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~---'-'

,~----

Appendix C
V =~_VSL
s 1- HL

= 5.61 (1,000) [1064(0 4) + 1.0(0.6)] = 6.427 ft/sec


VsL 86,400 (0.01036)'
.
17. Calculate liquid velocity number, NLv:

)"4
NLv= 1.938 vsL tTL
PL

,
(6 2 . 9 )"4
N Lv= 1. 938 (6.427) -- - s :i =
12.8
18., Calculate superficial gas velocity, VSg:
_
[GLR - Rs (11(1 + WOR) P
scT(z)
VSg- qL
86,400 Ap
P Tsc

Vs=

HL

6.427

~
= 3.3
(Checks)
0.57 0.43
25. Calculate liquid Reynolds number, (NRe)L
NReL= 1488

(p0

(vsa (d)

iJ-L

_ 1488 x 61.95 x 6.427 x 0.115 _ 9 3 loa


7.178
- . x
(NRe)L-

26. Determine the friction gradient for Region II:

_
500 - 92(0.4) 14.7 (595) 0.91 = 103 ft/sec
VSg- 1,00086,400 (0.01036) 764.7 520
1
.

19. Calculate gas velocity number, Ngv:

r, = (f fra,

fr

2f NLv(NLv+ Ngv)
N,
W

I)

PL)I/4

Ngv= 1.938 VSg(


tTL
Ngv= 1.938 (iO.3) (6~:5r4

103

329

From Fig. 2.67 1 = 0.0083


From Fig. 2.68 f2 = 1.05
=

20.76

20. Calculatepipe diameter number, Nd:


/;';}:

Nd = 120.872 d(:~r2

where fl R

Nl,a = (0.0083) (;~~37)(15.~l')=W8.1 x

10-2 fa = 1+ fl VR/50 = 1 + 0.0083 V1.62/50


fw

1.0

= (0.0083) ( 1.005) = 0.0087

Calculate friction gradient, Grr:


Nd = 120.872 (0.115) V(61.95)/54 =
15.01
21. Select the flow regime.
Refer to Fig. 2.63:
Ngv= 20.76
NLv= 12.8
Falls in Region n.

G = 2f (NLv+ Ngv)NLv
fr
w
Nd
G = 2(0 0087) (12.8) (12.8 + 20.76)
fr'
15.01
= 0.561 (dimensionless)
27. Calculate static gradient, Gst:
Gst = HL + (1 - Hd
pg

22. Determine slip velocity.


For Region II:
(From Fig. 2.66)
F, = 0.17
S = (1 +
F6=-O.1
F7 =
F~=0.029Nd+F6
0.07
F;; = (0.029) (13.4) -0.1 =
0.3
(20.76)98+2 0.3
S = (1 + 0.17) [(1 + (0.07) (12.8)2= 6.5
NgVO.98+ F'e
Fs) (1 + F7Ngv)2

23. Calculate slip velocity, Vs(Region lI):


S

6.5
324
(6195)"4 = .
PLtTL (1.938) 54.0

v ; = 1938 ~I

24. Calculate liquid holdup, HL

HL= (3.24 - 10.3 - 6.427) +


V(3.24 - 10.3 - 6.427)2 + 4(3.24)
(6.427) (2) (3.24)

This value can .be checked:

PL

Gst = 0.43 + (0.57) :i~;5 = 0.43 +


0.0226
Gst = 0.4526 (dimensionless)
28. Determine total pressure gradient:
G = Gst + Gfr = 0.4526 + 0.561 = 1.0136
29. Convert to psi/ft:
dp
dh

= 1.0136

(61.95) = 0 444 '1ft


144
.
pSI

30. Determine distance:


Ah = 1,000 - 500 = 1125 ft
0.444
'
As noted, .this problem was worked using the average oil
water mixture properties as if one homogeneous liquid were
flowing alone. If separate calculations are made for oil and
for water as if they were flowing alone, the distance calcu
lated is 1,550 ft.
In working this problem for 2 in, tubing, the same proce
dure was followed and a Ah of 2,100 ft was found when
using the average oil-water mixture properties and a ah of
2,190 ft was found when calculations were made for water
and oil as if they were flowing alone.
It is recommended that the calculations be made using
the, averag oil~water mixture properties.