment

Most of the managers go with direct interview

Most of the managers consider situational based manpower planning

Campus interview and data bank are widely used external source of recruitment

Most of the managers prefer personal interview whereas some of the managers go with telephonic or video conferencing interview

Most of the managers prefer qualification with experience type of candidates

SUGGESTIONS
Recruiters should concentrate on freshers as they give new ideas and are risk -taking and aggressive.

Company should go for campus recruitment like MBA pass outs. Successors for a leaders should be brought up.

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Conclusion
The employees of any organization are its life blood, without doubt. With the dawn of this realization upon the present day business organizations, there appears to be a major shift towards human resource management. In fact, the employees of today are encouraged to participate in the major decisions and thus play a vital role in the management of the firm. The performance of the organization depends on the efficiency that its employees exhibit. Hence it is of crucial importance that employees with the most suitable qualifications be selected. This is where the processes of recruitment and selection come in. It is difficult to separate one from the other. In a bid to underscore this subtle point, the project examines the various processes and nuances one of the most critical activities of an organization. The end result of the recruitment process is essentially a pool of applicants. Next to recruitment, the logical step in the HR process is the selection of qualified and competent people. As such, this process concentrates on differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those individuals whose abilities are consistent with the organizations requirements. The reader will do well to note that the transition between the 2 activities is not stringent. The 2 activities basically have one aim- to yield a perfect employee for the organization. Nor are these activities typecast. Every organization tailors the processes keeping in mind the nature of the organization, its needs and constraints.

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BIBLOGRAPHY
WEB: www.google.co m www.citehr.com www.wipro.in BOOKS K.ASWATHAPPA- HUMAN RESOURCE AND PERSONAL MANAGEMENT GARY DEHHLER- HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DAVID A DECENZO-PERSONAL AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

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Annexure
Questionnaire
1. Name :

2.

Post :

3.

What are the sources for recruitment and selection?

Internal

External

Both

4.

Which method do you mostly prefer for recruitment and selection way of recruitment?

Direct

Indirect

Third party

5.

When do you prefer to go for manpower planning?

Yearly

Quarterly

No fixed time

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6. What are the sources for external recruitment are preferred?

Campus interviews Data bank

Placement agencies Casual applicants

7.

What form of interview did you prefer?

Personal interview

Telephonic interview

Video conferencing

Others

8.

Which criteria do you consider in recruitment and selection?

Experience

Qualification

Both

9. Which category of employees do you prefer while recruiting from other firms? Employees from :

Five rating / Top level firms Third rating / Middle level firms First rating / Low level firms

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