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Heat engine:

it is a device used to convert heat energy into mechanical energy energy. Heat energy is obtained by combustion of fuel. fuel Classification:
Internal combustion engine (I.C (I C Engine). Engine) g ( (E.C Engine). g ) External Combustion engine

IC engine: i
where h combustion b ti of f fuel f l (petrol ( t l / diesel) di l) with air takes place inside the engine cylinder. EX: Petrol & Diesel engine.

EC engine:
Combustion of the fuel takes place outside the cylinder. EX: Turbines ( Steam & Gas turbine)

IC engine g Terminology gy

Bore: inside dia of the cylinder. Top Dead centre(TDC): The extreme position of reached by the piston at the top of the cylinder is called TDC. Bottom Dead Centre: The extreme position reached by the piston at the bottom of the cylinder is called BDC. Stroke (L):the nominal distance travelled by the piston in the cylinder bn the extreme upper 7 lower position of the piston i is i termed d as stroke. k

IC engine g Terminology gy
Compression ratio( r) :
Max cylinder vol/clearance vol. Max.cylinder vol


Cylinder volume. Swept volume. Clearance volume.

IC engine

Major j p parts of IC engine g

9 Cylinder: it is a round cylindrical casting in which a piston slides in and out to make stroke. Combustion of fuel takes place inside it is closed by a cylinder head inside. head. 9 Material : Grey cast iron

Major parts of IC engine


9 Cylinder head: it is fitted at the top of the cylinder. It has inlet & outlet valves 9 Material : Cast iron, aluminum.

Major parts of IC engine


9 Piston A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder. li d 9 Material : Cast iron, Al alloy , Ni alloy & cast steel 9 Piston rings Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and d the h i inner edge d of f the h cylinder. li d The h rings serve two purposes:
9 Material : alloy CI, plated with chromium

Connecting rod The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft It can rotate at both ends so that crankshaft. its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates rotates. Material : Plain carbon steel, Al alloy,Ni alloy.

Major parts of IC engine


Major parts of IC engine



Crankshaft The crankshaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jackinthebox does does. Material : Alloy steel .

The Four Stroke Engine g

The four strokes of the cycle are Intake or suction, compression, power, and exhaust.

1. Induction Stroke
Engine pulls piston out of cylinder Low p pressure inside cylinder Atmospheric pressure pushes fuel and air mixture into cylinder Engine does work on the gases during this stroke

2. Compression Stroke
Engine pushes piston into cylinder. cylinder Mixture is compressed to high pressure and temperature. Engine does work on the gases during g u ng this stroke. .

Engine Step 2
Fuel and air mixture after compression stroke:
Pressure Temperature = High = Hot

3. Power Stroke
Mixture burns to form hot gases Gases push piston out of cylinder li d Gases expand p to lower pressure and temperature Gases do work on engine during this stroke

Engine Step 3
Burned gases after ignition:
Pressure Temperature = Very high = Very hot

Engine Step 4

Burned gases after power stroke:

Pressure Temperature = Moderate = High

4 4.

Exhaust Stroke

E Engine i pushes sh s piston ist into cylinder High Hi h pressure ss i inside sid cylinder Pressure P pushes h burned b d gases out of cylinder Engine E i d does work k on the th gases during this stroke

Engine Step 4a

Burned gases after extra expansion expansion:

Pressure T mp Temperature tu = Atmospheric = Moderate M d t

Engine Step 4b

Burned gases after even more expansion expansion:

Pressure T mp Temperature tu = Below atmospheric = Ambient Ambi nt

Basic Mechanical Engineering


Intake The fuel/air mixture is first drawn into the crankcase by the vacuum created during the upward d stroke t k of f the th piston. it Th illustrated The ill t t d engine features a poppet intake valve, however many engines use a rotary valve incorporated into the crankshaft. compression the fuel/ air mixture is compressed i the in th cylinder li d to t high hi h pressure and temperature.

Power stroke:
At the end of the compression stroke the spark plug produce an electric spark to ignite the fuel to start the combustion process. (fuel injector sprays the fuel in the case of diesel engine) Due to the high pressure and temperature the gas will expand tends to move the piston downwards.

Exhaust stroke:
At the bottom of the power stroke, the exhaust port is opened . The upward stroke of the piston drives the exhausted fuel out of the cylinder

Two stroke engine

Comparison p of four stroke & two stroke engines g

1. For every y two revolution of the crank shaft, there is one power stroke. 2. Because of the above, turning moment is not so uniform and hence heavier flywheel is needed. 3. For the same p power more space is required.

1. For every one revolution of f the h crank k shaft, h f there h is i one power stroke. 2. Because of the above, turning moment is more uniform and hence a lighter flywheel is used used. 3. For the same power less space is required.

4. Because of one power stroke in two revolutions, revolutions lesser cooling and lubrication requires. Lower rate of wear and tear. 5 5. Valves are required inlet and exhaust valves. 6. Because of heavy weight, complicated valve mechanism and water cooled, cooled making it complicated design and difficult to maintain.

4. Because of one power stroke for every revolution, revolution greater cooling and lubrication requirements. Higher rate of wear and tear. 5 5. Ports are made in the cylinder walls inlet, exhaust, and transfer port. 6. Simple in design, light weight and air cooled and easy to maintain.

7. The airfuel mixture is completely utilized thus efficiency is higher.

7. As inlet and exhaust port open simultaneously, some times fresh charges may escape with exhaust gases. The exhaust gases are not always completely removed. This cause lower efficiency. 8. Volumetric efficiency is low d to due t lesser l time ti for f induction. 9. The fuel consumption per horse power is more because of ff fuel l dil dilution ti by b the th exhaust h t gas.

8. Volumetric efficiency is high due to more time for induction. 9. Lower fuel consumption per horse power.

10. Used in heavy vehicles, e.g. Buses, lorries, trucks etc. 11. The engine cost is more. 12. The exhaust is less noisy.

10. Used in light vehicles, e.g. Motor cycle, scooter, t etc. 11. 11 The engine cost is less. less

12. The exhaust is noisy due to short time available f exhaust for h t.



S.I ENGINES 1. The fuel used is gasoline (Petrol). 2. Air + Fuel mixture is taken during suction. 3. For mixing air and fuel a separate device called carburettor is required. 4. Since homogeneous mixture is produced in carburettor, no need of injector. C.I ENGINES 1. Fuel used is Diesel.

2. Only air taken during suction. 3. No need of carburetor.

4 For atomizing and spraying 4. the fuel inside the cylinder, fuel injector is necessary.

5. Pressure at the end of compression p is about 10 bar. 6. A spark plug is used to ignite the air fuel mixture. 7. Self ignition temperature of fuel is not attained. In other words, the fuel is not self ignited. 8. S.I. Engines works on otto cycle (i.e) combustion takes place at constant volume.

5. Pressure at the end of compression p is about 35 bar. 6. Spark plug is not necessary. 7. The fuel get ignited due to the high temperature of compressed air. 8 8. C C.I. I Engines works on diesel cycle (i.e) combustion takes place at constant pressure.

9. Compression ratio is around 6 to 10. 10. Cold starting of engine is easy. 11. 11 These are very lighter. lighter 12. Cost is comparatively low. 13. Running cost is high.

9. Compression ratio is around 15 to 25. 10. Cold starting of engine is difficult. 11. 11 Heavier engine. engine

12. Cost is high.

13. Running cost is not high.

14. Less maintenance. 15. thermal efficiency is about 25%. % 16. Over heating trouble is more. 17 17. Spark S k plug l needs d frequent maintenance. 18. These are high speed engines.

14. High maintenance is needed needed. 15. thermal efficiency is about 35 to 45%. 16. Over heating trouble is l less. 17 17. Fuel injector needs less maintenance. These are medium or slow speed engines.