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OUMH2103

FAKULTI PENDIDIKAN DAN BAHASA

SEMESTER SEPTEMBER 2011

OUMH2103 ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL PURPOSES

NO. MATRIKULASI NO. TELEFON E-MAIL

: : :

690116085917002 690116085917 0122681973 anuar_k@ymail.com

NO. KAD PENGENALAN :

PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN SEKSYEN 7 BANDAR BARU BANGI

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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

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PART A (20 marks) In 1905, Mr. H Piper filed a patent for a gasoline engineelectric motor power train. According to him, the electric motor would augment a gasoline engine, allowing a vehicle to accelerate from zero to 25 miles an hour in 10 seconds, much faster than the gasoline engines of that time. Ironically, when finally Mr. Piper was granted the patent a few years later, normal engines were capable of producing the same kind of acceleration. Due to rapid advancements in the gasoline engine, the popularity of a hybrid car slowly diminished until again in the early to mid 1970s, the time of oil crisis. Many companies poured funds to build experimental Hybrid Electric Vehicles. But as the oil became available again, the surge for HEVs died down immediately. The Europeans and Japanese researching on reducing production costs and making HEVs more saleable. Companies like Toyota, Honda, Volkswagen, and Mitsubishi came up with ways to reduce emissions and better the mileage. The word hybrid is usually applied to plants and animals which have been cross-bred between species to produce something new. Plant breeders typically cross different plant varieties to produce better stock which incorporates some of the best of the different varieties used. Hybrid in car technology is the new way how to optimize energy requirements while maximizing the use of the car. Therefore gaining hybrid technology among consumers, especially those already using the car as the main vehicles every day. What has happened with hybrid cars has been a deliberate crossing of fuelling technology to get the best from fuels and to make the resultant cars more efficient. Cars that use electric motors to produce movement like hybrid cars used sources of electrical energy obtained from the battery in the car. Other potential sources are from fuel cells and solar power. Electric motors are often used today is the motor of alternating current (ac). Lately, a motor that uses permanent magnets are also popular because the cost of permanent magnets and the declining quality is increasing. Assoc Prof Dr Nik Idris Nik Rumzi from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), said in a brief, hybrid cars move when the torque of electric motors and so rotate the tires. He said speed and driving power electric cars is based on the speed or torque of electric motors. Torque or speed control motor can be done efficiently and quickly using the power electronic converter. When the driver pressing the accelerator pedal, the guard will give a signal to the power electronic converter to supply to
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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

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the motor current or voltage that is proportional to the pressure imposed on the foot pedal. Hybrid system is the latest trend in motorized vehicles by combining top-notch fuel efficiencies and ultra-low tail pipe emissions, hybrids are some of the cleanest and "greenest" motor vehicles around. Hybrid Cars or Full Hybrids or Electric Vehicles of Hybrid Powered Vehicles. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, a hybrid vehicle is one that employs two separate power sources, typically a gasoline-powered engine and an electric motor, which is powered by rechargeable batteries. Hybrid vehicles also feature a regenerative braking system, which, when combined with the dual power sources, allows hybrid vehicles to maximize fuel efficiency while reducing the negative impact to the environment. There are three types of hybrid vehicles currently available: mild hybrids, plug-in hybrids and parallel hybrids. In a mild hybrid, the electric motor is only used to power certain functions of the vehicle, such as the air conditioning or power steering. Plug-in hybrids rely more heavily on the electric motor than the gasoline engine and, as such, these types of hybrids must be plugged in to a stationary power source to recharge. Parallel hybrids are the most common type of hybrid on the road and have both the gasoline engine and the electric motor sharing equally in the vehicle's functioning. THE ADVANTAGES OF HYBRID CARS There are two main advantages of hybrid cars compared to traditional cars, one is lower CO2 emissions, and therefore less impact to global warming (the environmental advantage of hybrid cars), and the other is higher fuel efficiency that can save you sufficient amount of money over the years (economic advantage of hybrid cars). In times when gasoline was fairly cheap improving mileage wasn't something many people were worried with, but at these uncertain economic times, when almost any dollar matters fuel efficiency has become rather important advantage that hybrid cars have over traditional cars. Beside the two main advantages of hybrids car hybrids in words is about combine clean energy of the electrical motor with the power of the gas-powered engine which results into lower emissions and better mileage. Hybrid cars are considered as the car of the future. It is able to effectively conserve fuel and at the same time, it only produces low levels of toxic fumes. Because of these benefits, hybrid cars are now growing in popularity every single day.

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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

OUMH2103

Many people are now considering getting rid of their conventional cars and purchase a hybrid car to help in cutting fuel consumption cost. As we know that hybrid cars have two engines for it to effectively conserve fuel consumption. It has the traditional gasoline engine and it also has an electric motor and batteries. The two engines work together in order to cut fuel consumption. With this technology, you will be able to cut fuel usage by more than half. Just imagine, with a hybrid car, you will be able to go more than 60 miles to the gallon. With this kind of savings, hybrid cars are definitely the car of the future. Hybrid car owners virtually do not feel the increasing cost in fuel prices. This is the main advantage of the hybrid car. Hybrids are reliable and comfortable as any traditional car and they have a tax benefits (only till 2006). Recently, the President of the United States has signed an agreement that hybrid car buyers will be able to enjoy tax incentives. This means that by owning a hybrid car, you will be able to save money on taxes. There are other benefits that the government imposes on hybrid car owners, such as free parking, and free entry to car pool lanes. Some even offer discounted fees on toll gates. The braking in hybrid cars is also configured to capture the energy released and uses it to charge the batteries inside the hybrid car. This means that unlike electric cars, hybrid cars do not actually need to be charged from your home electric outlet. Hybrids are much cleaner cars than normal vehicles with lesser CO and other greenhouse gas emissions. The future for hybrids looks bright with rapid developments in hybrid technology to improve engine efficiency and due to the Regenerative Braking technology, the batteries need not be charged by an external source. Special warranties also provided for the battery pack, the electric motor other costly items to make sure the entire consumer happy to drive hybrid cars. Hybrids help reduce the dependency on fossil fuels which directly affects fuel prices and at the same time safe our natural material. The advantages of the hybrid car are multifaceted since it attributes economical, technical and economical benefits. Despite of the owner, the country as well as, is benefited from the gasoline saving as the oil prices are steeping very high, and its effects the country's whole economy. This types of advantage is also a benefit to the customer as government has decided to give reductions and tax credits for the hybrid car buying. In addition to Federal exemption certain states also provide local exemptions to promote the use of hybrid car. The advantages of the hybrid car start right from its difference in the basic pattern. Hybrid car is type of car that utilizes two energy sources for its movement. The popular hybrid cars in the market are manufactured in such a manner to combine the benefits of an
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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

OUMH2103

internal combustion engine and electrical motor. The shortening level of gasoline in the world as it is a non-renewable energy was the major drawback of the conventional cars, which was rectified in the electrical cars, but it also had its own disadvantages. The advantage of the hybrid car is that it can rectify the complaints in the both systems and balances the use of electrical energy and gasoline engine, in their optimum levels. DISADVANTAGES OF HYBRID CARS However, with all the advantages that a hybrid car can give you, there are also disadvantages. The main disadvantage of hybrid cars is that the retail price is quite expensive. Only people who have enough money can purchase hybrid cars. Hybrid cars are still fairly expensive, namely the production of hybrid cars still has relatively high costs. Hybrid cars therefore usually cost in range from $2,000 to $5,000 more than their non-Hybrid versions. The high costs of hybrid cars are usually the results of using very rare materials in their production (for instance dysprosium used to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors and battery systems in hybrid propulsion systems, and neodymium used as a crucial ingredient in high-strength magnets that are found in permanent magnet electric motors). The only thing is that hybrid cars are expensive right from the car lot. Hybrid cars are relatively heavy because of the heavy batteries installed inside the car. This is why hybrid car manufacturers integrates smaller internal combustion engines and are constructed with light materials and should be aerodynamic in order to maximize efficiency. This means that hybrid cars can never really go fast. Another issue about hybrid cars is that it is very risky in accidents. What makes a hybrid car work effectively is also what makes it risky if it ever gets involved in an accident. This is because hybrid cars stores high amount of voltage in its batteries. This means that there is a high chance of getting electrocuted when you get involved in an accident. This also means that it is relatively difficult for rescuers to get the drivers and passengers out of the hybrid cars because of the dangers of high voltage in the car. (Author: Hilal Abdelwali, Ph.D. in Automotive Engineering). They also have a complicated system which needs to be taken care of by experienced mechanics only. This makes it particularly difficult for consumers to get the experts to repair damage caused by their hybrid cars. Thus users will think twice to buy this hybrid car because of the experts less cause these types of car repair shops are not much in the area, especially in rural areas.

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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

OUMH2103

Another currently big disadvantage of hybrid cars is the servicing. It is not only difficult to find garage that has the necessary equipment to service your hybrid car so in most cases you will be forced to make service at the manufacturer which in most cases can turn out to be very expensive. The thing that could be characterized by many as the disadvantage of hybrid cars is their acceleration. To some people speed is the main reason for buying the car and hybrid cars tend to accelerate at a slower speed when compared to the traditional gasoline-powered cars. While there is no doubt that these days hybrid cars are more and more gaining on popularity there are still some factors that prevent them from fully competing with traditional gas-powered cars. Hybrid cars manufacturing is still process with relatively high costs so the end product usually has hefty price tag, and this disadvantage prevents many buyers from decision to buy them. Once production costs become comparable to conventional cars we should expect mass production of hybrid cars because of before mentioned environmental and economic advantage they have over the conventional cars. When exactly will this happen is hard to say, but since they are becoming more and more popular, there are more and more researches oriented to improve their efficiency, so we should be really expecting more good news from hybrid cars market in years ahead. CONCLUSION We must change our transportation policy if we are to address rising dependence on imported oil and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, whatever strategy we used to reduce transportation carbon dioxide emissions must not interfere with our equally urgent efforts to minimize any increase in coal emissions and then to reduce those emissions. Hybrid cars are good for the environment. Hybrid cars are one among the promising types of new generation cars. These cars are developed with an intention to answer much of these questions, and the success of it on the road make it a favourite choice of many. Hybrid cars are more reliable than electric cars from what we are seeing to date and they have gasoline as an alternate fuel. Even hybrid cars are currently more expensive to buy than conventional cars these cars are also known to emit far lower levels of pollutants in the air. So, we may pay more now but we should see great gains and thus yields is solving our current and long term energy needs when it comes to our people mover desires. If the world truly wants to rid itself of rising fuel prices then WE as nations need to step it up and vote with our pocket books. Think about it. If we start buying only Hybrid
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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

OUMH2103

models even if there are early on in their development this will seed the auto companies to continue leap fogging each other to take innovation to new levels. It's up to us as consumers to show a path towards an end to all this frustration and Oil Company monopolistic practices with their profits. Enough is enough. Buy Hybrid's and start your engines the green planet way. PART B (10 marks) Renewable energy can be used to produce electricity, generate heat and transport goods and people. It comes from sources that are essentially inexhaustible. They include the sun, the wind, flowing water and the heat of the Earth; or replaceable fuels such as plants. However, Scotland already has a high level of hydro output meaning approximately 8 per cent of our electricity is generated from renewable sources. In the future, the amount and proportion of renewable energy generated is set to rise, largely because of scarce supplies of gas and oil and also because of government policy and programmes to support renewable energy generation. The use of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and hydraulic energies, is very old; they have been used since many centuries before our time and their applications continued throughout history and until the "industrial revolution", at which time, due to the low price of petroleum, they were abandoned. During recent years, due to the increase in fossil fuel prices and the environmental problems caused by the use of conventional fuels, we are reverting back to renewable energy sources. Renewable energies are inexhaustible, clean and they can be used in a decentralised way (they can be used in the same place as they are produced). Geothermal energy is thermal
energy generated and stored in the Earth.

Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive
decay of minerals (80%). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its

surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat.
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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

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From hot

springs,

geothermal

energy

has

been

used

for

bathing

since Palaeolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation. Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries. An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels. Bio fuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Bio fuels include their fuels derived in from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Although fossil fuels have origin ancient carbon fixation, they are not considered bio fuels by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time. Bio fuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies. The wind has been used for thousands of years as a source of energy. Sailors capture it in the sails of their ships, and weather has therefore had important historical consequences, for example, the Spanish Armada was defeated with the help of stormy weather around the British Isles. The Netherlands are famous for the use of windmills with four cloth sails. These were used for pumping water to drain polders forming agricultural land. In the UK, Norfolk borrowed this Dutch expertise to do the same, leaving distinctive features on the flat lowland landscape wind energy is the cheapest source on earth.

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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

OUMH2103

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydro electricity and biomass, account for most of the available renewable energy on earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used. Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaics. Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favourable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Non renewable energy is energy that comes from the ground and is not replaced in a relatively short amount of time. Fossil fuels are the main category of non renewable energy. Fossil fuels include; coal, oil and natural gas. These resources come from animals and plants that have died millions of years ago and then decomposed to create a useable source of energy for humans. Oil and coal are currently the most used forms of non renewable energy. Coal is a combustible material that comes from the earth. It is obtained from mining and is the most difficult resource to get. Oil is another combustible energy that is obtained from drilling, although unlike coal, once the hole is drilled the oil can be pumped out of the hole. This makes it easier and more cost effective to gather oil then coal. A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate, once depleted there is no more available for future needs. Also considered non-renewable are resources that are consumed much faster than nature can create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas), types of nuclear power (uranium) and certain aquifers are examples. In contrast, resources such as timber (when harvested sustainably) or metals (which can be recycled) are considered renewable resources.
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KHAIRUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL AZID 690116085917002 0122681973

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Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. The fossil fuels, which contain high percentages of carbon, include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being made. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. A global movement toward the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help meet increased energy needs. Nuclear power energy is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and do useful work. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 1314% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity. In 2007, the IAEA reported there were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world, operating in 31 countries. Also, more than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built. Coal is also one types of non renewable energy its a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, with smaller quantities of sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 020% higher hydrocarbons (primarily ethane). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane catharses, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers. Most natural gas is created by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. The by-products of that processing include
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ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulphur, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and sometimes helium and nitrogen. Energy conservation is one of the ways every person can help protect the environment while saving money. Along with recycling, driving fuel efficient cars, buying local products with minimal packaging and cutting down on water usage, steps to conserve energy in the home can be part of a community and national strategy that will lead to a healthier nation better prepared to handle the needs of future generations. Energy conservation is an important part in this process for several reasons. Predictions are that oil and natural gas will be depleted within a century or less, and there are differing reports as to whether coal will be depleted within the same time frame or will last for another hundred years beyond that. Conserving energy in the home helps to slow the use of those resources, leaving more time to develop wide-scale alternative energy programs featuring renewable sources such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermal. The burning of fossil fuels also produces excess carbon dioxide, one of the worst man-made contributors to global warming. The majority of scientists and world governments support the theory of global warming, a gradual warming of the Earth due to greenhouse gases. The effect, according to the theory, contributes to changes in global weather patterns and melting of glacial and polar ice. This raises sea levels, effects water salinity and the supply of fresh water and damages delicate ecosystems. Lower demand for energy decreases its production and the greenhouse gases that are created to make it. CONCLUSION To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to all of us to use energy wisely. We must all conserve energy and use it efficiently. It's also up to those who will create the new energy technologies of the future. All energy sources have an impact on the environment. Concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming, air pollution, and energy security have led to increasing interest and more development in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, wave power and hydrogen. But we'll need to continue to use fossil fuels and nuclear energy until new, cleaner technologies can replace them. One of you who is reading this might be another Albert Einstein or Marie Curie and find a new source of energy. Until then, it's up to all of us. The future is ours, but we need energy to get there.

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REFERENCES:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

http://www.livestrong.com/article/155146-definition-of-hybrid-vehicles/#ixzz1 http://www.livestrong.com/article/155146-definition-of-hybrid-#ixzz1b1axdMwO http://www.allhybridcars.com/advantages-of-hybrid-cars.html http://www.renewables_benefits/hybrid_cars_advantages_and_disadvantages.html http://www.brightenergy.biz/renewable%20energy.pdf http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00281/english/mtopics/nonrenewable.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil_fuel http://www.ehow.com/about_6557580_important-save-energy-home_.html http://www.ehow.com/about_6557580_important-save-energy-#ixzz1dDbxNPSl

6. 7. 8. 9.

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