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Social Action Theory

The social action theory, which was developed by Anderson and Meyer, suggests that movies and subsequently their off-shoot products have hidden messages that influence their audience. Using this theory a producer can portray the artist in any way they wish, or portray other people/objects as anything they wish and interpret anything they want in any way to the viewer. The theory suggests that the actor is seen as an autonomaus object by the viewer. The subject at hand is totally controlled by the actor, and their actions aren't controlled by any cultural or social structure. This theory is alot like the hypodermic needle effect, in the way it suggests actions are noted as acceptable by the passive audience. However, it sees it more from the viewpoint of the producer, who can manipulate the impression created by the passive viewer by using the actor to deliver this theory. Rather than the objects and events surrounding the actor being the thing that interprets the meaning of the scene, it's the actor that gives meaning to the events and objects, taking things into any context the producer wishes to portray. Examples of this are the impact wrestling has on its audience. There's evidence showing a link between the aggresive behaviour of a child (a passive viewer) and the amount of time spent watching wrestling. The child doesn't take into account any moral, social or cultural structures (hypodermic needle effect), therefore anything the actor wants to interpret the objects and events as, the viewer makes note of the use of the enviroment, and not the moral, social and cultural structure of what the actors is doing (action theory). This is why an incident where somone uses an odd weapon, such as a chair (often used in wrestling), could be linked to them passively watching a chair being used as a weapon on television. I could use this theory in my music video by deciding what I want to interpret the band and actors as being, and useing their actions to describe that. For instance I may choose a very dark setting. But the actors may be acting possitively towards it, and this may make the dark setting appear happy despite this dark setting. This will leave a good impression of the band and actors on the viewer, and this may make the viewer start to like the band, even if they're not that interested in their music. Now that i'm aware of this theory i'm going to be careful not to leave a negative impression of the band members. However, it may be beneficial to leave a negative impression of the actors, to emphasise the good impression being left by the actors.

Media studies theories - The social action theory


The social action theory developed by Anderson and Meyer, suggested that media has hidden messages that influence their audience. Using this theory a director can portray the actors in any which way they wish; this allows the director of the video to interpret anything that they want in any way to the audience, this theory suggests that the actor is seen as an independent object by the viewer. The subject at hand is totally controlled by the actor, and their actions aren't controlled by any cultural or social order. This theory is similar to the hypodermic needle theory; in the way it suggests actions are noted as acceptable by the passive audience without the need to accept them. Rather than the objects and events surrounding the actor being the thing that interprets the meaning of the scene, it's the actor that gives importance to the events and objects in the film, taking things into any context the producer wishes to portray.

Examples of this are the impact that more violent media has on its audience. There's evidence showing a link between the aggressive behaviour of a child (a typically much more passive viewer than an older person) and the amount of time spent viewing violent media, this allows for anything the actor wants to interpret the objects and events as, the viewer subconsciously makes note of the objects use in the environment, and not the moral, social and cultural structure of what the actor is actually doing (this is the action theory).

I could use this theory in my film teaser trailer by deciding what I want to interpret the actors as being, and using their actions to describe that. For instance I may choose a very dark moody setting. But the actors may be acting positively towards it, and this may make the dark setting appear more normal despite this setting.

(2012, 02). History of Mass Media. StudyMode.com. Retrieved http://www.studymode.com/essays/History-Of-Mass-Media-915843.html

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Social Responsibility Theory: Social responsibility theory allows free press without any censorship but at the same time the content of the press should be discussed in public panel and media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional self regulations or both. The theory lies between both authoritarian theory and libertarian theory because it gives total media freedom in one hand but the external controls in other hand. Here, the press ownership is private. The social responsibility theory moves beyond the simple Objective reporting (facts reporting) to Interpretative reporting (investigative reporting). The total news is complete facts and truthful but the commission of the freedom press stated that No longer giving facts truthfully rather than give a necessary analysed or interpretative report on facts with clear explanations. The theory helped in creating professionalism in media by setting up a high level of accuracy, truth, and information. The commission of press council also included some tasks based on social responsibility of media, which are as follows: 1. Formulate the code of conduct for the press. 2. Improve the standards of journalism. 3. Safeguarding the interests of journalism and journalist.

4. Criticise and make some penalty for violating the code of conduct. The theory allows 1. Everyone to say something or express their opinion about the media. 2. Community opinion, Consumer action and professional ethics. 3. Serious invasion of recognized private rights and vital social interests. 4. Private ownership in media may give better public service unless government has to take over to assure the public to provide better media service. 5. Media must take care of social responsibility and if they do not, government or other organisation will do. Critics of Social Responsibility Theory: 1. Avoids the conflict situation during war or emergency by accepting the public opinion. 2. Media will not play monopoly because the audience and media scholars will rise questions if media published or broadcast anything wrongly or manipulate any story. 3. Media Standards will improve. 4. Media will concern all class audience rather than focus on higher classes in the society. 5. Media may work autonomously but certain thing is controlled by the government and other public organisation.