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B.U. DHAMMOHOB 440) CZ iall @us3vveckas kynbtypa Wa Paley Ca) bOKC EY itt-Ceya-tofelo Me Lolec i -le ol Pee ele IU PIL LE: | YK 796.83(075.8) BCTYMMTENbHOE CHOBO BBK 75.713873 11647 Peuensentar: B yue61iom noco6un BeLyLUMXx cre“MaMcTOR B O6sac- TOrMYeCKHX HayK MOKTOP Newarorw4ecKHx HayK, Npodeccop, 3acnyxexubill TpeHep Poccun no Goxes 7 OoKca M KHKOOKCHHIa LOKTOpa Nepal : a BA. Tatinasoe. eo od AT. Lupseea u noxtopa nenarormuecknx Hayk B.A. @u- HOKTOP Nenaroruyeckux HayK, npodeccop, saneayiomnit Kacenpoti Teopust H METOAMKH usisecKoli Kynstyp. CIEPY@K um. I. , Jlecratpra 10. ®. Kypanuun JIMMOHOBa OOOCHOBDIBAIOTCA PaIIMYHBIC ACHEKTHI NODTO- TOBKM CNOPTCMeHOB B STHX BHMAaX KOHTAKTHBIX €MHO- Gopcts. ABTOpPbI aHaM3HpyloT OoraTblii ONbIT OTeYeECTBEHHON qikomni 6okca H KMKOOKCHHTAa, 3HAKOMAT C IMYHON MHO- ToneTHeH NpakTHKoli, a TaKKE pe3y/IbTaTaMM HaYUHbIX uccrefopaHVit. BorwMHcTeo MmpescTaBleHHEXx MeTOAH- MECKVX PCKOMEHLAaUMit LINPOKO NPHMeHAIHCh B Nopro- ToBKe GoKcepor C6opHEIX KoMaHa CCCP » Poccun K oT- BETCTBCHHBIM COpeBHOBAHHAM. Kuwra OueHb nome3Ha Kak JUId TpeHepoB CeKLMit OOK- ca Wf KHKOOKCHHTa, TaK M JIA MHL, CAMOCTOSTENHO 3a- HUMAIOWMXCA YOaPHBIMH BUJJAMM CHOPTHBHDIX eMHO- 6opeTB. UWupses A.T. 11647 Boxe u Kux6oxkcunr : yue6. noco6ue ma CTY. BBICUI. yue6. sapeqenuit / A.T.UInpaes, B.M. Owiumonos. — M. : M3natenb- Ckuii WeHTp ye MaBHO yTepsO 3Haye- Hue 3a6aBbl. STO OrpoMuBlit, MHOTONeTHUI Tpy, MMPOBbIe peKopAbI H AOCATHDIC NopaxchHn, BIeYaTIAOU[e-YTPOralOWllad CTATMCTHKa TpapM HW HCYACTHBIX cnyyaeb, GOb, KPOBb, NOTepH... M MHOMMA Mena. STO celtuac. A c uero Bce Ha4MHasocb? usyueckue ynpaxHeHHA CTA aTpHOyTOM, HEOTBEMMeMOit YacTBIO OKU3HH YeOBEKA OUeHS LaBHO. ApxeosorHuecKHe HaXOKH HM HCCTeO- BaHMA TOBOpAT O TOM, YTO CpeACTBa M3HYeCKOH KyITYPHI MCHONb- 30BaJIMCh JULI BOCMUTAHHA MONOLEKK HW NOXTOTOBKH BOHHOB elle 20 o6pa30naHHa ApeBHehunx rocymapcrs. Torna 6BDIM NonynspHb! MHOrve Bub cnopta. Uenonex Geran, npbi- Tan, 6oponca, ero BOCHMTaHMe OCYIeCTEMAIOCE Yepe3 BCECTOPOHHIOIO (busnueckyt0 nonroropKy. O6bscHeHMit TOMy MHOTO: BO-TepBEIX, BCe- THA M BESTE OUI HYKHLI CHIDHbIC, BIHOCTMBHIC, pasHocroponre Pa3BHTBIe 3ALIMTHAKM M PaOOTHHKH; BO-BTOPBIX, B OpraHH3Me BCE B3AHMOCBAZAHO, H, BO3ZelCTByA Ha OAHY M3 ero CTopon (Hanpumep, Ha (PHSHYECKHE LAaHHbIC), MOXKHO WIMATS Ha BCE OCTAIbHBIe SMOLHO- Ha@JIbHBI€, YMCTBEHHBIe, MCHXMYeCKMe H Dpyrue ocoOeHHOCTH; B-TPCTbUX, HMCHHO cbHSM4eCKHe BOSMOXHOCTH Gonee ApyrHx MoyH- HSIOTCH TPCHHPORKE HT. 0. BEOMOUKOHHO ITM BHALI HONONHHTeMbHON (cBepxTpynoBOi HIM BOMHCKOM) ABHTAaTeIbHO AesTeNbHOCTH YesOBeKa CTA CHCTeMaTH- SUPOBATECA, KIACCHHUMPOBATLCA HW BEUIENITLCA B OTMENbHBIC, ca- MOCTOATEADHLIC cheps: Ger, NpbiKKM, M€TAHHe AMCKa HIM Kors, 6ops6a, kynauHEm Goi, egna Ha KONeCHMLaX HM Ap. 6 3aMeuaTembHO OCOGeHHOCTbIO ClopTa ABIAeTCA OGA3aTeENbHOe ipucyTcraue cbakTa CopeBHoRaHus, conepHuyecrBa, KOHKypeHun. Sto o6ycoBIMBacT, BO-NepBbIX, Leb 3aHATHH — COOTBeETCTBY10- LIM BO3MOXHOCTAM CIOPTUBHDIt Pe3yNbTAT; a BO-BTOPBIX, NOTO- TOBKY K DAHHOMY pe3yJIETaTy — BEINOMHeHHe TPeHHPOBOYHO Harpy3- KH, pallMOHAIbHbI pexuM, rurueHy 4 T.n. B npowecce cnoprnBxoit TOMTOTORKM PeLalOTCA CepbesHble 3aa4H, TaBHbIe cpeyM KOTOPEIX — YKPEIUICHMe 320POBbA, (PHSU4ECKOe COBEPLICHCTBOBAHMEe, YMCTBCHHOE, WieHHOe, HPaBCTBCHHOe, SCTeTHYECKOe BOCTIMTaHMe HM Mp. Bor nouemy cnopt — HavGonee adpceKTHBHOoe cpencTBO yKpermie- HHA 310PObbA, eUCTBEHHBIL MTOM BCeCTOPOHHETO M rapMOHHYHOTO Pa3BHTHA NHIHOCTH, MOATOTOBKH ee K TpylOBoli, HHTepHaWHOHANL- HO-MNaTPHOTHYCCKoH WeATeEMbHOCTH. B Haw nH cymectByioT 6onee 100 BugoB cnopta, 46 u3 Hux — ommmmnniickve. OHM KyIbrMBMPyIOTCH Ha BCeX KOHTHHEHTAX IWIaHeTbL Mi BXOJAT B IporpaMMy KPyTIHeMUIMX CHOpPTHBHEIX CocTa3aHMit Sem — Oxmumnviicxux urp, B 1936 T. BbIaIOLMMCH KaHaCKUM yueHbIM [aHcom Cembe Out MpeIOxKeH MH BNOCMEACTBNH BBeAeH B MeMHUHHY TepMHH «cTpecc» (oT aHr. stress — HanpsxeHHe). Crpeccom I. Cembe (1982) Ha3Ball cO- CTOAHHE OpraHH3Ma, KOTOPOe BbI3LIBaeTCA pasIMYHbIMH upesBBlyait- HBIMM pa3paxkHTeAMU — CIpeCcopamy, 3aTparMBaroujMMu ETO 2Xv3- HECMOCOGHOCTS Vf KU3HECTOHKOCT. TakuMu pasapakHTenamH MoryT Obirh XOAOA M TonOn, TAKEMBIE TpaBMbI, BOS6yTHTENK HHCeKUHOH- HBIX GomesHeli, MCHXHYECKHE NO- TpaceHus, SypHble 2MOUMH HT. 1. Crpeccopamu Moryr 6bITb TaKwxKe SMOUMOHAIbHBIe u usnuecKue Harpy3Ku B cnopte. Ho ecam B 2Ku3- HM CTpeccopbl pasHoro xapakTepa M MOU{HOCTH BOSHHKAaIOT MH ACcii- CTBYIOT HEOKMAHHO M NOCTOAHHO, TO B CnopTe Mbl K HHM FoTOBbi KH H@ke LOTOBMMCA, NPHMepHO 3Hast BO3MOXHOCTH COMepHHKa, Mmpen- momaranx Cc HeKOTOpOH BepOATHOC- TblO ycriex WIM Heymayy, YTO, KO- HEYHO, CYLICCTBCHHO CHWDKaeT HX Pa3pyumMTenbHyto cH. Cneunanucrs: (Pasymos C.A. 1986 H ap.) BbULeMIOT TPH OCHOB- HBI€ PASHOBKIHOCTU CTPECCOBLIX Kuelitomaxoc u3 Teé — Onumnuit- cocTosinit: dbusuieckoe, IMOUM- cKHii YCMMMOH B KysauHOM Goro OH@JIbHOe, CMELIAHHOe. (212r-. 20 1.3.) Equxodopcrsa 3aHuMaloT ocoboe MecTO B YHCAe ApyrHx BHOB cnopra. K THmuriLim 114 emmnoboperTs dHsHNeCKHM CTpeccopaMm OT- HOCATCH GOBBLE OLIYIWEHHA, HATMYME ONpeWeNneHHbIX BECOBbIX KaTe- ropuit, dusnyeckue Harpy3KH. Bonecwe ougyiuenun cauHoSoper, ACMEITSIBACT He TOJIbKO B TIpouecce COpeBHOBATEIBHOM HesATeABHOCTH (yIapbl, NPOTHBOelcTBKe NpoTHB- HHKa, CIOPTHBHEI€ TpaBMb!), HO H B pALOBOH TpeHHpoBOYHOH paG6ore (ywHGbl, TOBpeExTeHHe MBI, CBA3OK HM CyXOKMNM Np paSore Ha cHapslax, C NapTHepOM, MPH BEITIONHeHUM yupaxHeHui ODI). Hanuiue eecoewix Kamecoput., TIO HaLMM JAHHbIM, AULT MOJIOBHHbI emMHOboplteB CraHOBUTCA ChaKTOPOM, CilepXUBAIOUIMM WIM axe Or- PaHH4HBaoluHM MepHOd aKTHBHbIX 3aHATHIt COpTOM. Pusuteckue Haepy3Ku B CNOpre — 3TO KOSMYCCTBeCHHO-KayeCTBeH- Hble OTHOWWeHHA Mery paGorol H pesyALTAaTOM, OHH HMEIOT CHITy 3a- Kona. ITpakTH4eckH BCA CIOpTHBHad JCATEMBHOCTS OLIpeuleNAeTCA Bapb- MpoBaHHeM OObeMa M MHTCHCMBHOCTH TpeHUpOBOUHOM Harpy3KH. Sim M MHOFHe Apyrue, xOTH, MOXeT GbITh, H MeHee 3HAYMMBIC YcNOBKA CHOPTHBHOH XU3HH (MOCTOAHHAA HOBM3HAa M MHTCHCHBHOCTS HeATENBHOCTH, MIpeAenb! pesyibTATHBHOCTH elicTBHi uM Mp.) CTaHo- BATCA NOYBOH W141 IMOUMOHAbHOTO cTpecca. Cosa Ke MOXKHO OTHEC- TH LeNbIH psig PeaKUMi, BEISLIBACMBIX BaXKHEIMH JIA COpTcmeHa cbak- TOpaMH: OTBCTCTBCHHBIMH COpeBHOBAHHAMH H GOAMH, LeeBbIMH Tpe- HMpOBKAaMM M 3aaHHaMn (HanpuMep, 3alayaMu KOHTPOsIA HM OTOO- pa) 4 Tn. He cnenyer 3a6nieaTb Takxe, YTO B eMHOGOpCTRaX, Mpexie BCeTO YAAPHLIX, CMOPTCMCHbI NOCTOAHHO HCNBITIBaFOT GomeBbIe OLYLCHHA. Takum 06pa30M, Ha HHX OMHOBPeMeHHO JeiicTBytOT CaMBIe pa3HBle cTpeccophi, oOsalaroulMe paspymimuTenbHol cunoli. AKUCHT Ha CTPECCOBOM HaMOHEHHH e/(MHOGOpCTB CremaH CrelH- avlbHO — uTOOpI NOsYepKHYTE OAHY U3 MaBHbIX OcOGeHHCcTeli UX BIU- AHMA Ha CrOprTcMcHa, OxzHaKko B&KHO 3HaTb UH BCE MOMOKMTCJIDHbIC COcTaBIIMOLIMe STHX BYOB Clopta — NpeKpacHyio (pu3nveckyio Nop- TOTOBKY, BOOpyXCHHe CNCIMaIbHbIMM 3HAHHAMM, YMCHMAMM M Ha- BbIKAMH, Pa3HOCTOPOHHEe BOCMMTAHHE, YTO B WeNOM ObecneyHBaeT cbopMupoBale rapMOHHUHO pa3BHTOH AMUHOCTH. Orciona cnesyer: BO-TepBLIX, BHXbI eMMHOGopcTs MpescTaBrsoT cool HauGonee AelicTBenHbl Knacc CpevCTB BCeECTOPpOHHelt MOAFOTOBKM H TapMOHHY- HOTO BOCNMTAaHHA YenOBeKa; BO-BTOPbIX, PasHOObpasHOCTh HM MOL[HOCTS CrpeccoBoro HanomHe- HAA CXHHOOOPCTS ABAIOTCH AeKBATHBIMM HM HallexKHbIMK CPesICTBa- MH TIOZTOTOBKH YeOBeKa K KXH3HH; B-IpeTbHx, Crpeccopad OOCTAHOBKa HK COOTBETCTBYIOIUAA eH CH3H- YeCKAaA NOMTOTOBKA 3alOXKCHbI B TPeCHAPOBOUHOM TIpowlecce uv CopeB- HOBAHHKAX CHOPTCMCHOB BCEX KBATH@UKALHOHHBIX YDOBHeH. Bor sro Takoe ennHobopctea! 1 [napa @MUSUYECKAS KYJIBTYPA MU CNOPT 1.1. Pusuyeckaa kynbTypa @u3vueckasd KyIbTypa — 9TO YacTh OOH KyIbTypbl OOWeCTBa, ccbepa COUMaIbHOli NesATeNHOCTH, HalpaBleHHasd Ha yKpemieHHe 370- POBbA, pasBuTHe PusHyeCKHX ChocoGHOCTel YeMOBeKA. B10 BHA KYJIb- Typhi, cneuuMduyecknii mpouecc uv pesyiLTaT YenOBeueCKOH eATeNb- HOCTH, CPpeacTBo M CHocoG (bu3sHYeCKoro COBepUICHCTBObaHHA YeCAO- Beka (Kypamumu 10.®., 2004). 1.1.1. Oynkuun @usvveckow KyNbTypb! @n3nyeckad KyIbTypa NPHHVMaeT AKTHBHOE yuacTue B TIpeobpa- 30baTerbHOl JeATeMbHOCTH (AyXOBHOH, MaTepHasLHO, comManLHol) CpencTBaMH (PU3HYeCKOTO COBEPLICHCTBOBAHMA CaMoro YenOBeKa. On- HUM U3 BYOB TaKoro Mpeo6paz0BaHHa ABNIAeTCA M3MeHEHUe PopM H @YHKUMIi YenoBeyecKOro OpraHH3ma Noy BOsselicTBHeEM LeTeHaNpaB- JICHHBIX (PUSHYECKHX YIPAKHEHMI, HCHOMb3IOBAHME KOTOPKIX HayYHO O6ccHoBaHO ¢ No3KuMK (H3sHONOrMH, NesarorMKH MW MCHXONOrNH, TeOPHU UM METOAMKH BYOB (Pbu3NYeCKOH KybTypbI. [locKkonbky u3H- UeCKad KYIbTypa ABIACTCA YACTLIO KYIETYPHI, CCOPMHpOBABUIelicA B OOulecTBe, TO eM MpHcyumM obwexyabmypHEe @yxkyuu. K HAM OTHO- caTca OOmeobpa3z0BpaTeILHas, BOCIMTATeCIbHas, HOPMAaTHBHas, mpe- OGpasopaTeNbHad, MO3HabaTeMbHaA, WEHHOCTHAL, OPHeHTal|MoHHas, KOMMYHMKaTHBHas VW pyre. OcHoBHad (byHKUMA KyJIbTypbI COCTOMT B CO3J4HHM TaKHX OGLICCTBCHHO 3HAYMMBIX LEHHOCTeM, KOTOPBIC BbI- CTYMaloT B KaveCTBe CPENCTB M Cnocobor, oGecneyMBalolmHXx Nporpec- CMBHOe pa3BHTHe kak KaxqOl NHHOCTH, TAK H OOLIECTBA B LIeIOM. @Musnyeckad KyIbTypa — OTHOCHTENbHO CaMOCTOATENDHBIM BL KYIILTypbl, OHA HMeeT CBOM cnreyudureckue PyHKY4LU, BbIPAKaIoulHe B KOHKpeTHOH (bopme ee HasHayeHHe Kak OONACTH COUMAIIbHO HEOGXO- SMMOH TeATeNLHOCTH, Ce CNOCOGHOCTE yAOBETBOPATH 3anpocKl rocy- HapcTBa B Pu3M4eCKOM COBEPUICHCTBOBAHHH JOnCH BCeX BO3pacTOB HM mo6oro coumanbHoro nonoxkeHua (Bruipun B.M., 2004). 1.1.2. Went vu sagauu musuyeckoit kynbrypet @usvueckas KynbTypa NMUNOCTA — 9TO CoUMaTEHO-neTepMuHE- PoBanHad O6nacte obiueli KYLTYpbI YeNOBCKa, NpeMCTaBAIOLIAA CO- Goi ce KavecTBeHHOe, CHCTEMHOe, JMHAaMYeCKOe COCTOAHHe, XapaK- Tepu3yiolweeca ONpeseIeHHbIM YPOBHEM CrenHaILHOH O6paszopaltHo- CTH, (PH3MCCKOrO COBePLICHCTBA, MOTHBALMOHHO-I[CHHOCTHEIX OpH- CTA 1 COLMMAaIbHO-LYXOBHbIX WeHHOCTeli, MpHOOpereHHEIX B pe- SYMLTATe BOCMHTAHHA H MHTCrPHPOBAHHDIX B CPUSKYJIbTYPHO-CHOpTHB- HOH AeATEMHOCTH, KynbType OOpasa 2XM3HH, MYXOBHOCTH Wf TICHXO- (usuueckom snopopse (Buzenckuit M.A, Conopres I.M., 2001). OcHoBHEIMH 3ajlayaMM, pellaeMbIMM B MIpouecce 3aHATui u3su- YeCKOH KyIbTYpOi, ABASIOTCH O6yueHHe (o6pazopanne), dbusHueckoe PasBUTHE MH BOCIIMTAHMe JM4HOCTH. Obpaszocamenonete 3ada4: — Popmupopane HW coBepuicHcTBOBaHMe pa3sHOOOpasHDix ABHTa- TEJIBHBIX YMeHMH H HaBblKOB; — OBIaIeHHe 3HaHHAMH, HeOoOxoQHMEIMH JUIA CO3HATCNbHOTO OC- BOCHHA [BHTATe/IbHBIX YMeHHH H HaBBIKOB, (PM3HYCCKOTO pasBUTHA Hh COBEPLUCHCTBORAHHA, YKpelieHua W COXpaHeHUa 3.0poRbs. Sadauu husuxeckoeo paseumus: — OITHMajIbHoe pa3BuTHe cu3MYeECKHX KayeCTB; — COBEPUICHCTBOBAHHe TeOCNOxKeHHA MW rapMOHHYeCKOe (pusHye- ckoe pa3BHTHe; —YKpermienve 4 COxpaHeHMe 3L0pPOBbA, 34KasIMBaHHe, BOCCTAHOB- Tene paGorocnocoGHocTH nocne GonesHeli M TpaBM; —MHOroyleTHee COXpaHeHHe BBICOKOTO ypoBHA paboTocnocobHOcTH. Bocnumameavnote sada: — PopMupoBaHHe MupOBOS3peHa, yOexTeHMii, ycTaHOBOK, WeH- HOCTHBIX OpHeHTalMit, NoTpeOHOcTel, MOTHBOB, HHTCPCCOB, aKTHB- HOO HW OCO3HAHHOFO OTHOIWCHUA K MeATEMbHOCTH, ONpeneneHHON cchepolt cbusnueckolt KyIBTypLI; — hopmuposatine HpaBCTBeHHBIX, 9CTETHYECKUX, BOMEBEIX CBOHCTB Hf KavecT, OTPAKAIOWIUX COUMATLHO-NCHXOMOTMUECKHe OcobeHHOCTH JHYHOCTH, OGYCAOBINBAIOLUAX Ce CHOPTHBHYIO AKTHBHOCTE. 1.1.3. Cpegctea popmuposanusn dusnueckon KyNbTypb! NMYHOCTH OCHOBHEIMM CpencTBaMM H3HYeCKON KyBTYpEI ABATIOTCH (:pu3H- YeCKHe yiIpakHeHHA, ECTeCTBEHHEIe CHIbI NPHpOmbI mM rurnenn4yc- ckne tbaxroppi. Dusuveckoe ynpascienue — 310 CreuncpH4ecKoe cpencTRO (busn- N€CKOFO COBCPUICHCTBOBaHHA, BH, JBHFATe AHO ACATCIBHOCTH, Ha- npaBieHHoro BosTelicTBHA Ha UeTOBeKa. 10 Ecmecmecunete cuavt npupodvt (comMeuHLle NYA, BOSAYyX, Bona) — BAKHBIC CPEMCTBA YKPCIVIEHHA 3TOPOBLA Mi MOBBILICHHA padorocito- co6nocTu. CoGmofeHHe HOpM MH MpaBH JHYHOK vw OOulecTBEHHOM eueuenbt mpyoa, 6bima, omOuxa, humanuz, OKpyacaroweti cpedb! Vi T.N. TOBBINIA- eT oceexT Bosseiicrsua cpencTs :usnyueckoit KyMbTypLI. @usweckve ynpaxHeHva KaCcHMUMpylorcs Ha Tpynmpl (Kac- Ck) NO pa3HBIM mpH3Hakam. Uspecruo Gonee 300 KnaccuuKaunit cbusMdeckux yripaxHenMi. Knaccu@ukauna mo npeumywmecmeeHnott Yenesoll HanpaéeHHocmu BELIeENAeT Tpymnb ynpaxkneHuit: oOwepa3- BHBAIOWMe PUSHYCCKHC, mpocbeccvoHaTbHO-NpHKNaAHble, COPTHB- Hbie W Ap. Cnroprupibie ynpaxHeHnsa, B CBOIO OYepenb, Nompa3spemAoTCA Ha COPEBHOBATENIBHBIC, CMELMaIbHO-NOLPOTOBHTENLHBIC 4 O6LLeMOnrO- TOBHTEBHEIE. CopesHosatesbHble yripaxkHeHHA NpeCTaBIAIOT coool ABMraTeNb- Hple TelicTBHA CHOPTMBHO chewMaiM3salWN, OHM BbINOHAIOTCA B COOTBCTCTBHH C NpabuiaMn COpeBHOBAHHM Mo LaHHOMy BAY CnopTa. 1.2. Cnopt B nnteparype MOxHO BBLIeIMTE HECKOIBKO onpeneneHuit MOHATHA «crop. Cnopm — vicropyecky CroxMBIIAdCA cpopma YeNOBeYeCKUX OTHO- WICH M TeATCAPHOCTH, Cnopm — CO®CTBEHHO COpeBHOBaHHA HM MpoLlecc MOnTOTOBKH K HAM. Cnopm — “aCTb KyIbIypbl OGUECTBa, OTHOCHTCA K COXKHEIM JH- HaMUYeCKHM COLMaIbHEIM CuCTeMaM. Cnopm — nauGonee adxbeKTHBHOe CpesCTBO (PU3HYECKOTO BOCTIM- TaHHs YeNoBeKa. Kaxfoe “3 3THx onpenencnuit cnpaBenimMBo, onHakO Ham mpen- CTaBIACTCH, UTO COPT — 9T0 Haubonee ag@exmueHoe cpedcmeo Komn- aeKcHozo Gocnumanua “enoeeka, [leno B TOM, 4TO CHOpT OKa3bIBacT yICHt- CTBeHHOe, MOUHOe BAMAHHe Ha OPraHH3M M MICHXMKy YesoBeKa. 30eCb M CMiaB BOMEBbIX KaYeCTB, HW CNeWMduYHAA ITHKA; 3NeCb CBOA TOrHKA W ocoGad SCTeTHKA CNOPTHBHOM jeATeEMBHOCTH, PeabHo Tomoralo- me CropTcMeHy B COCTA3aHUH. 7lanure KauccrBa H CHOCOGHOCTH WjeeHAaNpaBeHHO BOCIMTbIBa- IOTCA y CIOPTCMeHA, enaloT EO AyXOBHO M HPaBCTBeEHHO GoraTHIM. 1.2.1. Syxxunu cnopta OGuecTBeHHas pons M 3HauMMoOcT, cnopta xapaktepusyloTcs psi- HOM dyHKunit. 11 Copesrosamenciaa dynkuua — CiaBHaA XapaKTepucTHKa HM OCOOcH- HOCTS CilopTa, Oa pelliaeT OCHOBHBIe 3aauK COpeBHOBAHUA (peruict- PaLllHio pesyAbTATOB, pakDKHPpOBaHHe MeCcT y4acTHHKOB, onpesenenve HX MOALOTOBACHHOCTH B L€JIOM, COCTABNEHHE BbIBOOB H PEKOMEHAa- ui NO MOATOTOBKe cnopreMeHOB Ha MepcnekTHBy). Bocnumameabran ibyxkyun — B COOTRETCTBMM C KOHUENUHe rap- MOHHUYHOFO pasBUTAA TMIHOCTH HanipanieHa Ha ee BCeCTOPOHHee u HDpaBcrBeHHoe OpMMpoBaHHe. O3doposumenbuas @ynkyua — CBAZAHA C MCNOMB30BAHHeM CpeCTB ClOpTa B OS2OPOBHTECIBHBIX LeJIsAX. FTodzomogumeavuan @ytkuur — peau3yeTca B COOCTBEHHO COpTiB- Holi, mpocdbeccHoHanBHO-npukiagHOl M HHIMBUAyaBHOl O320poBi- TebHOM MOATOTOBKe. Hexotopbie yHKUMM Chopra HanpaBneHbl Ha KOHTMHTeHT 3pHTe- neit (un@opmayuontiaa, npoceemumenvitan, speauman, noskaeameat- #aa); BCe Yalile PeWlaloTcA BOMpOceI MaTepHaNbHOrO obecneyYeHHA CIOpTHBHEIX MeponpHaTHit (9xonomuveckan byHKUMA). 1.2.2. Tunbi cnopta ‘Tun cnopta onpenensetca xapakTepoM cOopeBHOBaHHH, comep»Ka- HHEM MOXFOTOBKM CMOPTCMEHOB, Hepapxveit MyHKUM chopra, TeA- TEbHOCTHIO NO efO OpraHH3allMHy, ypaBeHHiO, pasBuTHio H up. Ke- ne3HiK 1O.JJ., 2002). Co BpeMeH MepBEIx cocTa3aHMit MOxHO G6BUIO pa3zyesMTb cnopt- CMCHOB Ha Be [pyliMbl: MepBax rpynna — Te, KTO NpHHHMall B RMX yuacTue, He mpecielya MaTepvarbHbIX Weneli, H BTOpad — Te, KTO COPCBHOBAICH MCKIIOUHTCIBHO 38 BOSHATPAKICHHC. CyniTb He clexyeT HH NepBbIX, HH BTOpbIxX. OHM 3apabaTHIBAaIK ceGe Ha XH3Hb, JPyrHe B STOM He HyXAaIHch HIM Mpocto pyKonon- CTBOBQIMCh MHBIMH MIPHHLMTaMM. CropTcMeHbl TOXe MOTYT ObITh JO- 6urenaMu 4 Mpodeccuonanamn. CrloprcMeHOM-sOGHTENEM MOXET CTaTb “eNOBEK IOG0TO BOSpac- Ta, motor KranuduKanun. B m06uTebCKOM CHOpTe BbUIENAIOT ETC KO-IOHOLUCCKH CMOpT, MaccoBbiii CHopT, KBaIMPHLMpOBaHHBbI CropT M{ CNOPT BBICLUMX ZOCTIDKeHHH. B demcko-roHoweckoM cnopme OCHOBHEIMH BHJaMH JeAnTembHocTH ABMAIOTCA COPCBHOBATENbHa#, BOCNMTaTesIbHad, MOSHABATebHaA, 03- OpopuTenbHas. B maccogom cnopme cpusvueckie ynpakHeHHs M CopeB- HOBaHHA — 3TO CTHMY/I iA NOBbILICHHA ABHrAaTeIbHOW aKTHBHOCTH yenoreka. Benytie cbyHkuMM MaccoBoro cropTa — BOCMHTaTeMbHas, O3AOPOBHTeAbHaA, MPOMSBOACTBCHHO-NpHKalHad, peKpcaliMoHHasz, cro OTMMYMTENBHAA YePTa — MOCTYNHOCTS LWMPOKUM CHOAM HaCesIeHHA. Keanuguyupoeannetii cnopm (Knacc KBani(pHuHpOBaHHEIX CopT- CMEHOB) COCTABNAIOT AMAePbI AETCKO-IONOWWECKOFO M MHOra Mac- 12 cosporo CiopTa. Ha 9Tom 9stane CMOpTHBHBIX 3aHATH NOBBILIAeTCH MacTepcTBO, (OPMUPyeTCH SANTA BHICOKOKBAMHLMPOBaHHbIX CNOpTCMeCHOB — mpesctaputeneit K1aCcCa CnOpma BbiCculUux docmusice- nuit. CroptcmeHos-mro6uTenet 3HauKTeIBHO Gombe, YeM Mpodeccno- HaJIOB, € HX COPCBHOBAHHA MpOBOAATCA Kak N1paswtHHdHbie MepompH—- ATMA; NPaBYa COPEBHOBAHM CyLeCTBeEHHO Gomee ryMaHHbI, H UX Leb — He CTONBKO MOGeNa, CKOMEKO yuacTHe. Tipodeccnonarst («pou») Takoro mo3BONKTb cebe He MOTYT: wX ManO; Ha CTPOrOM CueTY KaKbII YeOBREK; BAKAHCHA 3aNOMHAeTCH MIHOBeHHO. Ho npodecchouanaMi CHOCOGHEI CTaTb TObKO Tye WIM O4CHb NepCnekTHBHbIe CHOpTcMeHEI. 1.2.3. Buabi cnopta Buus cnopra cormacHo pa3sHoobpa3HBiM KpuTepHaM O6beqMHAIOT- cx B rpynmpi (Hil Kacce). KaaccnudbaKalimio BYOB To rpynmnam mpo- BOLAT Ha OCHOBe Pa3HBIX KDHTepHeB. B yue6riom noco6un «Teopua 4 MeToguka du3n4ecKoro BOCNHTa- Hus» (AummapuH B.A., 1979) npewiaraetca HavOonee OOOOWCHHBIM TOAXON K Knaccu*pUKallMlK (PU3HYeCKHX ynpaxkHeHUit U COOTBETCTBEHHO BHZOB ChiOpTa. Knaccucbuxarms, wim pacnpenenenue, dbusHyeckux ynpaxkHeHuit Ha B3aMMOCBASAHHBIC KNaccbI (TpyMnbl) OcyllecTBIAeTCA cormacHo HaHOouee cylllecTBeEHHEIM NpH3HaKaM. B pe3ynbraTe pacnpenenenua o6pazyeTch CHCTeMa, B KOTOpOit BCAKHii BHA ClOpta 3aHMMaeT 4YeTKO OMpeyeneHHoe MecTO. 1. Knaceucbuxauna m0 npu3Haky McTopuyecku COXKMBIIMXCA CUC- Tem (usnyecKOrO BOCIIMTaHMA (TMHMHACTHKa, MIpa, TYPH3M, CropT). 2. Knaccndbuxanma no mpv3Haky oco6eHHOctei MBUNeYHOM Jes- TeVIbHOCTM: CKOPOCTHO-cHJIOBbIe (PUSMueCKHe ypaxkHeHHA, KOTOpbIc TpeGYlOT OT 3AHMMAIOLIIMXCH NMPOABEHHA MAKCHMANIbHBIX YCHIM 3a OTHOCHTesIbHO MasILI OTpe30K BpeMeHM (Ger Ha KOpOTKHe AHCTAEI- UMM, MeTaHHA H T.IT.); M3HYeCKMe ympaxkKHeHHA, TpeOylollluve Mpo- ABIeHMA ebinocaueocmu (Ger Ha CpesHMe UW JIMHHbIe MUCTAHUMH, Xomba Ha JIbDKaX MM T.11.); PUSMYeCKHE ynpaxHeHMA, TpeGyrouwme Koopduxa- yuu Oeuscenui (TAMHacTMKa, MpbDKKM B BOJY HM T.11.); busuyeckue yiipaxHeHMa, TpeSyrouime KomnsexcHozo nponEneHuA OeucamenbHblx Ka- 4ecme (CNOPTuBHbIe ATpbI, eNMHOGOpCTsBa). 3. KnaccuduKayna u3snyeckHx yipaxHeHHit Win pewenna oGpa- 30BaTeNbHbIX 341a4: ocHosHbIe (MIM COPeBHOBaTebHbIe) — HeM0- CpeAcTrBeHHO MpesMer usy4eHHa; Nodeodnmue — OOnerualoT OcBOeEHHe OCHOBHBIX; nodzomosumenbHole — CNOCOGCTBYIOT pa3sBHTuIO HeOOxo- JUMMBIX JBYTaTesIbHBIX KavecTB. Sta KiaccuuKallas yCuoBHa, Tak KaK B Heli MCKYCCTBCHHO BbIJCAIOTCA ypaxHCHHA, HanpaBsicHHbic Ha 13 popMupowante TBuraTesLHOro HaBbIKa M Ha pasBHTHe JBHTaTeLHOTO KaweCcTBa, B TO BPEMA KaK 3TH NpOUeCCbl HepaspbIBHBl. 4. Knaccuduxanua cbv3suueckux ynpaxkHeHuii mo mpu3HaKy mpe- MMYWECTBEHHOTO Pa3sBHTHA OTCIIbHBIX MBILUCYHBIX FPYTIM (Qi MBULLILE TUIEYEBOTO NOAA, WIA MBI TYIOBHINA H We, Jf MBI. HOF 4 Ta3a Mt Mp.). B.H. TLiaronos (1987) npesaraeT crenyioulyio Kiaccud@uKayHio BYOB CNOpPTa, OCHOBAHHYIO Ha OCOGEHHOCTAX TPeEHMPOBOYHON M CO- PCBHOBATEABHOM JeATeNbHOCTH CHOprcMeHos. Tlepsasx rpynta — ameruyeckve Buabl copia, CBASAHHbIe C Mpeses1bHO AKTHBHOM AeATebHOCTBIO cnopTcMena: Jierkad HW TspKenaa aTMeTHKa, MlabaHHe, MeO, THMHACTHKA, CNOPTHBHRIC MIrpH, CNOpTHBHBIe enHHOGOpCTsa H Ip. Bropasx rpytitta — Bib Clopra, B KOTOPLIX WBMraTeNbHad J€ATENbHOCTh CNOPTCMeHa HaNpawieHa Ha ynpaBNeHKe CpencTRaMu NepeBUXKCHMA; ABTOMOOMIEM, CAMOJICTOM, MOTOUMKJIOM, AXTOH. Tpetba rpynna — sByabl cnopTa c MCNONb30BaHMeM cnenu- ANbHOLO CHOpTUBHOTO OpyxkHA (BHHTOBKH, JIyKa M Zp.). YetbeptTad rpynia — BHAb Chopra, OCHOBaHHBIe Ha conmo- CTaBIEHUK pesyIbTaTOR KOHCTpyKTOPCKON JeATeABHOCTH (aBia- 1 CynO- MOJIEAHPOBAHKE HK Ap.). Ilstas rpynma — sygpl cnopta, cBs3aHHble C neperBu>KeHU- €M NO M€CTHOCTH (TYPH3M, aJIbIMMHM3M HM Op.). Wecraa rpynna — BMIb chopra, B KOTOpbIX eATeMbHOCTh CMOpTCMeHa HOCHT Xapaktep aGcTpakTHO-KOMNO3HUOHHOTO MbILI- JI@HAA (WAXMa@THI, WalikKH HK Ip.) Buapl cnopra, BxoAsuwMe B NporpaMMbi WeTHHX MH 3KMHUX OnuM- nMVicKwx Mrp, NpHHATO JEIMTb NO HHOMy NpPHHUMMy. Tleppas rpynna — uuKnuyeckve Bub Cnopta (Ger, miana- Hve, rpe6sa, Benocnopt, sbKH). Bropad rpyina — CKOpocrHO-cHoOBbIe BUAbI Cnopta (THKe- Waa arneTuKa, MPbOKKH, MeTaHia). Tperbsa rpynna — BuAbI Chopta, CBASAHHBIe CO CMOXKHOKOOp- THHAWYOHHOH JeATeMBHOCTSIO (COopTHBHasd H XyAOXecTBeHHaA THM- HacTuka, (pHrypHoe KaraHve, MPboKKH B BOJY HM Ap.). UerBeptasd rpynna — cnoprupnble eauHobopcrpa (60Kc, GoppGa, :bexropanne). Ilatas rpynma — cnoprHsutle urpH. Iecraa rpynma — nerHne u 34MHuc MHOroGopEa. 3acaykKuBaeT BHHMAHMA Ki Gosee COBpeMeHHaa KOHMeNUMA KIac- cudHKauMn BuO copra (KenesHax FO.J]., 2002), nonpaszensio- ia MX Ha IAT CHeWYIOULUX Mpynn. Tlepgas rpyina — cama MHOrOUMCHeHHas, B Hee BOLI Ta- KHe BHAbI CNOpTa, B KOTOpbIX JOCTMXKCHMA 3aBMCAT OT ABMTAaTesIbHbIX BOSMOXHOCTeM CHOPTCMeHOB (erKad arneruKa, TAMHACTHKa, 6OKC, CNOpTHBHEIe HIpbi 1 Ap.). 14 Bropas rpynna — 3To BAAH CnopTa, B KOTOpBIX HCMOME3y10T- CA CielMalbHble TeEXHUYeCKMe CpeACTBa NepewBWXKEHMA (MOTOLMKA, caMonet, AxTa uf np.). Tpetba rpynna — Take ByMabI cnopra, B KOTOpHIX jBMra- TeIbHaA AKTHBHOCTS CBA3AHAa C NOpaxXeHMeM Lem 43 CNOpTHBHOTO Opy2XHsA (BHHTOBKa, JIyK). Yerpeptas rpynila — BuabI Cnopta, B KOTOPBIX ConocTaBlA- JOTCH PE3yITATEE MOE bHO-KOHCTPYKTOPCKOH WeATeIbHOCTH CIOpT- CMEHOB. Ilataa rpymna — sual cnopra aGcTpaKTHO-sorMyecKoro xa- paxtepa. Hanmune HeCKONBKHX KIaCCHUKAUM, NOCTPOeHHEIX M0 pasHbIM OCHOBaHMAM, HECMOTPA Ha CXOXECTE M MOBTOPHEMOCT, HYXKHO pac- CMaTpURATh KaK MOMOKUTEMBHOL ABNIEHHE, MO3SBOMMOlee U TPeHepy- mpenoyasaremio, H cCaMomy ClloprcMeHy BbiIGuparb TO, 4TO B HaMOONb- eli Mepe COOTBETCTRYeT MOTHBAM, IMAM, 3a1a4aM, yCOBMAM Wo oco6eHHOcTAM ero AH4HOCTH. 2 [nasa EQUHOBOPCTBA 2.1. EquuoGopctsa B *«M3HM YenoBeKa Exuno6opcrba — 970 TaKHe BHAI CNOpTa, KOTOpble CTpOATCA NO TIPMHUMMy , Mp STHM aGcomOTHO ypaBHOBeLeHs! yCnOBHA HM CpeacrsBa GoppGpl. Exquxodopetsa — 370 rpynna BYOB CnopTa, B KOTOpbIX OMH CnOpT- CMeH JopKeH MoGenHTb Apyroro B HenocpercTBeHHOK GopLOe Apyr c en (cM.: GHIWMKNonemMYeCcKHit CAOBapb 1OHOrO CnopTcMena. — M., 1979). KonmuectTBo eXHHOOOpcTB B MHPe COCYUHTATh NPakTUYeCKH HEBO3- MOxHO. Y m10G0ro Hapowa eCTb CBOM BHAI CNOpTHEHO!i Gop6nl, Beb HMCHHO CMHOOOPCTBa COCTABIHIOT OCHOBY (PU3MYECKOM Kysbrypbl. Oco6oe MecTO B HX 4YMCMe 3aHHMaloT ylapHble (KOHTAaKTHBIe), HIM CHOprHBHo-GoeBbIe, cuHHOGopcrsa (CBE), ucnompsyloume TexHUKy ymapoB pykaMv W HOraMH. 2.1.1. PasHosngHoctn yAapHpix epmnoGopcrs' Tipesxie uem HauaTb 3A2HHMaTbCA KaKMM-J1460 BUOM eNMHOOOpcrTs, HYKHO PeWWMT HEserkyto 3ajauy BbIGOpa HavOoNee NonXO_ALWETO M3 Hux. Tlepeuenb eqnHobopers, KOTOPBIMH MOXXHO 3aHMMaTbCs, OCO- GeHHO B KpyMHBIX Topomax, orpomeH. HanGonpuiee KOMYECTBO STHX BYOB CnOpTa HaM fMpemiaraiot POAOHAYAIBHHKH GOCBbIX HCKYCCTB Bocroka — kutafiuss. Boepnie uckyccrsa Kutaa — yay HacunTbrBalor Oonee 300 BHaOB, EcnmM yuectb ele HK NOABHALI, TO NOMyyMTCA Goee voice. ArioHcKHe GoeBble UCKyccTBa 6y-d3r0Ky TOKE BECbMa MHOTO- YHCIeHHEI. TONbKO BYOB Kapams Gonee 70. Kpome azvaTcKux GoeBbIX WCKYCCTB, BKUOUAIOUIMX KopelickHe, BheEeTHAMCKUe, TAHAHJICKue, WHOMCKHE M Op., MOXHO BbIGpaTb yx COBCEM 9K3OTHUCCKyI0 Gpa- BHIBCKyIO Kanosiipa WIM eBpeitcKylo Kpas-maza. ' Asrop paaaenop 2.1.1—2.1.4 — noKtop nemaroritieckHx HayK, npodeccop: C6rY@K um. 01.0. Hecracpta, sacnyxennexi tpenep PD no kux6oxceunry C.A.Ta- ror. 16 C.A.Taronun (caeea) Exspona 1 CesepHas AMepuxka Toxe He OTCTaloT. Beem H3BECTHBI AHTIKVCKMM, aMepHKaHcKuit, cparuyscKuit 6oxe. Poccus pacnonara- eT HeCKOILKUMM BYlaMM pyxonaunozo Gon. Vi HaKOHEL, CoBpeMeH- HBIii cruiaB GoeBbix HcKyccTB BoctoKa u GoKca — KUKOOKCUH2, KOTO- ppiii BkMOUaeT B CeOA 5 MOOMTENBCKUX H 4 npodeccnoHanbHbIx BHIa Gopp6pr. @urHec Take MCMOML3yeT CHOPTHBHO-GoeBBIe equHoGopcrtsa. Becb- Ma NONYAPHEI aspoOHBle ympakHeHHA Ha 6a3e MPHEMOB KapaTo, magKe0H00, KHKOOKCHHTa 4 GOKca — TaK HasbIBaeMble mati6o 4 Kapa- m3buKa. QuesHgHO, YTO TOT HIM HHO BHT enuHoGopcTs WODKEH pellaTh crenyronywe 3aauH: 1) yKpemmiat 3,0poBEe; 2) cnocoOcTBOBaTb @USHYECKOMY PasBHTHIO, 3) cayxuTs atptbeKTHBHBIM CpeCTBOM CaMOOGOpOHEl, 4) mpu 2KemaHMM CnocoGcTBOBAaTb CnOpTHBHOMy COBEPpLIeCHCTBOBA- HH. B CnoprvBHOM MocaHHKe C HCMONb30BaHHeM TEXHUKM ylapoB py- KaMU MM HOraMH Ha JOO PyK MpuxXOAMTCA OT 70 no 80% oOmero oGbeMa NpHeMos, a B peatbHoit CXBaTKe 4 TOrO Gombe. OOpAcHEHUe STOMY BECbMa MpocToe: yHapbI PyKamu Goce serkKue B MCTOMHeHMH, OHH Gonee sbeKTUBHBI U MeHee SHEPTOEMKH. Cnenyet, O1HaKO, OTMETHTb, STO B H€KOTOPBIX BUZaX CNOPTHBHO- GoeBEX eMMHOSOpCTS MPUMEHEHHE YAaPOB HOraMH HCKYCCTBEHHO CTH~ MYy/MpyeTca paByiaMu copesrosannit. A p arom GeccnopHBIM JIMe- POM ABIHETCH }ONCHOE INXIKEOHOO. B Toli Hu MHOM Mepe NpuMeHcHue ynapoB HOraMM CTHMysIHpyeTCA B ceeepHom ma3Keoxoo, KapaTa 4 KUK- 6oKcuHre. Takum o6pa3zom, Hau6osee yenecooOpasHbIM BapHaHTOM TEXHUKK BegeHia Gos pyKaMn H HOraMH GyseT BHA emunobopersa, onuparo- mutica Ha odekTUBHYyIO TEXHUKY yAapOB PYKaMy. OueBHyHO, YTO = 17 Ke 9THM TpeOOBaHHAM OTBeYAeT TexXHUKa Goxca, BKTIONAT CTOHKH, yla- PBI, 3aLUTH M Nepenpwxenua, Heenyuatino cospemeHHbIe MHTerpanb— HbIe BHJIbL CAMHOOOPCTB, K KOTOPBIM OTHOCATCA MHTepHAUMOHATE— Hblit KHKGOKcHHr, dpanuyscKnit GoKc casam, Kvitaiicknit caneda, CeBePHO-KOpcitcKoe TaSKBOHIO, «GOH 6e3 pay», B3A1K Ha BOOpy- KeHHE TeXHHKy YNapOB PyKaMM KnaccuyecKoro aHTMMiicKOrO 6oKca. Bo MHorom Taka TexHHKa BOCNPHHATAa TaHaHACKHM GOKCOM H SInlOR- CKHM KapaT? KuoKymuNKall (ona, auuxapa, DatidodmcyKy). Kpurepuem npozepxn atextupnoctu Tot wm WHolt LUKOJIbI yap- HbIX CAMHOGOPCTS C MCTONLIOBAHHEM PyK H HOT MOXHO CUMTATS Typ HMpbI Npodeccnouanos, exeroqHo MposonuMble & ANOHKM, ac He- AabHero Bpement vu B CLIA. Or6opouHbie TypHupEl MpoBonATCA Ha BCEX KOHTHHEHTAX, H B (pMHave BCTpeyatloTes pelicTBHTeNBHO CHb- HeiilMe npodbeccuonann co Bcero cBeTa. Tipusosok ous AocTuraer 1 Mant Aosapos, T.e. cpenu TpocbeccHOHAIBHBIX BUIOB eMMHOGopcTB if 3TM TYPHAPLI 3AHHMaIOT BTOpoe MecTO, mocne MpodeccuoHanbuoro 6oxkca, a B Anonnn — nepBoe. Onpenerus HanGonee scbdexTuBHEle BH EI CBE, ucnompsyioume yaapHylo TexHuKy KnaccHyecKoro GOKCa, COCTABHM MX KlaccHiuKa- uuio. TIpH 3TOM 3a OCHOBHOM Knaccu@buKaLMOHHEtt Np¥3Hak MpHMem CTeNEHb YCROBHOCTH HK PaSPCUICHHBIe M 3aNpELCHHBIe NelCTBKA, OMPeesAeMBIE NIpaBHaMH COPeBHOBAHMI, T.€. B11O60M CHOpTHBHOM NOEAMHKE OnpenereHbi sanpenjenubte peticTsua B OTMMHME, Hanpu- Mep, OT yam4HOlt ppaKu. axe B TAK Ha3bIBAaeMBIX GO9x 6e3 mpapyun TipaBlila BCC-TaKM ECTb H 3a UX coBMOTeHHeM cremuT pedbepu. Komnaexce: boeswx. ynpaxchenutl, AMMTApyIOUMx Got c OHM WK HECKONPKUMH MPOTHBHUKAMM, Ha3bIBaIOTCS B yily «Taony», B Kapa- T3 — «KaTa>, B TAIKBOHAO — «IlyMcee, B KMKOOKCHHIe — KeHO B «Mnmage» Tomepa, ApeBHeiibiem AHMTeparypHOM Mpow3BeneHun, co- yaa B wy B. 00 1.9. Tam omuepipaetca KynayHbiii Gott Mexay ene eons u 8 But MPOBEACHHbIi B YECTh BOHHOB, NOFHOMIMX BO Hie MonBHkKHUKOB AByX NPH3bIBaeM, KOTOPLIe CHABHET. Pyku nogHsTe Ha KysadHyt0 Onrpy... ; Pek on, — 1 GEICTpo BOccTan YerOBeK 1 OrpoMHE 4 MOLUHEtif, Crapnptit Kynaunstii Goer, Tavoneesa oTpacib, Sncoc. . Bory nogotreiti oni Sepnax a Heco TombiNanes... “= K Gurse ero cuapsxan Fvomex, KonbeGopeit Moryuuii... Tlonan pemuu! v3 crentoro sora, y6uToro cu0i, ; Tak onoacasuincs 6a, BBixogsT Goftbt Ha cpenHny. Pa3om OHH Ha Apyroro MoryyHe pyKi aaHocsT. ‘Cum6nucs, emewanuca GbIcTpo NOABIHKHHKOB TsDKKKE PyKu, (Cryk kynaxkos pasgaetcs no SEJNOCTAM; NOT M0 KX Teny 3 Jisetes: pyubamu; Kak Bapyr TIpHNOAHANCA MoryyHii Seoc. Peako ppara ormsHysuierocs TPAHYA BHO, — H He Mor on Bonpute ctosrs — nonnomusuiuecs, PYXHYIH Kpenkue weHBr. r ‘Cheumanbspie pest 2a OSMaTbRatKA KynaKon, 2K & ae Mawana / nep. c npepnerpex. H.THenwaa, Fecun XXIIL — M., 1982. — 24 Tlonpirka NpociequTb NpOKCXO*KAcHHe yAapHbIx (KoHTaKTHEIX) BMJOB ENMHOGOPCTH BeseT HAC OT APEBHUX WKBHAM3ALIMi K AHTHYHO- cr, 3arem epes snoxy CpenreseKosna 1 BospoxxseHHa K Hayany XX s. Kaxkaan om0xa BHeCIa CBOL BKIa B UX pasBuTHe. C apesneiiimux spemMen 6opp6a yemopeKa C YeJOBEKOM HaXOmMa OTPAKeHMe B GOCBKIX TaHax M HIpax © OpyxKHeM, a TAKE B pasiMd- HBIX criocobax emMuHOGoperTe WIM TpynMOBbIX COCTA3AHME: B OOpEoe, Ky1ayHbIX Gosx, PoIAapCKHXx TypHMpax, :exTOBATbHEIX NOeTHHKAX (Onusoza B., 1985). Y kynauroro 60a Ha Pycu MHorosekopas ucropus. B zaneKoM 110- XPHCTHaHCKOM MIPOUWIOM cylaBsaHe C paHHero JeTCTBa BOCIIMTHIBAIM B MYXUMHE GOMUOBCKHE KaY¥eCTBa C MOMOLIbIO Kya4HbIX MW MalOUHBIX Goes. MoexnHok Mor nposospKaTeca WO NepBOlt KpoBH, 10 NateHHs, AO BBITeECHEHMA NpOTHBHUKa Cc noma. HauGosee pacipocTpaHeHHbIMH tbopmamu KynaxHoro Gon Ha Pycn 6:1 onMHOUHBIe Gon (ouuH Ha OJIMH) M «CTeHKa Ha CTeHKYy> (MaccoBsle 60x). Kynaunpiit Goit crykun cpeneTsoM COBeplweHCTBOBaHMA H BbIAB- HHA DUSMYECKOH CH/IbI HM BOMEBDIX KaueCTB, BbIpAaGaTbIBal YMeHHe TpeBo3Moub cTpax 4 Gor. Ha ocHose tpaaMunii kynauHoro Gos, uMcBuICro Gonbulyi0 Nony- JISPHOCTS CpeH MpocToro Jona, BHOCNeACTBHM OBLIH CopMysMpO- BaHbI OCHOBHBIC MpHHUMMbI pyKomalHore Gos, KOTOpbIe ¢ yCrlexoM MCHONb3OBAIMCL B APMMM BbIZAlOWerocA PycCKOrO MoNKOBOLWA A.B. Cysoposa (1729— 1800). B cnoeii pabore «Hayxa nobexlaTh» OH MpeMCTABM OPHAHANbHYiO CHCTEMY (PHSM4ECKO! NOALOTOBKM HM o6y- YeHHA CONMAT, BKTIOUAE SEMEHTHI pyKoMalIHOlt 6opb6b! NPOTHB BO- OpyXKEHHOTO MPOTHBHMKa, a TaKXKE OCHOBbI WITHIKOBOFO PyKONALHO- ro 60s. BoratpipeKas yas pyccKHx Soiilios ONMcaHa B IMTeparyPHBIX TIpo- V3BeIeHHAX. 3HaMeHHTad «IlecHb npo uaps” MeaHa Bacwbesyya, Mo- novoro onpwaHHka u ynanoro Kynua Kanamnuxosa> (1) 4 CTuxOTBO- penne « kKyslauHoro Gos. Ha MOCKOBCKOH HOpOrOMHMIOBCKOH CTeHKe cnaswicss Hyp AnuMos 10 Tpo- spuuly Kapa-Manaii, aro sHauuT B mepeBone c TatapcKoro «YepHplt TapcHb», crapuiMil B 1915 r. wemMnHOHOM PoccuH no GoKcy B nonyTa- eroM Bece. UcmbiTann CBOM CHAI B KyNa4HBIX 6OAX B IOHBIC TOMEI Ht HEOMHOKpaTHbIe YeMNMOHbI Poccun Hu CCCP no 6oxcy Mazen Huxu- (popos u Buxtop Muxaiinos (Jlykaues M., 1993). Coeaunenne Kynaqnoro Goa c mipvemamu GoppOni H 3neMeHTaMH TEXHHKH HM TaKTHKM @eXTOBAHMA CMOCOGCTBOBAIO BOSHUKHOBEHHIO B Cpeauue sexa B Anrmun camo6pitHoro Bula eamHoGopcrs. Ycosep- IICHCTBOBAHHE STOTO BHA KOHTAKTHDIX (yapHEIX) eMHOGopcTs mpu- BeNIO K MOABIEHMIO MepBOHALaNEHOM opMEI coBpemeHHOTO (npuso- Boro) 6oKca. MisBectHo ima Macrepa cbextosarnna Jpxetimca @urra, nposozmeuie- TO CopeBHoBaHa no GoKcy 5 JIoHZOHEe, OH BLIEpBbIe ONKCAT pasa Gokca vB 1719 r. cTan nepBbIM YeMMmMoHOM AHTAMH To 6oxcy. Cocta3aHus B MpH30BOM GOKce GbLIM ONCHB TpyObimn 1 Mazo or- PaHHinban XO NOeAMHKa. TexHuka Mpu30Koro 6oKca npeslycmMatpu- Balla MCNONb30BaHHve B Go10 GopEGnl, NoMHOXKeK 1 3aXBaTOB, 4TO or- PaHM4NBano OpIcTpoTy NepegzBMAKEHUA ATICTOR U CHYKATO adcbek- THBHOCTS NIPHMeHEHMA MMM ynapHBIX WBIKeHNit. PasHooGpasxble BHAI GOpbObI PacnpoctpaHeni 8 Asun. Kynpru- BMPYEMBIC 30eCb yAapHble (KOHTAKTHBIe) enMHoGopcrsa Mpenycmar- PHBAIOT BEIMIONHEHHe yapOB pasnH4HbIMU YacTAMU Tea (manpuamu, JACHBIO, KY/AKOM, NPEAIVIEUbEM, JIOKTEM, CTYMHeli, ToneHEIO, Ko- JIeHOM, rosoBoit). Bo MHorux 43 HUX B Gonbuelt cTencHH yaapHyro Harpy3Ky HeCyT pyKM MIM HOM, KOTOPbIMM MIpeMMYLIECTBEHHO BBI- NOAHALOTCA yilapHBIe ABHKEHHs. OdiuM na srux Buzo8 sbyN-KOHTaKTa ABAIETCA HEOOXOAMMOCTS BPICOKOTO YPOBHA Pa3BHTHs y 3AHMMAIOWIMXCA OBKOCTH, CHIEI HM OLI- CTpOTHL, a TaKXKE MYKECTBA H PeLUITeNbHOCTH. B apesrenraniicknx OnMcaHuAx BnepBEle BCTpeyaloTcsa yromMuHa- HMA O KOMIVIeKce ynpaxHeHHii CaMooOOponbl 6e3 OpyxuA MO TaKHX Gopmax nocnuuKa v eaMHOOOPCTBa, CTHIb KOTOPBIX XapakTepHayetca HaHECeHHeM ylapoB PyKoi uM Horo No uyscrBuTeNbHBIM K GonK MACTAM TENA NPOTHBHUKA, a TAOKE MPOBELEHMEM YAYUIAIOLMX MpH- eMoB. Byaau3m, camas apepian 13 TPeX MMPOBbIX peAHrHii, BOSHHK B VI—V Bs. 20 H.9. OH «CTaplie® XPHCTHaHcTBa Ha 5, a ucnama — Ha 12 ctonernii. Bynyun unaniickum mo MPOMCXOXKACHHIO, yYeHHe UIM- POKO pacnpocrpaHitiocn B Kurae, Kopee u Anouuu. B HeKOTopbIx MOHaCTBIpAX yxXe B TO BPEMA CoSmaloTes! pasnIHBIC crnan Goennx HeKyccTs. Handbonpuice PasBUTHE OHM NONYYWIM BMpo- 26 BrHunn OyusaHE B MoHacTiIpe Waonune, rae cchopmMupoBamuch B CTBa yilly. Me Scterced a sraneexora yuly NpuHsTO CuMTaTh HACTOATENA MoHacTbIps Boaxnaxapma (527 ron H.3.). On o6ysai MoHaxoB 18 6oe- BEIM MipHemam (6 — Wim KymaKa, 2 — 1A NagoHu, 1 — Win ee 4 — nna or n 5 — 6noKupytoumx 3axBaron). Hapsay c 9THM OL paspaOoTaHb! H H3yyanvch 72 NpveMa 3axBaTa HEMOCPeCTBEHHO PyK, OCHOBaHHBIX Ha GomeBOM BO31eMCTRUM Ha KMCTH MpOTHBHUKa. Bo spemexa Boaxnyxapmsi Ha noporax Boctoxa npombiliann pa3- GoiiHUKM, KOTOPbIe NpemCTAaBisIM yrpO3y CTPaHCTBYIOLMM MOHAaXaM. A MlOcKombky MocuIe¢gHUM He pa3speLanoch HMeTb OpyxKHe, BOSHHKIA HEOOXOMHMOCTb CO3aHHA CHCTeMBI NpoTMBogelicrBuA GesopyxHOrO ‘YeOBEKA BOOPy2KeHHOMY KOMBeEM M MeYOM NPOTHBHUKy. Taku o6pa30M, B pa3tMUHBIX YacTAx ASHH HapOsIbI B pasHoe Bpe~ Ms COS1aIM CaMOGEITHEIC IKONEI KOHTAKTHBIX enMHobopcrs. Ha ux PaSBHTHe SHAYMTeEMbHOe BIMAHME OKa3bIBaT USMCHsOWUMiIcA O6pa3 2KM3HK Mu O6LeCcTBEHHEM cTpolt. MHTeHCHBHOe pasBuTHe NMpOK3BOT- CIBEHHBIX OTHOWWEHH B CpezHue Beka wv — XVII ss.) cramymupoBa- Tio dhopMupoBaHHe Pa3HHX HalipaBeHHit «BOCTOYHEIX® OoeBbIxX UC- xyccrs B Asui. KpecTpate 4 ropomcKue 2KuTeIM, KOTOPHM GENO, 3a- TIpelieHO HOCHTE OpyxHe, paspabaTbwaM COCOGEI cCaMOOGOPOHEI C TOMOMIEIO yapos pyKaMU M HOTaMU, a TaKOKe 3aXBaTOR UM GPOCKOB, B TOM 4MCe MPHEMbI MpOTMBOLCHCTBMA BOOpyACHHOMY MIpOTHBHHKy. BosHukHOReHve paxIM4HbIX BUIOB «BOCTOYHBIX> OOCBHIX HCKYCCTB B CpepHcscKoBol! SINOHUM TeCHO CBASAHO ¢ MCTOpHel KaCCOBbIX KOH- OS B. Ha ocTpope OxuHaba, CUMTABLIEMCH WEHTPOM KPECTEAH- CKHX BOMHEHMI, CTA 3apO2XAaTbCA PasyIMYHBIE LUKOJIBI CAMOSALLLATHI GezopyxxHoro MpoTus BoopyxeHHorO MpoTMBHuKa. [IpHembl BKIOYa- JIM BCEBOSMOXKHBIC BYLbE yapOB pyKaMM WM HOTaMH, a TAKE TAKHE snemeHts Gopb6bi, Kak 6pockH M yHyuieHHa. OTpabaTbiBamMch NpH- eMBI CaMOOGOpOHbI C TOMOLIbIO OpyAHii KpecTbAHCKOrO Tpyga, uc- TOMb3yeMBIX WIA OOMONIOTA Pica (MepeBAHHBle NaAKH pasHOlt WIMHbI, WenH, cepribi, HyHuaKH u Mp.). B XV B. Ha OxuHaBy nepeMs teats yuy. Kutaiickne pbiGakv YacTO ocTaHaBIMBalMch Ha OKMHaBE 1 WI PpOKo coTpyaHMyanM c xKHTeNAMU OcTpoEa. B sToT nepuon, yy cMeLuIM- BaeTCH C MCCTHBIMM BHAaMu GopbGpl w MoyyaeT DarbHeiee pasBu- que, CChOpMUPOBABLIUCh BNOCIEACTBKH B BUC KapaT3 M PasMMyHbX ero CIMeBbIX HanpaBrcHMi. 2.1.6. Monogeyxan saGasa Poccmn Kymaunble 60H Kak HapomHoe pasplereHite, Kak CaMOObITHAA bopma BOCTIMTAHHA CPUsMYECKHX M MOPAJIbHBIX KaYeCTB BOSHUKTIA Ha Pycu Ha OCHOBe McTOpHuecKH CHOKMBUIMXCA ycnoBHit. Qua oTBevana notpe6- 27 HOCTAM CHABHOTO H 300pOBOro AyXOM Hapona, crocobHoro B m10Goit MOMEHT K 3alllHTe CIIpaBeLIMBOCTH, POMHOH CTOpOHbI, OTeYeCTBA. Ewe 8 ray6oKoi JpesHocm TWIOROPOAHbIe 3EMIU HW eCTeCTBEHHBIE GoratcTRa pyccKoli 3emnu GEL TIPEAMETOM 3aBHCTH ce GecuncneHHbix Bparos. Haun npeaku ne 3a6piBasiM 06 3TOM. B CYPOBbIX YCIOBHAX Tpy- 4a, B MTpax M pa3BieveHHax — Gops6e, Gere, KymauHOM 6bo10 — OHH 3aKAJIAIMCh M BOCTHTEIBAIN B ceGe GeccTpalume M BONO K NOGexe. STH KavecTBa Bera ObLIM CNYTHMKAMH PaTHBIX NOXOsOB 1 NOTBMrOR Bea koro Hapoza w He pa3 nomorain €my C YCCTbIO BbIXOMMTb M3 CaMbIX CIOXKHBIX M ONACHBIX CHTyaLM B McTopHu Tocynapctsa PoccuiicKoro. Tleppiie ynommbanus 0 kynayHEix 6oax Ha Pycu yuerbie Hala B zetonuen Hectopa <[osecth BpemeHHbix eT, OTHOCAIeHCH K 1068 vs. Tge roBoputcs: «Buanm Go uruule u aonelt MHoro. MHOXKECTRO, sIKO YMHXaTH HauHyT Apyr Apyra, Mosopa JarouHe oT Geca 3aMbILUIeEHHOTO Tela, a UEPKBH CTORTD era Ke ObIBAeT FON MOMMTBbI MAIO UX Obpeet- CHB WepKBH. Kynaurpiit Got — «norexa> MyXX€CTBeHHOrO pyccKOrO Hapona — UME! HECKONBKO pa3HOBUIHOCTeH: KPOMe OLHHOYHEIX Goen (, WIM «CaM Ha caM>) LIMpOKYIO NONYAPHOCTS MMe Mac- cosble Oon (). B xynauriom 6010 crporo coOmonanuce ryMaHHBe npabuna 60x, Koropble NlepeqaBaiHch H3 NOKONEHHA B MOKONEHVE u CpKHIM Goli- llaM HeIMMCaHBIM 3AKOHOM. Box Benuch O2MHAKOBO JIA BCEX: TOIbIMH kynakaMH MK B pykabniax. Bott ies JIMUOM K JIMLy: B CHMHY OUT He * Paspemanocs. Ylapbt HaHOCUNHCS B rpyab, TYOBMUe WIM B rosoBy. Sanpeusanocn 6patb B Kymak WIM PyKaBUlly «3akKaIKM>, T.e. TOCTO- POHHHE TBepAbIe HpenMeTEI. Crporo 3anpeujaiock 6UTh Cc «MOHOXKKH> M HaHOCHT ylapbl HOraMH HW ronoBoii. Henb3a Obuio npecieqOBaTb ylapamn yOeralowero WH ynaBuero conepHuKa. Hapyimmtenu sTux TIpaBHI CTPOrO Haka3bIBAIHCh CAMMMH 2Ke OolitaMH, PeBHHBO o6epe- TABLUHMM ECTb «MOTEXM> OTUOB H JeJOB. Tlepen Goem 1 BHECTH CMATeHHE B ee PsHbI. HO 3TO ObLIO TOMBKO ODHUM M3 ‘SmH3000B Gos: OTCTYMMBUIMI NPOTHBHHK NMepectpanBanca, cobupaa CWIBI HM MOMOMHAA CBOM PAMbI, M NOCHE KOPOTKOM NepesbILWIKH BHOBb petynan 6 60H. Takum o6pa30M, Goi cocTosn U3 OTMENBHBIX CXBATOK ¥ JUIKACA OOBIYHO HECKOPKO YACOB 10 Tex Nop, TOKa OFHa M3 CTOpoH OKOHYATEIBHO HE OFONERANa MPOTHBHHKa. Macura6u macconbix kynawHbIx Goes GbUIM caMBIe pasiHM4Hble: OH- HCL YAMA Ha YIMLy, HepeBHA Ha JepeBHIO, Moca Ha Nocag. Bolt NPHBMeKA MHOXECTBO Y4aCTHUKOB, OH GEL MOT- JMHHO HapoHbIM pa3BleyeHvem, CaMoGpiTHO cbopmok cu3suyecKo- To BOCnHTAaHUsA, Nopobus KoTOpoli He GELIO HU B KaKMX APyrux CTpa- Hax Mupa. Tam, me npoxonHim kymauHble Gu, Bcera HMEMCb CBOH Ofpe- fenenubie mecta pia Gos. 3uMoii OObM4HO GYIMCh Ha JIbAy PeKH: pOB- Has, 3aMeTeHHad CHETOM M yTpaMOOBaHHasd MOBEPXHOCTS Jibla Oblia yaoouoit miowanKoi 11 Gon. 3aMep3ilas peKa ABIANACb KaK OBI ec- TECTBEHHOM TpPaHHUeli, pasqenABWeH rOposx M AepeBHIO Ha Ba Jare- pH, a BEICOKHe Gepera peKU CIyKMIM TpHOyHaMM ss 3puTereit. Bor uro nucai, Hanpumep, <[lerep6yprckuit mucroK» Ne 19 sa 1898 r.: «B npasqHVMuHEle nHu Ha Bombwolt Hese c camoro yrpa HayM- Haror coGupatpes rpynnamn paGoune c Hesckoit manyaxtyppi 4 MpOunx 3aBonos M MpenawicA KyaxHBIM GoA”M. OGbIKHOBEHHO Gon HaYHHAalOTCA Mey MaIbuyraHaMu, K KOTOpPbIM 3aTeM MpHCOeIMHA- 1OTCH ye HM B3pOcAbie>. B Maccoppix KyauyHbix GOAX BEIIENANIMCb M CBOETO posta NOMKOBOL- ‘ub — pykoBognTenn Goa, BIOMpaemBle CAMMMH yUaCTHUKAaMH, OOLTHHO v3 HavGosee CHIBHBIX HM OMBITHBLX GotHOB. [lepBEIMM HaYHMHaIH IOHO- win. Onn Kpuyann: «/Jali 6o10, sai Goro!» Kaka 43 CTOpOH CreHKH HNeMa CBOUX OTMMYHBIX GOULOB — MomOMUOB. Boey-Hanexna crosut ZO nopsi oco6uAKoM 4 HabsNOZan 3a xon0M Gos. B KpuTuyeckuli MO- MEeHT OH BCTYNa B OOM HM 3TMM 4YAaCTO pellan ero MCXOM B MOJIb3y epoeii croponsi. Boeu-Hanexkila Bera ormmuanca Gobo dbusHye- CKOM CHIOM M4 NONb3OBaICA yBaxKeHHeM HM JIOGOBbIO Hapoya. 3a3Haii- eTBO Nopulanoch M Haka3bIBanocb. CunTatoch GbecyecTHeM Mepexo- JIMTb 3a BOSHArpaxAcHHe K NpoTHBHOH cropoHe. Tlocne noGenHoro 60s 3puTeIM NPOBOXATH CBOMX JIOOMMIeB BECesIbIMM TIECHAMH 4 TPOM- KMMH KpuKamu: «Hausa pasta!» «Cpanka-lemisKa» NpepctaBianta coGoi HeOopraHu30BaHHbiit Go ynaibuon — so6urTeneit octprix omyuenuii. B tome cruxuitho To TYT, 10 TaM BOSHHKaIM Gon, KTO ¢ Kem xoren — mo *enaHnto. Bou 9TH GBUIM MaOUMCHEHHBIMK MW HOCH ChyyaHHblit KapakTep. Korga re coctosnich NocmemHMe MaccoBLle opranvsoBaHHble KynauHble 60u, CKa3aTb TpyXHO. M3pecTHO, HampuMep, yTO B OpeH- 6ypxkbe Gout «cTeHKa Ha creKy» npoBosnzuce To 1930 r. Loum m0 Hac MMeHa TaMOWHHX GooB-Hanexn — Hukura n Bacwnit Bestxo- posHoss! (ote, # chin), Januna CyOoTun. A 8 WeHTpambHErx paliouax 29 Poccnu KynayHEie 60H KeTIaIO- lWMMH, Fe OH CONeTAT TpvHeMbI OoppObi C yapamMu KynaKka. Kenaio- IHX CTAHOBMIOCE BCe MeHbLUe: BEAL HEpeAKO PHCKHYBUIAX «CBA3aTb- ca» ¢ DUrTOM YHOCHAM ¢ T1014 GOs C TOIOMaHHBIMM KOCTAMM. A Kora TAKOBBIX He OcTanocs, J>x. Durra npusHain nepBEIM YeMMHOHOM AHT- amu. Sto Mpousounto B 1719 r. C sroro BPeMeHH HM Beers AeTOCUMC- JieHMe aHTiicKoro 6oKca. xeitmca Durra> noms30Baacb GouIbLIMM aBTO- Preto. Ee MHOTOYMCIEHHBIe OTKPbIBATH HOBBIE WKO- Wb, WB KAHYH JecaTuteTua anrnuiicxoro 6oKca, K 1728 r., ux B cTommue AHTiMM ObLio GoulbLIe ZecsTH. Cocrts3anvis G6oKcepor Toro BpeMeHH Mpo- XODHAM B CHeLMaIbHbIX Gapakax (apeHax), B OanaraHax Ha spMapkax, c 6ONBUIMM KOnH- 4YeCTBOM SpHTCJeH, T.¢. y2Ke B TO BpemA GOKC CTaHOBMJICA Ha NpodeccHoHanbHyto ocHoRy. Buaumo, Benexctsue sroro Gon 6oKcepoB MscOnI0BaIK rpyOOCTAMU: NPAMUTMBHEIE Tipablia pasperan 7enarb NpakTHUeCKH Bee, JMU Obi noGeguTE. B pe3ysbrare TpeGopaHnii nyOrMKu yMeHs- WHTb Tpy6ocTh B 60Kce HM No MHMUMATHBE Zk. Bpayrona, conepxkatesi WMpKa, B KOTO- POM TIPOBORWIMCh COpeBHOBAHHA To GOKCy, B 1743 r. GbuEM NpUHATEI MepBble O@UIMANbHEIE Tpabuina BeqeHva Gos. Ho naxe OHM He cMor- JIM BHCCTH TIPHHITHTIM@IbHBIX H3MEHEHMH B ap- ceHall cpeucTB OoKcepa Ju1I4 NOCTWOKeEHMA Wes (noGeant). Dror war, xoTA OH 4 GbLT cnemaH B CTOpoHY TyMaHUsaHH GoKca, cieyeT CuMTATE OYeH po6Kum. Meuse mourn 100 net — go co3aaHna B 1838 r. I[pasnn OHAOHCKOTO Mpu30- poro puura — 6oii GoKcepoB npepcTaBian coboit GopEOy c ynapamu u TlofHOXxKaMH. [paBwra OrTpaHHuMBaM KpyT MCMONb3yeMBIX GoKcepamHt 6oeRbIX NpUeMoOB M YTOUHATM Npaba MU O6A3AHHOCTH NpOTMBOGOPCTBy- JOLUMX CTOPOH, HO CyTb Aesa He MeHLIM — GOKC OCTABAICA 2KECTOKHM. So crepxXHBaO FO pasBMTHe, CHMKAd NMPHTOK HOBBIX CHI B PAH Tipodeccuonaos. Vimenuo nostomy 8 1865 r. JOH/OHCKYM 2ypHamMctoM Ix. 4am- Gepcom (Kak CuMTalOT HEKOTOpbie CMelMaTHCTs!) Op paspaboTaHEl CTHIIe, a TAKE C mIpeawmMeTamy; 2) OKEHII{HHE!: TOeMHOK NO MpabunaM orpaHHYeHHoro HW nerKoro KOHTAKTa, CONDHbIC KOMMO3MKH M paGoTa C HpesMeTaMH. IIpoBosatcs yipoweHHble COpeBHOBaHHs NO KHKGOKCHHTY TakKxKe cpeau ioHouel HK epyutek, HauHHaa c 10-nerHero Bospacta Hu ATA JMU Crapwero BoOspacta (cTapLie 40 NeT) Kak UIA MYKYHH, Tak KM UIA xkenuIMH. IIpu stom KcKOUaloTcA NoeRUHKU NO Mporpamme MomHOro KOHT@KTA€a. B cemn-, naiit-, (bysul-KonTakTHOM MoesMHKe B KUKOOKCHHTe pa3- pellaeTca HaHOCHTb ylapbl pykaMH WM HoraMyM mo m0G6oii TpackropHn TBwOxeHHa. Kak mpaBHio, 9TO ylapbl pykaMU, IPHHATHIe B GoKce, c noSapnenveM packpyuMpatouux ynapos (6eKuct), yrapos THUIbHOIt CTOpoHoit kynaKa 1 peOpom Nalonv. TIpHMeHsatoTca TaKKe HM ynapbt HoraMHu, XapakTepHble UIA KapaT3, B TOM UMCie yAapbI HOraMH B MIpBDK- Ke, NOJICCUKH, a TAKKE 3AXBAaTHI 3a TYNOBULUE 4 Gpocku. B page cryyaes CIeWMAIbHO OTOBApHBAIOTCH H TIPUMeHsOTCH Ha COpeBHOBAHMAX yila- PEI No sagueit H SoKoBoit noBepxtiocram Geapa uM roneHH (0yKHK). SallpeleHHbIe yhapel: B MaX, ICI, 3aTLIIOK, MO3BOHOUHUK, cyc- TABHI, ATaKA KOJCHOM, JIOKTEM, GONLINHM MasbIleM, OTKPbITOM nep- NaTKOH, TWIeYOM, yapbl TONOBOH, a TAKKE GOpLoa. Cnopruenas dopa v 3aluMTHOe CHapmxKeHMe, ucronbsyemoe B KHKOOKCHHTe, COCTOMT H3 CEMYIOWWMX SIEMEHTOB: LITAHH (HIM Tpy- chi), Maiika (y moOutenei), ronoBHoii winem, G6oKcepcKue NepuaTKu, MATKHE LGHTKM Ha ronetb, (pyThl — cheLMasibHat MarkKad OOyBb Ges MOJOMBbI, MOKPbIBAIOLUAA NOLbEM CTYMHH M MATKY, MpOTeKTOp JI sy6op, 3alMTHEe TpyTHEIe NpoTeKTOpHI Ait 2KeHIMH, SGaHax Ha Wax WL MYXYHH, iACTHYHIe OHHTI ALIA pyK. Tlo6eta 8 KMK6OKcHHre MpucyrKnaeTcs NO OUKAM B CIyYae ABHOFO TIPCMMYLUCCTBa, HOKayTa, HHCKBATMPMKALIMM, HECHOCOOHOCTH Mpo- ZOWKatTh Goll, oKa3a NponomxaTs Goi u HesIBKU ConepHHKa. CopesrHopania MoryT nposonmteca Ha IVIOUAAKE Ji Gos pasme- pom 88 M, 3acTIaHHOH MaTaMH 11K Ha 6OKCepcKOM pute (6x6 M). Becoppie KaTeropuu B KHKGoCHHre, Kak mpapHo, COOTBCTCTBYIOT GoKcepcKMM KaTeropuisim H pacnpesenaioTca B Tipewesax oT 46 KT 10 CYNepTsAxKeOrG Beca. KuxOoxcnr, Kak BHA CnopTa, O*PHUMANEHO GBI paspemeHt B Hae crpaHe Konneruei Tockomenopra CCCP 8 axpape 1990 r. Ha cerogumurnit aenp B Poccum o6pa30BaHo HecKOMBKO OGuIe- CTBEHHEIX (PU3KYIbTYPHO-CHOpTHBHEIX OOEeMHEHU, KOTOpHie Mpo- BOLAT pasIHuHble COPeBHOBAHHA H KYJIbTHBHPyIOT KHKOOKCHHT. B Hactosiem nocoGuu paccMoTpeH 3HA4HTeIbHBI Kpyr TeopeTH- YECKHX H METOJIMYECKHX MOAOXeHHH, alpoOupoBaHHEIX B MpakTHKe 6okca M HOCHLUMxX IpuKAaLHOM XapakTep. BOJIIMHCTRO BEIROMOB M PeKOMeHAaLui B PaBHOit Mepe OTHOCHT- ca K GOKCy MH KHKOOKCHHTy. 32 2.2. Boxe knaccuyeckuii Vitax, Hayao nonoxeHo. Boiiltbi Hazem NepyatKu, 6olt pasie- WJICA Ha payHapt, GoKcepbl — MO BeCOBLIM KaTeTOPUsM, LesIbIO On penenui — sfoposbe. Ho (0 cux Mop HO) BKyc M LeHy KpoBH T10- 4yBCTBOBAIH BCe: H MyOMMKa, 1 GOKCepEl, , KOHEYHO, UX XO3AeBa. Tlostomy 6oKc C TOTO BpeMeHM CyulecTByeT M pasBubactcA B TByX HalipaBleHHAX: (mpocbeccMoHaibHOM) H MoOuTENEC- KOM. B MepBOM Leib — JEHbIM, BO BTOPOM — SLOpOBbe. Tlepgsie copenHonanna GoKcepon-s0buTeneH ObUIn TIpOReyleHbl B Aur p 1881 r., 6 CIA 5 1886 r. B Poccmm axrmuiicxuit GoKxe ypvijes BriepBble 22 MapTa 1896 r. B cheuMasM3MpoBaHHOM 3aste GoK- ca Ha Crpemannoit ynusue, 13 8 Canxt-Merep6ypre. B TpeHMpoBodHOM 6010 BCTPeTIWIMCh K HaM annimiickuit Goxe Opuecr JIy- cramo u ero yuenuk M. B.Cemvuer. A neppbiit myOmHuHbiit Mata 6oKca p CaHKt-Herep6ypre coctossica 25 mapra 1898 r. 5 MuxaiiiorcKom MaHexe (HbIHe 3uMHUit cTaMMOH) MexKLy 9. JlycTasuio H ero yYeHMKOM. O6 3TOM COOGIIEUIM HeCKONbKO caHKT-neTep6yprcKHX Frazer. B anpene 1899 r. 6oKc Ob BKMOYeH B Mporpammy INI tspKenoarie- qwuecKoro neppenctBa Poccum. 37ecb BHE KOHKYpeHIMh Obl yueHUK 9. Jlycraino Teui0 Meiiep. Boxe B Te rogb! Nomb30BasICA o6muM npH- SHaHHeM: 06 3TOM CBUeTeNLCTRYET CpakT, ITO B 1902 r. 9. Jlycrasuio 43a MOMESHY!O ACATEMbHOCTh» GLI HarpaxkAeH JONOTOM METATBIO. Hosas, onumnniickas spa moGuTebcKoro GOKCa Havailacb B 1904 r. — c IIL Onmmnniicxux urp B Cext-JIyuce (CILIA), 8 KoTopHx yuactnopain 44 GoKcepa — TOKO rpaxkjaHe CIA, nogromy Bce Meyasm octauce y xo3se Mrp. > ‘9. Jlyctamio — OcHOBOTIO- Yemnunox Poccuu I. Meiicp . HoxHUK GoKca B Poccnu 33 2 Wupser B 1908 r. — na IV Onumnutiicxux urpax B JIOH.OHe HcTOpHA ToBTO- PH1aCb, HO ye B AHMIMHCKOM BapuaHte: 43 42 yuactHuKoB 39 mipez- crapiain Beruko6puranuio u no ofHoMy — panumo, Janu x Ascrpanmo. V, VI, XII 4 XU Onummuiicxue Mrpbl He cocTosnuch v3-3a Tleproit x Bropoit Mupopnrx Bolin. B coppemennrx OnnmnuiicKux Hrpax 6oKc npegcrapnen (ra61. 2S. CM, Nloxpobuee B NpHTOxKeHHH 8). Boxcepri CCCP, ac 2004 r, — Poccuu, KaK 1 BOOGIE KOMaHIa CHOPICMeHOB Hallet CrpaHbl, BNepBble yuaCTROBRATK B COBpeMeHHEIX Onumnuiicxux urpax B 1952 r. (XV Onumnuticxne “rpbl, XeJIbCHHKI). Ta6auna 2.1. Boxe » conpemermx Oxumnuiicxax arpax i) Haun: mecto Hess | tox | coum | Kone, [Kono] nes so Hbie, OpoH3oBbIe VIT 1920 |Benrus i 114 He yyacrsosain vit | 1924 [@panuna 6 241 = x | 1928 Eeiamaas 24 148 = f x__| 1932 Jews 18 81 = XI 1936 |Tepmanns 30 183 _ xiv | 1948 [Anrms 36 206 = XV | 1952 [Omusnians 38 251 11 (@—2—4) { Xvi] 1956 [Apcrpanaa 2 161 1@—1—2) Lae 1960 |Veranus 42 282 1V(1—2—2) xvint | 1964 [stron 2 269 1G—4—2) XIX | 1968 [Mexcuxa 43 305 1G—2—1) xx | 1972 [opr SI 356 V(2—0—0) xx [1976 [Kanana 57 348 VO-1—4) xxi | 1980 [coce 51 273 I (1—6—1) xxnt | 1984 [CLA 82 359 = XXIV | 1988 |fOxaraa Kopes | 107 44i IV(1—1—2) Xxv_| 1992 Henan [84 340 | VIIT@—1—1) xxvi | 1996 [CUA 97 335 IV (1—0—3) XXVIT] 2000 |Aserpamna | 75 310 ies XXVIN] 2004 | Tpenun 2 283 11 G—0—3) | COBETCKKME H POCCHMCKHE UEMITMOHBI OJMMITMMCKHX MP 1956 2., XVI Onumnutickue uepot, Meavdypx: Branumup Cadporos, Bnasumup Exrv6apsu, Tennanuii Markos. 1960 2., XVI Onumnuiicxue uepoi, Pum: Oner Tpuropses. 1964 2, XVII Onumnuticxue uep, Toxuo. Cranucnas Crenall- , Bopuc Jlaryrun, Banepuit Monenuenko. mm" 1968 Ee XIX Ontunuitenue uepot, Mexuxo: Basepuan CoKollos, Bopuc Jlaryrun, Jan Mosusax. B. Cacpporios YT. Warkos c TpeHepom M11. Ocunonbim 35 1972 2., XX Onumnuiccue uepoi, Mronxen: Bopuc KysHenop, Ba- yecnas Jlememes. 1980 2., XXH Onuxnuticxue ueper, Mocxea: Wann Ca6npos. 1988 2., XXIV Onumnusicxue uepet, Ceyn: Batecnas AHOBcKUit. 1996 2., XXVI Onumnuticrue uepet, Amsauma: Oner Cantos. 2000 2., XXVIT Onumnuticxue uepot, Cudueit: Oner Cantos, AseK- canap JleG3sK. 2004 2., XXVUF Onunnuiiercue uepel, Aduner: Anexcett TneHKo, Taiigap6cx Taiizap6exor, AjiekcaHap [loperKuH. Bopuc Jlarytun u Oner Cautor cram OJMMTIMHCKHMM YeMnHoHa- MH JBaXIbI. C. Crenammxkun B. Jlaryrun B. Coxou10B B. Kysneros 37 B. Jlememen B. AnoBcKuit A, Jle63ak A. TuienKo T.. Taizap6exon A. TlopetkuH Kpome Onumnuiickux vrp s06utenbcKuit GoKe pactionaraeT cue Pa10M TypHupos c yuacTueM GoKCepoR CaMoro BBICOKOTO Kacca. BTO 4eMMMOHaTH WH KyOKM Mupa, YemmMoHaTs! Espombl, MHOrounceH- Hble MEMOpHaJibI, UMCHHEI€ TYPHUDPHI, TPalMYMOHHbIe MaTUeBbie BeTpedH. 39 2.3. Boxe KuK6OKCHHT & KM3HEHHO BaxKHOM ABuraTenbHom apcenvane yenoBexa Yenoreka 10 KXM3HM BeYT MOTHBEI, MBICAN uyBcTBa, NOGyKta- ftoulune ero K TO! HIM HHO HeaTenbHOCTH. Kakve MOTHBHI MpPHBOMAT fOHOLIY K yapHOMy emMHOGopcrry? Uo moxet npuBreub HW 3acTaBHTL ero TpyMHTbcsx B oTe nuua? Tlepeancnum OcHOBHBIC 13 3THX MOTH- BOB. 1. Beecroponree rapMoHMuHoe pasBHTHe HUHOCTH. 2. Ucnonpsoparne cpejcrs eMHOOOpcrsa B LEIAX O310pOBIEHHs, (bH3HYeCKoro ConepileHCTBOBAHUA CHcTeM M CbyHKUIi opraHH3ma. 3. Ocpoene apcenana GoeBbix HaBbIKOB — aHaslora OpyxXHs B LesAx CaMoodopoHnl. 4. Crpemaerme crate Gonce caMocToATeIbHEIM, YBEpeHHBbIM B cebe YeTIOBEKOM. 5. Wenenxanpannennan dusnueckas 1 CHOpTHBHO-TexHMyeckas Top- TOTOBKa. 6. Boneras noxroropka. Eauno6opcrso — yocrarouno x*eCTKMH BU CHOpTHBHOH ZeATeb- HOCTH YesOBEKA, OHO NPeABARMAET NOBKILIEHHEe mM pasHocTOpoHHue TpeOoBana KO BCeM CHcTemMam HM yHKUHAM OpraHv3ma choprcmMeHa. 4 ABIACTCA YHHKAIBHEIM CPeACTBOM COBEPLUCHCTBOBaHUA. O6 sToM MBI He pa3 ye TOBOpWIM 1 He paz elle NOBTOpHM. KeraTu, OUcHMTe BALM MOTMBBE AKTHBH3alMM CHOprMBHoii nes TEMbHOCTH: NOWeMy BbI NHK UMeHHO B 6oKc? Sto nerKo onpesze- AMTb, HCMOIb3y MeTOMMKy nporbeccopa Kaderphl MCHXONOrHH CIIOr YOK um. I. ©, Jlecrara A.H. Huxonaera (npusioxerne 7). BanGonee neposTitie MOTHBEI CHOpTHBHOM AesTebHOCTH MOKHO KuacCMpHLMpOBATh TO JpPyToMy NpHHUMNy: Kakyio el» mpecienyer cTylent — 6ynyuinit 1opuct, nuTepatop, HEDxeHep, npHuequmit B cnopT3ai? EctecrsenHo, riabHas Uerb — nomroropka K Oymymeit mpodeccuv wim Boobne K xXU3HH, K ynuUe, KOTOpad, KAK H3BeCTHO, MepenolHeHa HEOXMJAHHOCTAMH. BO3MOKHO, 3TO 3R0poBbe. Taxe OnaropoHad Wei, TOXe YMECTHA M NOCTHKUMA C MICIIONB30BaHHEM cpexcTs enHHOGopcTs. Tfenbio MOXeT ObIT CNOPTHBHH pesynbtat. Sto O3HauaeT, UTO BeCh BO3MOXHbIH MAaKCHMYM YcHJIHi HW BpeMeHH KOHL[CHTpHpyeTca B HallpaBCHMH COBEPLUICHCTBOBAHMA COPCBHOBATEIIBHOH MestTebHOCTH, ee adtpexra. 3 [napa BOKC — ONMMNMNCKNN BUG CNOPTA 3.1. Cogepxannue uv opranu3zauua npowecca CnopTuBHoOw NoproTorku Gokcepa B 4vicno ONMMMMiCKUX BXOLAT TOMbKO Te BALI clopTa, KOTOpbie KYIbTHBUpylorcs He MeHee uem B 25 crpaHax — neTHHe u B LS crpa- Wax — 3umHue. J Boxc nonp3yetca MonysApHOCTElo y HacesleHMa BCel MaHeThI; u3- Ba choc TeXHHYCCKOH MW TaKTHYCCKOM HECIOXKHOCTH OH AOCTYNCH MpakTuyeckn s0Gomy YenoBeky. OnHaKO 3aHHMaTECA OOKCOM MOryT ie sce. HavGonce nonHblii NepeicHh MeqHUMHCKHX NpOTHBOTOKa3sa- HM 110 3aHATHH OoKcOM NpHBeLeH B NpHNOxKeHNH 2 (3H1Ga70B F.3., 1986). Boxe — OHH 43 HanGonee NPHKTaTHBIX BUOB chopra. Tonroron- Ka, NOWyYeHHad KO BPeMA TPEHUPOBOK, MOXeT OBIT MCHO_IORAHA B pasiWIHbIx ccbepax NpodbeccHoHabHOM WeATeNbHOCTH YCOBCKA. Crctema cnoprueHoit nonroropku (CCI) 60Kcepa npencrapraer co6oit cnoxdbiit MefarorHyecKHit Npouece cravoBeHHA cropTeme- Hl, He TONbKO FOTOROTO K Pe3yIbTATHBHOM COpeBHOBATENMbHOM pes- TENbHOCTH, HO HM ABIAIOULeETOCH TOCTOHHEIM TpaxJ@aHHHOM o6urecrea. (exema 3.1). U xors wenyweit n CCII octraeres ee cneumcbuunasd yacr — cre- HMasIbHad NOMPOTOBKA, COLMMAJIBHOC BOCNMTAHHe GoKcepa MMCCT TIDHH- UMMHATEHOe 3HaveHHe. Conepxannic H OpraHu3allMA — IBC OCHOBHDbIC COCTABJIAIOLUINE CiO%K- Horo Neyarormyeckoro npowecca NOPTOTOBKU criopTcMeHa. BaxHeli- MMMM XapaKTepHicTHKAMH OoKca ABIAIOTCH TeXHMKa uM TaKTHKa, a Mpowexypa OBNaeHUA ClOprcMeHOM TeXHHKOM MW TaKTHKOM — WiaB- Wad CocTaBisowlan copepxXaHHA ero CNeWMaIbHO MOLTOTOBKH (cM. pasa. 3.1.1—3.1.3). He Menee naxkHbl TakHe COCTAaBIAIOMIMe COMepxXaHUs NOMTOTORKH, KOTOpbIc OTBETCTBCHHb! 3a BOCIINTAHHC, TAPMOHHYHOC pa3sBuTHe CriopT- MeHa. STO cnocobuocTu, KayecTba, CBOlCTBAa, PYHKUMH OpraHv3sma H TICHXHKU, Bce To, UTO NOMOraeT GoKcepy GoKcHpoOBaTb (cM. pasi. 3,1.4—3.1.7). Ho Bemb GoKCep He TOKO TPeHMpyeTCA MH BLICTyNaeT Ha PHHre, OH %UBeT OOLIHOM XKM3HLIO Cpenu 6mM3KHXx eMy Joneli, a 41 Cxema 3.1 42 Cucrema muoroneruei cnoptapnoi noproToBKu pasyionTHe caxropst Kpmrepy Cuctemoo6j (QranHEie, BEIXOZHDIe) Crpyxtypa: SIEMCHTEL, CBI3H Tlogcucremer fe Be es" 1 1 1 1 I 1 i ! | ae ty; g = i s ! BE i | set ce gee | ge eaeges | gee ESbEEs i ge sggeg | pes cuaee bie FREER | GRE SSE558 | £86 aa ies 1 sciei 1 1 ened I we Weyl | t t 2 oes | a € EEGs | gee gece er \ 28S E8 55 5 t 2 2 1 gE Be oof O@g 6 ! 58 t (rixatona ev1209) mdinkdis donea yrmaresuideg Topnsonransistit nextop ctpykrypst (passiTie cHcTeMBI ao BpeMeTiA) TOTOMY JOKeH GbITh HPaBCTBEHHOM MMYHOCTbIO H MpOCTO 310POBbIM 4en0BeKom (cm. pazu. 3.2, 3.3). 3.1.1. Texnnka u Taxtnka GoKca TexHMKO-TakTHYCCKaa NOATOTOBKa HayMHatowero GoKcepa npex- CraBlaeT coooi Mmpollecc OBmayqeHuA TeopervuecKHMN 3HaHMAMH, NpakTHieCKHMM YMCHHAMH HW HaBLIKAMH TeXHHKUM HW TaKTHKH 6oxca. ‘S10 — ciewasbHbili KypC WKOJIbI GOKCa. Texumueckas nogroronka GoKcepa BkOUaeT B CeO, BO-NepBBIX, o6yueHhe ero cratiapTHoH TexHukKe ABIDKeHHit mM MeHCTBMit, cyyxKa- 1MX CpeCTBAMK CNOpTMBHO! GopLGEI, HU, BO-BTOPbIX, COBEPLUCHCTBO- BAHMe STHX WBMKEHUMH MH DelicTBHii B COOTBeETCTBHH C MHAMBHIyaIb- HIM OCObeHHOCTSMM CIOpTcMeHa M ApyrMMM 3aqa4aMu TOMTOTOBKH. B equnctee c Ttexumueckoii mpopogurca TaKTHYeCKaA MOATOTOBKA Cnoprcmena. Eciim TexHM4eCKAast NOATOTOBKa BOOpyxXaeT CpescTBaMu BbeseHis 6os, TO TaxiMueckas — obecneunbaeT Ux UCKyCHOe NpumMe- HeHHe B MOCAMHKe B 3aBMCMMOCTH OT CHTyauMn M GoeBo sanauH. Hanpumep, ManogeposTHo, uTo6bl choprcmeH winHdboBan TeXHU- ky Kakoro-2nGo mpHema Mpocto Tak, He Npeycrapnaa ceGe TakTHue- CKO CHTYAallMH, B KOTOpO 9TOT Npvem OyneT K MecTy. TOUHO Tak xe Gecempicnenno pa3spabaTbiBaTb TaKTHYeCKHii M1aH Gos, He yuHTbIBat €fO TeXHMYeCKOTO apcenasa. BsavMocesa3b TexHUYeCKOii U TAaKTHYeCKOIi CTOPOH NOTOTOBKH GoKcepa oveBMHa. PaccCMOTpHM OCHOBDI TeXHHYCCKOH M TaKTHYECKOM CTOPOH NosroToRKH GoKcepa. Texnureckan nodzomosKa NpoBOUTCA B ABYX HaNpaBneHwax: 1) o6yueHHe cnoprcMeHa CTaHwapTHOM TexHUKe ABMKeHHA 4 neh- eTBMi, CiyKaujix CpesCTHAMU BeeHHA CNOpTuBHOH SopLOET; 2) copepuieHCTBOBAaHKe TexXHUKH GoeBbIX IPHEMOB B COOTBETCTBMH © UHAMBYIYaIbHBIMM OcobeHHOCTSMM CnOprcMeHa 4 PyruMu 3ajla- 4aMn MoproToBKH. Tleppoe nanpapnenue, Kak npaBwno, cocrannaeT Conepxa- Hue HavaibHoi MomroTOBKH. CpencTBamu chelMambHoro TexHMuecKoro apceHana GoKcepa AB- NaAfoTcs Cilenyioue Goepzie neiicTBHA. 1. Amaxyrowmue deticmeua (ynapbt). Yaap npsamoit nepoli B ronopy; npsMmoii neBoii B TyNOBULIe; Nps- MOH Tpaboit B ronosy; UpAMOM npaboii B TYIOBMIe; CHu3y NeBOK B TowORY; CHH3y NeBoH B TyNOBHUIe; CHu3y NpaBoii B ronoBy; CHu3Y Mpasolt B TynoBuLe; GoKoBoli neBoli B ronoBy; GoKOBOii meBOii B Ty- NOBLE; GOKOBOH MpaBoii B ToNoBy; OoKOBOH NpaBolt B TYIOBHLIC. 2. Zawumuve deiicmeua (IpvieMbt 3aUTE!). Sauinta c noMouserO pykK: 1) noAcTaBKa (TaOHM, ThUIbHOK yacTH kKylaka, [peqnieybsA, OKT, Neva) NeBoli uM mpaBol pyKu; 43 2) or6uB (nog0uB) KyaKOM, Npeweybem eso wim mmpasoti pyku; 3) Haknaaka WaZOHM, Npennneds nenot WIM mpaBoit pyku. Sammta nepenpyxcHuem: 1) War Ha3aq, BIeBO, Bripapo; 2) war c MOBOpOTOM TyNoBMua (side-step) Beso, BNpaBO. 3aumra ABuxeHMem TynoOBMua: 1) yKIOH BACKO, BIIpaBO, Hasay, (orkI0H); 2) HEIpOK. 3. Todzomaenuearowuue deiicmeua. Brapt neperpwxenmsa: 1) GoKcepcKuit lar; 2) BbIMarMBaHue; 3) YenHOUHoe MeperBHxKeHHe; 4) MemKue Soxcepexue waru (shuffle) 5) cemenautue war; 6) mockoKu; 7) xompGa. OOmaHHble NonroraprmBaromtue ABeOKeHMA (purer): 1) buETE: — Tloka3b1 pykaMu; 2) durite: — nepeyswxenua; 3) dunts: TynoBH- mem. TexHuky Kaxioro U3 SsTux GoeBEXx jelicTBuii xapakTepu3ytor ec OcHOBA mH eran. OcHoea mexnuxu — 3TO COBOKYIIHOCTL OTHOCHTeIbHO HeH3MeH- HBIX, HeOOXOAMMBIX H AOCTATOYHEIX JVI PeLICHHA ABMPaTesIbHOl 3a- Aaiw vactei WelicTBHA. OTH YaCTM HASbIBAIOTCS 36eHbAMU OCHOBE! mex- HUKU. Tak, OcHOBy TeXHHKH NIpsMoro yzapa npaboli B romoBy cocTaBns- JOT: a) NepeMenjenHe Tea B HanpapreHHM ynapa (mocpeficTBom Ton- Kaloulero Brepex pasrnOarenbHOrO ABHKEHHA T1pakoi HOF); 6) ToO- BOPOT TyOBHUla Chipawa HaNleHo; B) yZapHoe ABMDKeHMe MpaBoli pyku K WenH. OcpbeKTHBHBIA yrap He NONyUHTeA, ECHH XOTb OMHO V3 STHX 3BEHBER otcyrcrsyer. B negaroruyeckux WenAx B OCHOBE TEXHUKH BBLeNeTCA Benyulee 3BeHO — HavOonee BaxHaa UM pelalouad yacTb pelicTBns. Oro, Ha- MpHiMep, B Mpblkkax — OTTaIKMBaHKe, B GoKce (B yaapax) — ynap- Hoe [BYOKeHHe pyKu. I[px o6ysenun cnoprcmeHa TexHuKe Kakoro- Jm60 Aelicroua BHHMaHHe 3a0ctpseTcs Goulee BCerO Ha BEJLYILEM 3BeHe. Aemanu mexxuxu — 970 BropoctenenHEIe OcoGeHHOCTH neiicraua, He Hapyluaiolive ero OCHOBHOTO MeCXaHM3Ma. K getansim TexHuKH MIpsmoro yapa NpaBoii B ronoBy oTHOCHTCH: a) NONOXeHHE TOMOEKI, TYAOBMLA H HOF BO BPeMa ynapHOro ABWKC- Hua; 6) MOOKEHHE TeBOH PyKM; B) ObICTpoTa BOSBpaTa B VicXOTHOe (noynapHce) nonoxenne x Tn. TleTanw TcXHHKH MOFYT BHACH3MEHATECA B 3ABMCHMOCTH OT ycr0- BH K Wesel JaHHOro TeicTBUA H OT MHIMBUAVaNLHLIX OcObeHHOCTeIt saHHMalouluxes, ostomy Bce OHM AenATCA Ha O6ulMe (onpenesstempie UeAMK H YCHOBHIMH BEINOIHEHKA JeHCTBMA) HM MHIMBHAyanbHBe (Gapucauue or HHAMBUAyaIbHEIX OcOBeHHOCTeIi CHOpTCMeHa, BbITION- HAIOLICTO 910 jeiicTBKe). TlonuepkKHem, uTo OOuMe HM MHAMBHAYaILHEIe NeTAIM TexHHKA moboro Goenoro aciicrana B GOKCe ABISIOTCA BeCbMa BaXHBIMM JULA CMOpTCMeHa. TONbKO NPAaBHIBHOe BBINONHEHHE TeTaTel TeXHHKM yya- 44 . | pa sanuumaeT 6OKCepa OT KOHTPaTaKYIOLUMX (B OCHOBHOM BCTPeTHEIX) yalapos npoTMBHnka. Hsyyenrmo o6uix netatei oTBomuTca OcoOoe MeCcTO B MIpoLecce o6yucHua 6oKccpa-HOBMKa CIIcLMaIbHEIM UeiicTBuAM (TOBOps anee B TeKCTe 0 JeTaIAX TEXHHKM KaKOTO-1M60 Mpvema, MbI Noapasymena- €M HMeHHO oOuiMe ZeTaTK). Takum 06pa30M, ChemmasibHad TEXHHYCCKaA NOAVOTOBKA HadHHa- foulero GoKcepa npencTapiseT co6oit o6yyeHHe ero CTAHAaPTHOH Tex- ‘HUKe Goenblx IpHiemos GoKca. Bropoe HanpasNeHHe TexHMyecKOM NOJTOTOBKH odeK- THBHO cilyxHT SoKcepy nosxe. JTanHoe HanpaBleHue HapALy c TEXHHYCCKUM COBEPLUCHCTBOBAHHEM B COOTEETCTBKM C AHAMBHLYy- @IBHEIMH OCOGeHHOCTAMH CIOpTcMeHa pellaeT Sanjay ero CKOpOcT- HO-CHJIOBOH M YHKUMOHATHOM NOATOTOBKM, pasBUTHA KOOpAMHA- WU VW NOBKOCTH. Smecb TeXHM4ecKOe COBEPLICHCTBOBAHMe CHOpTcMcHa MpopoWxKa- €TCA AOBONKOM MHIMBHAYAIbHBIX JeTasev TeEXHUKU CIeWMAbHEIX 1ei- cTBul. Taxmuueckan nodzomoexa BKMO'UAET B COA: 1) BoopyxeHue cnopTcmMeHa 3HaHMAMM, yYMeHWsMM MW HaBEIKaMu BeeHHA OO C ONTHMAIbHEIM MCIOMb3OBAHKeM CTO MHAMBMYa@IbHBIX ocoG6eHHocteii 1 BO3MOxHOCTeN; 2) o6y4eHMe NpaBUAbHO BHIOMpaTb HM CBOCEPeMCHHO HCHONbIOBATH TeXHHKy CooOpa3Ho TaKTHYeCKHM CHTyallisaim Oost; 3) BOCIINTaHHe CNocoGHOCTH MpaBHILHO H OEIcTpo «epectpaH- BaTECA» COOGpPa3HO TAKTHYECKOMY PHCYHKY NoeqMHKa (TOMpoGHEe cM. B pasa. 4.1). Ymenue 6OKcepa ONTHMabHO MCHONbIOBaTb GoeBEIe NpHeEMBI C yseTOM CoOcTReHHEIX BO3MOXHOCTeH H Choe MoATOTOBIeHHOCTH — 9To dyHsaMcHT TaKTHUCCKOTO MaCTepcTBa, TAKTMYeECKM apceHal cnlopicmera. @opmupopanve OCHOBLI TAKTHYCCKOPO MACTepcTBa COCTABIAeT Tleppoe HampaBAeHHeE TAaKTHYeCKOM NOMOTOBKM OoKcepa BO- OOule M OCHOBHOE copepxKaHHe TAaKTUYeCKOM NomTOTORKM HauHHAaIo- iuero GoKcepa. Bropoe HanmpabneHnue TakTMuecKOH NonroTORKM — Bocn- TaHMe yMCHMA COpIcMeHa NpaBWJibHO M CBOCBPeMCHHO pellaTb Tak- THYECKMe 3a1a4H CopeBHOBaTENbHOrO Gos. Llembro ABIAeETCA BOCTUTA- Hie y CNOprcmeHa croco6HocTH jenaTb B GOO TO, YTO HYXKHO AIA nloGexEI. Jio60ii mpvem Goxca uMeeT BHOMHe onpeyeneHHoe Ha3HaYeHue B Goro: yrap — yxapiTb NPOTMBHMKa, NpveM 3aWIMTbI — 3alMTUTECA H T.0. Onnako Kaxibiii MpvemM HMeeT elle H pa3siM4HbIe TpaKTOBKH B PasHBIX CuTyaunMax 60x: TaK, OMH M TOT Ke yap MO%KHO BbINOMHUTD B arakyioueii, OTBCTHOM, BCTPeYHOM Onlepexatouleit (bopMax; ONMH K TOT 2Ke NPHeM SaLIMTEI — B QBYOKeHHM Biepesl, B CTOPOHEI, Ha OTXOLe Hi T.T, 45 TpeTbe HanpaBseHnve TaktHueckoli NOATOTOBKH GoKcepa Tpe- 6yeT oT Hero yMeHna GoKcupoBaTE BO BCeXx chopMax 4 TpaMoTHO uc- NOJMbIOBATh ITM CNOCOHHOCTH B GoW. 3.1.2. OcHosa! npoyecca o6yyeHna Tlogroropka HayMHaloniero croprcemeHa K o6y4eHMio cneLManb- HIM GoeBHIM pelicTBHSIM OcyuIecTRIAeTCA Giarogaps yMemoii peanH- SAWMM OCHOBHEIX METOAMYCCKMX MpPMHLUMIOB: CO3HATEMbHOCTH K AKTHBHOCTH, MOCTYNHOCTH K WHAMBHyaNMsalMM, CHcTeMaTHUHOCTH M MocTenenHoro NoBELcHHA TpeS6obannit. Kax H3BecTHO, B NOcTpoe- HHH Mpolecca ObydeHHsA ABHPaTeAbHOMY J€iiCTBHIO MOKHO BBUIENHTS PA OTHOCHTENLHO 3ABCPLUEHHLIX 9TAMOB, KOTOPbLIM COOTBCTCTBYIOT ONpeHeeHHBIe CTA (POPMUPOBaHIA ABUTATEABHOTO HaBBIKa. 1. Sran wavanbHoro pasyunBaHMs ABuraTeL.HOrO AeiCTBHS (cta- Qua O6pasowaHHa YMCHHA BOCTIPOM3BOLHTb TeEXHUKY LelicTBUs B OO- use cbopme). 2. Stan yrnyOneHHoro pasyynBanna (30ecb ABMraTenbHOe yMeHHe YACTH4HO MepeXOHT B HaBbIK). 3. Stan 3aKpenteHus M copepiencrsopanns (bopmupopanne mipow- HOLO HM BapHaTHBHOLO HaBbiKa). MoxHo npennonoxuth, uTo obyuerMe HauMHaIoUero cnoptemena CreuHasbHbIM OokcepcKMM AciiCcrBMAM Leecoobpa3sHo CLpOHKTb MaB- HbIM O6pa30M B PaMKaXx NlepBOro, BTOPOTO K TOMBKO YaCTMUHO TpeTE- ero 91a, T.€. He JOOMBATLCA sayUMBAHHA MpMeMa, HO NpeBpalaTS fo B MpOUHbI H CTAOHIbHBI HaBbIK. So ovenp B&KHO, TAK KaK TONLKO C TpeTbero Tana HAYMHAcTCH UcseHanpabeHHblit Mpouecc MHAMBHAYaIM3aLAH CNOPTHBHO-TexHiYe- cKoro MacTepctRa Goxcepa. MmMenHo 8 STOT nepuion npoucxonuT aBTO- MaTH3alliA ABWKCHH, BhIpaboTKa yCTOMYHBOLO HaBbIKa C ananTayt- ei K MHIMBMYaNbHbIM OCOGeHHOCTAM CnoptemeHa. B conoKynHocrH BC STO COCTABIACT HUHIUBHAYUIbHbIM TCXHHMKO-TaKTHYCCKMM ABHTa- TeIbHbIi MOTeHUMal CloprcMeta — ero MHAMBYyabHyIO Manepy Gopr6ni (nonpoGHee cm. B pasa. 5.1). ObyueHne cnopremena GoeBomy GoKCepcKOMy AeliCTBMIO COCTOMT RB Chenyiourem. Hauaacnoe pasytusanue Oeueameavnozo delicmeua (HaYMHaeTcA c dopmuposatiist npemcranneHMa o Hem): a) yMcTBeHHOro (cooGulactcs KpatKan xapakTepHicTHka AciCrBMA, OODACHAeTCH ero Ha3HaYeHue); 6) HarasgHoro (aeMOHcTpupyetca TexnMKa NpHema B HaTypasb- HOM PHTME H C 3aMeUIEHHeM); B) ABMTaTembHOro (BOCCTAHABIMBACTCA H AONONHAeTCH WBUrATeNb- HbIit OMbIT YUCHHKa 37eMeHTaMM, KOTOpbIe HYKHHI Is] OCBOEHUA OC- HOBbI TEXHUKH M3ydaeMoro DeitcTeus). 46 O1HM oGecneunBaeTcst NOMHOLeHHOe NpescTaBieHve 3aHMMAarOLINXx- ¢# GOKCOM 06 M3y¥aeMOM JeiicTBHM. 3fecb NpeazaraeTcs TpawMWHOH- has MocnezoBaTeAbHOCTE (bOpMUpPOBAHAS Y HUX PasMU4HbIx NpescTaB- | nerutii. OnHaKko STO He sBAAeTCH YeM-TO HeM3MeHHBIM. Bo3MoxKHbI Tepe- cTaHOBKH, ecu OHH ONpaBsbiwarorca Tpe6opanMamu ysebHoro mpo- mecca. Hanpumep, B 6okce WenecooOpa3Ho CTpoMTs npouecc 3ayyMBaHMA B TaKOii OYEpPeEHOCTH: xapakTepuCTuKa NIpHeMa — BBITIONHEHME 3a- HUMAIOUIMMMCH MOATOTOBUTENBHEIX ynpaxHeHt — ToKas TipHeMa. Tlocne sToro OHM CaMOCTOATCIIbHO BEIIOTHAIOT OCHOBY ACHCTBUA B HETIOM. B MIpaKTHKe CAMOCTOSTEILHOE BLINOJHEHHE OCHOB TeXHHKH MpH- eMa (a BMOCKeACTBHM M Tip paboTe Han jeTaIAMM) YepemyeTca Cc BEINIOIHEHHeM JBMraTeNLHOrO JelicTBMA NO YacTAM NOL KOHTpovIeM TpeHepa. B nepeppibax Mex/ly CepMAMM TAKHX NONbITOK TpeHep CooG- WAeT TONOMHUTENbHHe CBeqeHUs 06 OCHORe TeXHUKH Tipuema, OGnAC- }i#eT ce TOHKOCTH MH Tp. YeayOnennoe u3yvenue Oeticmeun: @) OCHOBATeILHOE MOcTInKeHHe yHeHHKAMH 3aKOHOMepHocrel Tex- HUKH [leicTena M CMbICNa ero NPUMeHeHHA. 6) mocnenopaTenbHoe pa3sytnBaHue oO mux neTameii TexHukH. Pa3- YuMBaTb CTA TEXHHKK GoKca CUCLyeT B COOTBETCTBMM CO CTCIICHBIO BAKHOCTH KaKION H3 HUX 114 GoKcepa: cHavaa — CaMyto HeOOxonH- Mylo, NoToM — McHee BaxkHylo u 7.0. [Ip onmcanmn SoKcepcKux MPHWeMOB Aanee TeTAM NepeyvicNAOTCA MMCHHO B TaKOMi MocmenoBa- TCIbHOCTH. B) (opMupoBaHke OGuero pHTMa KM KavecTBa BLINONHEHMS IIpH- €Ma (BEITIONHEHHE LOUKHO ObITh UeTKUM, CBOGOLZHEIM 1 CIMTHEIM). J[ax Toro wroGb! HaBbIK ObLI BapHaTHBH_IM, NpOwecc sakperiie- HUs Iipvema HauMHaIOWMM GoKcepoM CenyeT CTPOUT C NIpAMeHeHH- €M pasHooGpasHbIx CpeycTB HM MeTOROB. Sakpensenue mexHuku deiicmeua npu daabHetiuem ymounenuu dema- het: a) MCHOM_SIOBAHHe MpHeMa «B CBA3Ke> C Pa3sIMYHbIMA ApyTHMu Goepnimu selicrBuaMu; 6) BLINONHeHMe NprKeMa B CHeuMaNbHOM paGore c pasHbIMM Napi- HEpaMH (BbICOKAMM, HU3KHMH, OBICTPEIMM, BEIHOCIIMBEIMU Mi T.11.); B) padora Hal MpieMOM B YCAOBMAX NOBBILICHHOM IMOLMOHATE- HOM HanpsxKeHHocTH (pH yTommeHuN, Cc Oonee KBalNdULMpOBaH- HEIM MapTHepoM, B YCNOBHEIX H CappHHTOBLIX Goax, B MpHCyTCTBHA spuTenet). Tlo stot o6mselt cxeMe MookHO OGyyaTE, HAUMHaroWeTo GoKcepa J10- Gomy Goezomy ripHemy. Tlosromy nanee, np onucaHHM Kakoro-1M60 NpveMa, MbI Ha3bi- Ba€M OCHOBY €fO TEXHHKH, OOuINe AeTaIM M, ecm HCOGxOuuMO, He- 47 koropsle NozroToRMTesbHBIe ypaxHenns. UcnomsoBaHve 3THx 1aH- HBIX B COOTBCTCTBHH C MpHBCACHHOM CXeMOii JaeT BO3MOXHOCTS Tpe- Hepy COCTaBHTb YeTKyl0 NporpaMMy obyyeHHs GoKcepa-HoRMUKa Cco- OTBETCTBYIOMIEMY TIpHemy. 3.1.3. Texuuueckan 4 Takru4eckas CTOpoHbI noprotosku Goxcepa OcHoBHbIe NoNOxeHMA Tena (Teopus M pexomennauuu « o6y4eHnio) Vdapnoe mecmo xyaaxa nepuamne. Yaap cumTactcs NPaBMADHEIM, CCIM OH HaHeCeH KyaKOM B Tep- YaTKe, H MPH 3TOM TOM e€ YaCTEIO, KOTOpasd COOTBETCTByeT rONOBKaM MMACTHBIX KOcTei KHCTH, — yfapHOH YacrbIO Kynaka (puc. 3.1). Touos- KH MACTHBIX KocTeii — HauMeHee YASBUMOe MeCTO Ha KUMCTH. Vasounvie mecma na meae Goxcepa. Yuapbi paspewaetcs: HAHOCHTS B NepelHMe win GoKORBIe yacTH TOROBI H TyNOBULA Bie NoOsca (puc. 3.2). K HanGonee ya3BuMEIM MeCTaM Ha TeJl€ OTHOCHTCH: HUKHAA YemocTh 7, OOKOBat TIOBEpK- HocTb Wen 2, rpymb cepa 3, BepxHsa YaCTE KHBOTa — O6MACTE Con- HewHOrO cruieTcHHA 4H Npaboe nogpeGeppe — oGmacTb NeueHM 5, Zia Toro yToGbI yiapsi NPoTMBHUKa TIO BOSMOXHOCTH perxe 10- cruranH Teva GoKcepa, nocieqHHii BO Bpema Goa Ha puHre 3aHuMaeT ompenesieHHyio GoeBylo NO3HLIKIO — GoeByio CTOliKy. B croiike yxe NposBasiercs HHAMBUAYAIbHOCTb GoKcepa: KaxKEIi KBaIMPHLMpPOBaAHHBIM CrOpTCMeH MosOupaeT Takywo GoeByio cToi- Puc. 3.1 Puc. 3.2 48 KY, KOTOpast C MAKCHMabHOM Nonb30H BLIEITeT €TO NOMOXHTEIbHbIC MHIMBHAYAIbHBIC OCOOCHHO- crn. Ho Haynnats Bce GOKCepbI AOIKHbI CO CTaHyapT- HOM, KiaccMyecKol OoeBO CTOMKH (4TOObI NpH o6y1eHHH HauMHatouero GoKcepa He OOoiiTH CTO- poOHO NpMHUMN cMcTeMarH4HOCTH, Uenecoo6pa3- HO BBeCTH H y3aKOHUTE B yueGHOM Mpoliecce 3Tall YCBOCHHA IOHBIM CnopTCMecHOM cue OZHOTO cTaH- RApTHOTO NoMOxKeHHA — yyeOHOH CTOUKU HM HEKO- Topbix ypaxkHeHHii 43 Hee). Yuebuan cmoitka (y. Cc.) — YNPOWeHHBIA Bapy- aut 6oenolt croiiku (puc. 3.3). [pumenenne y. c. 06- jleruaeT npouecc ycBoeHHA 6oesor croiixu (6. c.) H pala chelnuaibHEIx TIPHEMOB. Texuuka J. C.: HOrM Ha LIMpMHe Wied, 4yTb COrHYTb! B KoNIeHsX. IKMBOT Clerka BTAHYT. PoOBA HaKIOHCHA H OnyuieHa NoAGoponKom Ha rpynb. PyKu y nonOopoaKa, KyakM @xkaTsI. Macca Tema paBHOMepHO pacnipeneic- Ha Ha Tepemumx vactax cron oGeux Hor. Kak ToubKo yueOuas cTotiKa 6yneT ycboeHa, ee HYKHO OMpoGowarb B Jee: BHINOMHUT PAL yMpa- HeHuli 43 Hee (pasHoobpa3HEIe NOBOPOTHI, HAKIOHE! TYNOBHLUA, Me- PeABICKeHKA B y. Cc. M Ap.) c NocmenyioulwM O6yueHHeM MpsAMBIM yAa- pam. PaccmoTpuM yap npaMolit seBoit PYKOii 43 yueOHOH CTOHKH. OcnoBa TexHHKH: a) NepeHoc Tesa Ha Mpawyio HoOry (croma NeBO HOF Np TOM pasBopayHBaercs B NONOX*KeHHe, NepmeHAMKy- JApHoe UcKoAHOMY); 6) MOBOpOT TyIOBULNA CeBa HanpaBo; B) ylap- HOe DBYXXeHHe JeBOH PyKH. Jletanu TexHAKM: MONOXeHMEe FONOBE, NpaBolt PyKH, Npa- Boi HOrH (MONOxKeHMe STHX CCIMCHTOB AHATOrM4HO HCXOMHOMY), TY- NOBMIULA (BEITIPAMICHO). Cuenyer noguepKHyTb, 4TO Aust GoKcepa Gombuloe 3HAaueHHe MMeeT Tlovloxerie Kynaka nip ynape. MszecrHo, ure onHMM 43 CaMbix Gonb- HBIX MecT Gokcepa siBuIsieTCH OpysHe ero Hemerkoro Tpyfa — KMCT PyKU. Tlepenoms! 4 BbIBAXH Kocre KMCTH IpH yiape MpOucxossT No pas- JIMUHBIM NIpHuMHaM, OHAKO OCHOBHas 43 HAX — HapylleHHe TeXHH- KM yuapa. Tlonoxenve kynaka Mp ylape LOUKHO ObITb TAKHM: MaIbuEl Co- THYTH W NpwxKaTbI K Nagonn, Sonbwol nNarey NpwxKaT kK cpenneit qbanatire yKa3aTeibHoro Matbua. Yaap AODKeH MpuxoAMTSca Ha ro- JIOBKH MSACTHEIX KocTeit. Uro6bi IHHMs CWIbI NpOTHBOTeHCTBUA yaps- eMoii MOBepXHOCTH coBiialla ¢ 1MHKMe KocTeH pyKu (puc. 3.4), KHCTS B MOMeHT yaapa CslenyeT HECKONKO CPOHMPOBATh (HECKOIKO 10- BEPHYTb BOBHYTPb OKOJIO MpoOMbHOli OCH) HW COrHYyTb (B npaxruke TOROPAT «OBEPHYTb KysIaK»). OTO yBeNMUMT CHIIY ylapa M CHHS3HT Be- POATHOCTb TpabMbt. 49 YeectHble ynpaxbhenws nocne Hay4e- HHA TIpAMOro yfapa JIeBOH pyKoit 13 y. c. 1, Epaserit npsmoii B ronopy (TexHuKa yaapa MacHTHIHa HeBOMy). 2. BemOuHeHHe TIpsAMBIX TpaKoro H se- BOFO y1apOR B CBASKE H3 AByx M Gostee yna- pos. 3. BeittonHenve ynapos B ABIDKeHHH Puc. 3.4 (yaap pyxkoit sbinomHaetcs on war pa3- HOMMeHHOit Horoit). 4. Betontienve ynapos 6 aBIDKeHH nasa (ObCT pyKa, OHOMMEHHAs Wlaralouleli Hore). Omit nokasan, uto mpu npaBaiLHOM HOcTpoewun yieOHo-Tpenn- POBOUHOrO Mpouccca HATMHAONUtH CHOPICMeH YiOBIETBOPUTENbHO yobaubaeT y. C., CONyTCTBYIONIMe yNPAKHeHMA 1 3HaHMA Bcero 3a 3— 4 3anatus. BnocaencTsKH 9T0 Oka3bIBaeT My CYWIECTBEHHY10 NOMOLIb TIpH OBNACHHM OoeBoli CTOHKOH, GoeBbIMH GoKCepcKHMH nipwemamu. Boewras croiixa — HanGonee ynobuoe ucxonHoe TloOxKeHHEe GOK- cepa Aid BeneHHA Oox (pHc. 3.5). Sto yHuBepcambHoe nlomoxeHKe, TO3Bolsolee GoKcepy pasHoobpasHo0 MepesBUraTECH TO puHry, sc PeKTHBHO HcHOMBIOBaTS IpHEMDI aTAKH, a TAKE HAeXHO 3aLLMUlare YASBHMBIC MECTA CBOerO Tea OT yapoR NPOTHBHHKA. Boxcep ¢ crumueitureii npanoii pyKoii obnruHo bpiGupaer JIeBocTo- POHHEOW GoeByi0 CTOIKy. Texnuxa 6. c.: cnopremen crour Bro06opoTa — neBolt cropoHoit Tela BNepe; — K MpOTHBHUKY. CTOMbI HOF apaVeNbHBI, NpaBast Hora HAXODUTCH OT NeROK Ha Mommara c3ann crpana: ecm pacctoanme 6y- ACT MeHbUIe — MOHMS3HTCA ycToituMBocrh GoKcepa, OONbUIe — yxyn- WTC FO NOUBWKHOCTH. HOF YT COPHYTHI B KOMeHSAX, TYNOBULE BLUTIPAMJICHO, XKMBOT CAcrKa BranyT. Macca Teta PaBHOMEpHO pacripefeneHa Ha NepenHMe YacTu cron o6enx Hor. Toxopa HaKnonena, noaGopopoK mpu- KPBIT JIEBbIM ILICYEBLIM CyCTABOM CJIeBa H KHCTBIO Tipakoli pyxu ciipapa. TIpapoe npennneyse sanqu- WaeT 4aCTh TyYNOBMUIA (0 OOMACTH NeyeHu vu CON- HeYHOTO CIereHus), MeBoe — ocranbuyto, Hav- Gonee nocrynrylo 11a NpOTMBHHKa YacTb (OOMACTS cepyua). Boesaa crotika — AMHAMHIHOS NOMOXKeHHE: BCE CerMeHTbI Tela OOKCepa HaXOATCA B ABIDKeHHM, Take CCIM OH HE BLINOTHAeT HUKAKHX 6OeBBIX ACii- crBuii. Sro aenaeres 1A TOTO, YTOOLI NOBLICHTB S3al[MTHBIe CBOiicTRa CTOMKH, a TaKOKe OGecneuHTL BpinouHenne 6. c. ronepemenHo paSorolt pasany- HBIX MBIUI (HepaGoTaloumMe MBI paccnabrs- Puc. 3.5 YOTCA — 4OTIbIXAIOT»). 30 : Bnoxoxenne 6. c. nerko nepeiiTH 43 NOMOXKeHNA Y. HyxHo TOAbKO TMOBCPHYTb POMObY BICBO AO COMPHKOCHOBCHHA TeBO} CTOpOHnb! Nop- Goponka C TeBbIM MAeYeBbIM CyCTABOM (KHCTb NpaBoii PYKH, KaK Li B yue6rolt croiike, mpukpLipaer Ipapyio cTopory o”GoposKa), 1eBy10 PYKY UYTb pa3sorHyTb 6 JOKTEBOM CycTaBe. Hayy 6oxcepa-HOBMUKA BLIMOTHSTh G. Cc. — NeIO HeTpyHoe. Kak Tipaswii0, sto peuaetca B revere 10—20 mun TpcHarxKa. Zina 3axpernneHHs HOBbIX DBHTATeNbHbIX OLLYLIEHHH, 1s mpuyye- ua OoKcepa K NoNOxKeHHIO 6. c. cuesyeT cpasy xe MepeiiTH K TAKUM YIPAkHeHMAM: NepeHOC MaCcEI Tesla ¢ HOP Ha HOry, Coxpanss 6. c., BCEBO3MOXHLIE MPLLKKU, HAKJIOHI, Mpvcesanusa BO. c. u T.T. Crenyioumit 3ran — oby4erne nepezbyrKcHHAM 110 pHHry. O1HaKO He cnenyer 3a6bIBaTs, UTO Tess WHOGoro cnocoba NepenBuxKeHMA GOK- cepa — ron6op H coxpaHeHie HyXHOM AMCTAHILMH 10 NpOTMBHHKa. Ha 970 HeoOxoqKMo OOparuTb BHUMaHMe 3aHMMalollMXxcs. Boeepie qucranuun JTluctanuneii Ha3piBaeTca paccTosHue Mexy BeAyUIMMH Ooii 6OK- cepamu., CyuiectsyeT Tpu Gocpnie AMCTaHI[Mu: janbHad, cpenHaA U Ormxn8s, Alaansa Ouemanyuan — paccrosHne, c KoTOporo GoKcep, Haxojsice B OOEBOM CTOMKe, MOET HAHECTH ynap C WarOM Brepes. Cpeduaa ducmanyua — paccTosHMe, c KoTOporo GoKcep MoxeT HaHECTM NpaAMoi yap, HE Dejlat NpM Irom wara BHepe”. Bauscusa Ouemanyua — paccrosune, ¢ KoTOporo GoKcep MoxeT HAHOCHTL KOpoTKue ynapbt (GoKOBLIe 1 CHH3y). HecKONbKO 103%Ke, KOra B TPeHUPOBKE yKe CTAOWIbHO UCIIOMb- SYIOTCA CNeWHaIbHbie yNPaKHeHHA B Mapax, 3HaHHA HAaYMHAloOulAx OoKcepoR ClesyeT JONOMMUTS TAKHMM CyryOO TAKTHYeCKMMH NOHATH- SIMU, Kak 3argumHan Ouemanyun (3)]) u ydapuaa ducmanuus (YI). 3a- UMTHad WucTaHyMA GoKcepa A pacnpocrpaHseica Ha Takoe paccTos- Hue 70 ero NpoTuBHUuKa — 6oxcepa b, HaxoMAcb Ha KOTOpom A ycrie- BacT SauyHLaTEeA oT ynapos B. Ecau A mo Kakoli-ro NpHuMHe yMeHBIUAeT AMCTAaHUHIo 10 Bb wit Nospomser 9To cuerate B, To ynapyt nocaenHero 6ynyT AOcTuraTp Wes, a A Oynet GeccuteH 4TO-1H60 NpeANpPHHATh (pa3Be YTO ONT yBesIM- NUT UcTaHUuMIO 70 3J] uM Gonee). YaapHaa nHctanuua Goxcepa A — 970 pacctosve Mexay A u B, ¢ Koroporo A jOcTaeT ChONMM ynapaMu NpOTMBHUKA. Uytp ganuie — vf ynappl A MoBHCcaloT B BOSAyxe, He MOXOLAT D0 nen. Benwununt 31, 1 YI 6oxcepa A orHocuTesbHo HenoctosHHbt. OHH SaBUCAT OT TOPO, HACKONIbKO A Gbicrpee WIM MeJLIEHHee CBOero IIpo- TUBHVMKA B BOCIPHATHU CUTyalMu, B NepepaOorKe MHopMalun uv B ji ABMTATEIbHOM TesTeIbHOCTH; NpOTHBHHKU y A paaiMuHBie, mOsTOMy senuunuet 3f] 4 YJI Mexsiores co cmerioit mapruepa. Kak Hpapwwio, 3] Gonpure YH: HaHocw Ts ynappr Bce-TaKU TIPOWe, YeM 3alL(MUtaTECH. Bo ppema 60s GoKcep omKeH HaxO_UTLCA Ha cBoeii YH, Korma aTakyeT, u na 3], Korma Hanayaer ero IpOTHBHHK. OTO XHO GbITb MOCTOAHHO BHMMaTeJIbHEIM M TOTOBbIM K OOLIM HEOKHKTAHHOCTAM, 608; BbILarnBaHHe — CCH HYK- HO MPOTHBHUKA; YeNHOUHOe MepesBUXxe- Hue HW MOCKOKH — eCJIM TIPOTHBHHK MaJIOMOZBHXKEH H T. Hacrosujemy Mactepy, Kak MpaBusio, CBOMCTBeEHHa OYeHb XOpO- as KATM> HY>KHYIO [MCTAHILHIO 10 TapTHe- pa (CM. Mpnn0xerne 3: oMbIT 3acryxeHHoro TpeHepa Poccnn, Macte- pa cnopta CCCP B. B. JIucuupimia). Mpueme!: araxu uw saute! (TexHuka “4 TakTUKa) Matepman manaraeTcsl B COOTBETCTBMH C MOCeMOBATeEBHOCTHIO Be- QeHHA cricuvanbHoOM MoproTOBKH OHOTO GoKcepa H Ha OCHOBC MeTO- DMYCCKON THTepatypsI M10 HOKCy. Tipsamere yxapei w sama oT HX. Yoap npamot sesoi pykoii (dace npamoti recoil) 6 z0n08y, KaK ye TOBOPUIOCh, U3y4aeTCH Cpa3y Tlocwe ycnoeHusa GboKcepcKoro wara. 53 Ha3Have Hue: ynap mpumensetes ¢ Ll€1L10 NOpasHTb OTKpbITOe MccTo Tena TIPOTHBHUKa (B Mpemenax pa3speweHHoro Tipasnaanu mo 6oKcy yuacrka). OcHopa TexHHKU (ylap IpAMoii NeBOHt B rosoBy Ge3 mara — Ha Mecte): a) MoctynatenbHoe mepemeienue Tena B HallpaBleHHu yilapa (c npaBoii HOrK Ha steByio); 6) noBopoT TynoBHWa cAeBa Hampaso; B) yapHOe BIDKeHMe JeBOi pykn. Koxeurioe tonoxerne Goxcepa npu BbINONHCHHHM yilapa eso B romOBy CM. Ha pic. 3.6. Puc. 3.6 eran TexuuKu: noroxerne ron0- Bbl, MpaBoli pyKH — BCe B 6. c., ObIcCTpoTa BO3BpaTa B MCXOMHOE MOMOXKeHHE H T. 1. Aleraim TexHUKH Nepeuncratorcd B MOpH/KE yCIOBHO MpHHaATOrO YObIBaHKs WX 3HAGMMOCTH Jia GoKcepa: HanGoee BAXHBIM ABNACTCH NOIOXKEHME TONOBHI TIpH yAape, NOTOM — Moyo KeHHe HEObioulel PyKU MTL. Yaap npsmoii jepoli penko Brmonnsercs B 60K Ha MecTe, Ge3 NepecABHACHHA BNepes, Ha3a1 MIM B CTOpoHy. MosTomy cnenyroumast Tema CneuMaibHOH MozroToRK 6oKcepa-HOBUYKAa — yap TmpAMoli JI¢BOH B rosOBy c WaroM. [pu odyyenun sTomy aelictau10 MOxKHO PeKOMeHOBATE TAKOi memodureckuil npuem: a) YCIOBHO pa3JeAMTb yap MpAMOM AeBoii Ge3 lara Ha Re cmuT- HBbIe ()a3bI C BLIMOAHEHMeM HX OA CueT KPOME BEINOMHEHMA Mepsoit dasbl yapa GOKcep NomKeH crenaTe war neBoii, Ha cueT «Ba» — NogularHyTb NpaBok HOroii M 34KOHUMTb yap. Buocat pasnoobpasve H BMecTe C Tem yrlauHo AONONHsIOT yue6Hbii MpOUecc pasTHVHLIe BAPHALTHI BbINOMHCHHA yHapa NpAMOii s1eBOK: a) yap nog, war neBoi Horoit MpK BEMUNArMBAHMH; 6) yap npw yenHOUHOM ABUDKeHHH; 8) TOBTOPHBI yap MPAMOli NeBOi Ha MecTe HB ABHXKeHM 1 ap. TakTuka Vcnonb30BaHHa yaapa B Sow mMpencTasrena 4YeTBIPbMA OCHOBHBIMH cbopMamu: aTaKylouleit, OTBeTHOI, BCTpeyHOH HW OMepe- >Kaloueti. Crenmannctet oTMeyaioT, 4TO peATeAbHOCTE EMHOOOpLeB B CO- PeBHORATENBHOK OOCTAHOBKE PasBHBACTCA B YCNOBUSX OCTPOT KOHKy- PeHUAH, B HalpsKeHHOM MCHXOSMOWKOHANbHOM H TICMxXHUCCKOli O6- CTaHOBKe, TpeOyioule OT COpTcMeHOB MpeseNbHOrO nposABNIeEHHA (usuyeckHX M BONEBEIX BO3MOXHOCTeIt, S10 cnipaBennMBo, ogKakO XapakTepusyeT TONLKO OHY CTOPORY AesresbHOCTH NapTHepoB — nporuBoGopcrayiouyi0. A Bem ecTh 4 54 les ee CS s=—=SSSohea eR > Puc. 3.7 dpytas cropoua, CBULeTeALCTBYIOWaA O HAIMYKY Hepa3pbIBHOH B3an- MocBx3K JelcTBUM CHOprcmMeHoB-enHHObopLes. Mxae 1 GpiTh He MO- xeT. Kaxkablii Gonee WK MeHee KBaTHCDULLMpOBAHHbIN GOKCep CTpOKT CBO JCATENBHOCTb Ha PMHTe B 3ABMCHMOCTH OT JciicTBHH NpoTHB- HUKa. Jina HarnayHocTu paccMOTpHM ¢ba3bi MOATOTOBKM HM BEITIOMHeHUA ynapa (puc. 3.7). Yuactox AB BpeMeHHOii ocu (7) — cbasa NOrOTOBKK yiapa; oHa BKOUAaeT pelicTBHa, HelocpencTBeHHO Mpemmecrryiolwe HB 3HauNTebHOM Mepe ObecreunBaioluMe SdcbeKTHBHOE BHITIOAHE- Hue yiapa: (MKT, MepecTaHOBKy HOF, NepeHOC Maccbi Teda Hi T.T. asa BB — ynaprioe 2pxxerie OT Hayaia 10 MOMeHTa KacaHia Ky7la~ Kom yen. BI — sosppaT B HCXOMHOe TOMOxXeHHE. Amaxyrowui ydap — caMas mpoctas cbopMa BEITOHEHHA yiapa B 6010: aTakyroujHii Mpocto HaHOCHT ylap B ienb. OH He NpuBAsbiBaeT CBOi ylap K ylapy NPOTMBHUKa (T.e. BbIOMHAeT ETO B TE MOMEHTHI, KOra HaxOQMTCA 3a paMKaMu HHTepBata AT). EquicrBenHoe onpas- wave yiapa B aTakyrolleii (bopMe — OTKpbiTad Lenb. DipdbeKTHBHOCTL Takoit HCMOmroTOBICHHON aTaKH HeBeNMKa (OT Hee HECNOKHO 3allH- THTbCA), 3ATO BOSpacTaeT BEPOATHOCTS NOAYYeHKA ATAKYIOWMM BCTPey- HBIX yHapoB. Omeemuotii yOap — oTBeT Ha yap MPOTMBHMKa, T.€. GOKCep HaHO- CHT yap, Kora ero napTHep BO3BpalllaeTca B UCKONHOe NOMOKeHHeE, Haxoaich B dase BI. OrtpeTHas cbopma peiicTauit cnox%xHa TeM, TO GoKCep WOsKeH, BO- TepBbIx, yCieTb CpearMpobaThb H 3alMTHTbCA OT yapa NPOTHBHHKA Hu, BO-BTOPbIX, yCIleTb NOCTaTb ero Mocie 3TOrO CBOMM yJapom (moKa MpOTHBHHK He pasoppan ZucTaHuHto). [loguepKHem, uTO CHrHan K KOHTpatake GoKcepa OMHOSHaYeH M BIOMHe ONpepeNeH: STO yap npo- THBHHKAa. Bempexnoui yOap BwiNOMHACTCA HEMOCPeJICTBEHHO BO BpeMA aTaKH MIpoTHBHHKa (Kora OH HaxosHTcs B (base BB). Curnayom kK BpInoOmHe- HHO BCTpe4xHOroO yapa CAyKMT He yap MpOTHBHHKA, Kak B MpesbyLy- 55 WWeEM Cilydae, a , T.e. KOMMUIEKC JBVOKeHMi, eMy Mpen- IWECTBYIOWUMX (MMM MOryT OBITS pawIHuHble ABIOKeHHA HOF, Tys10BH- Wa, 3AMax pyKOi M1 1. 11.). CiloxHocTb BeTpeyHoro yrapa OF bACHAeTCH GOTBLUHM KOMHYECTBOM Vi HHDMBUYanLHOCTbIO NpeacurHanos (y Kaxs0ro GoKcepa OHH CBOM). S10 3HavMTeIbHO 3aTpyzHAeT NPoUecc ObyYeHUA HaYMHAIOUNX GOK- CepoR BCTpeyHLIM yiapam. Onepesnaromui yoap BbITIORHAeTCA B MOMEHT, MpemuectByioMMit aTake npoTHBHMKa, — B (haze AB. Srot yrap — camer croxHellt TaK- THYeCKHi BapHanr ytapa. Konvuccrso mpexcurnalos 30ecb Goble, 4€M TPH BCTPeYHOH KOHTpaTake, M OHM He NPOCMaTpUBAIOTCA sIBHO. Vsyuars 974 BapMalTbl BEINOMHeHKA yAapa MpAMoit NeBOit MosO- Zomy Gokcepy, eCTECTBEHHO, CileflyeT B CHeLMaIBHBIX yIIpaxKHEHHAX c MapTHepom, a 6e3 yMeHus 3alMiarsca TyT He OGoiiTHCH. Bosunxaet THnM4Has AIA TIpOLecca HayaibHOll cneMabHO!t Mog- TOTOBKH OoKcepa CHTyallMa: TaKTHYeCKad MoxroTORKa ciopTcMeHa B BLINOJHCHHK yiapa CONpoBpoxaeT ero TCXHANECKYIO NOMLOTOBKY B OBNATeHHH NpHeMaMy 3allMTEI. B Goxce u3pecTHbI Tp Kacca MpHeMOB salllMTBI. 1. 3auquTa c NOMOLIbIO pyK (MONCTaBKH, OTOHBEI, HaKIaIKH). 2. 3anuura nepenpykeHuem (c TOMOLIEIO Hor). 3. 3auynTa ABWKCHMeM TyOBMUIa (¥KIOHEI, HBIPKM, OTKOHBI). Havibonee «6picrppim> 1 MpocTHIMU B MCNOMHeHHM, oO MHEHHEO W.TI. Herrapena (1969), apisiorcn npHembi 3alMTbI-C HOMOLLbIO PYK, CaMbIMH «MeJJIEHHBIMM>, CIOKHBIMH — NIPHeMBl 3alMTbI BMDKeHUA- Mu TyoBnusa. TlosTomy u o6yyaTb GoKcepa-HoBHuKa 3aLMaTBCA HYx- HO CHayaila NpHeMaM C NOMOU{bIO pyK. HO He BCeM, a CaMBIM Mpo- CTBIM 4 GesonacHEIM. TakuMM npvemaMu MOryT GBITE NOACTABKH Na- OHH, ThUIbHOM YacTH KysakKa, mieya. Baitonvenne samumes: ombueom uau HaxagdKoit CBAZAHO C HEKOTOPbIM PHCKOM, “ero B MpakTHKe HauMHatoulero GoKcepa 6bITL He ODKHO. Hodcmasxu — campiit Sticrppiii cno- co6 saute. Kpome Toro, oun mosBonA- JOT 3alMMLAIOWeMyCA He pa3sppleaTb JMC- TAaHUMIO ZO MpOTHBHUKa 4 KOHTpaTaKo- baTb Camomy. OrpuilarenbHad Yepta 3allyu- TI MONCTaBKoi 3aKmoUAeTCH B TOM, YTO pH NposeveHHH Fpvema ofa pyKa GoK- cepa 3aHATa, 3HaYMT, KOHTpaTaKa BO3- MOXHA TOJLKO Apyroii, HesaHATOH, py- koi. Ocnony TexHHKH 3a:qumes nodcmaexoil nanoun (prc. 3.8), npenmiesbs win mieva OnpewenseT TO, YTO yHapHoe naWwKeHHe 56 MpOTHBHMKa HYAHO OCTAHOBHTh (TaoHHO, MpesNNewbem MM TuIe- yom) To ero 3abepieHHa. B stoi cpase Cura ylapa elle HeBeNMKa 4 OCTaHOBUTb (BIOKCHHe PyKH CpaBHUTeLHO HeTpyAHo. Jletanu TexHHkKU — 3TO MpaBMAbHOe MooxKeHHe CBOOOMHOM PyKK (nparwinHoe, T.e. 3HauNT yNO6HOe Js KOHTpaTaKyloulux yapos), COOTBETCTBEHHO — PallMOHaIbHOe NONOKEHHE TYNOBMUA, Hor 4 Mp. B ornwuve or metaneit TexHuKu ynapa, o6ecneuMBaroulHX 3alllMTy A@TaKyHOUlcro, ACTA TCXHHKH 3al{HTb! OMpeACNAKWT BOSMOXKHOCTH SalMUarOWerocA HAHCCTH KOHTpaTAaKyIOUMit yap (WWI STOFO Hy>KHO 6naronpHaTHoe nomOxKeHHE pykK, TYIOBMULA, HOT H Mp.). V3 Ipvemos saujumps nepedeumenuem HaMMcHee CHOXHDIMM HBIA- fOTCH OMMHOUHBEIC LAr B CTOPOHBI UW Ha3al, OTCKOK. Ochosy M WeTanM TexHHKM IIpHeMa MbI 3HaeM: 3TO 3BCHbA OObIK- HOBEHHOrO GOKcepcKOrO ara BEBO, BIpaBO WIM Ha3al. Alaruiie mpremst SibeKTHBHbI TEM, YTO HX BbINOHeEHHe He 3a- HMMaeT pyK OOKCepa, OMHAKO MCMONbIOBATb HX MIA COOCTBCHHBIX KOHTpaTak OH MOET He BCerfa (HANpHMep, Mp 3auluTe WaroM Ha- 3a 6OKCep YXOAMT Co cBOeL yHapHOii AUcTaHUMH). Bonee Bcero foc- TYMHEL GOKCepy-HOBUYKY YKMOHEI BUPaBO M BUEBO, OTKIOH. Sawuma yKacnom — 3auura 6e3 MOMOIM pyk, MpH Koropoit GoK- cep octaetcs Ha yno6Hoi 1A Hero nHCTaHLuMM. OGe pykH cnopTcMeHa cBOGODHEIC H MOTYT HCMONb30BaTLCA JIA KOHTpaTaKytOUlMx yapoB. Onmtxaon (puc. 3.9). OcHosBa TexXHHKM: nlepemMemeHue Tera Ha NpaBylo Hory Cc OJ- HOBPeCMCHHEIM OTKIOHEHKEM TYIOBMLIA H TOOBbI Hasall (3a JIMHHIO TonoxeHus B 6. c. — N, Ho 70 nuHuH M). A eTawM TEXHHKH: KOHCYHOE MOUOKCHHE TYIOBHIA (He Ao- NYCKaTb «3aRATHBAHUA> Ha3zall, 3a MpaBy!O HOTY); MoroxKeHHe PyK (pyKK N M Puc. 3.10 37 He onyckaTh); Mox6opox0K kK rpyau, cnoco6 BOsBpaTa B HcxOpHOe TONOKcHHC. KavecTso OTKIOHA 3aBMCHT OT CBOeRpeEMeHHO! 1 GEICTpO!i paboTEI Hor: jepo Hori — mpu mepemenenun Tena Ha3ay, Npaso — mph BOSBPALCHHH B MCXOWHOe NOMOXKEHHe. Vicson enpaeo (pvc. 3.10). Tloxsommiece ynpaxtenuve: BbINIOHEHMe yKIOHA B y. ©, (TexHNKa: CKPYUMBaHKe TYOBMIA C OAHOBPeMeHHEIM HeOONLLIMM MO{CeOM). OcnobBa TexHMKu: a) HeKoTOpoe crnOaHKe HOF B KOJHHBIX cycrapax ¢ MepeMelueHveM Tesla Blepexl — Ha JeByto HOry; 6) MORO- POT TYNOBHINa cieBa Hanpapo c He6onbUIKM MopceOM uM HaKNOHOM BIlepe-BNpawo; B) AMHKA NGa He JOMMKHA MepeceKaTh TLIOCKOCTS KO- wleHa BHepeaNcTosueli HOTU. Meranu TexHm Ku: nosoxKenne pyk — ylO6HOe 1A KOHTpaTa- KYIOUNX HelicrBuit, TynoBMIa M Hor — Macca Tena pacnpeneneHa Ha o6e HOrH HT... Yicaon eneeo (puc. 3.11). Tlogpoasujee ynpaxxrenne: yKI0H B y. Cc. OcHOBa TeXHMKM: a) HeKOTOpCe cruGaHMe Hor B KONeHHEIX cycTapax C nepemeuleHuem Tena Bnepex; 6) NOBOpoT TyTOBHNa cnpa- Ba HUICBO C HEOONbLIMM HaKOHOM Bilepel-BNeBO; B) KaK [Ip YKO- He Bm1paBo. Aeranu Texu MK x: monoxenne pyk (uyT Gomee ONyMIeHBI, 4eM BO. C.), TYLOBMLA (He MepeKpyruTb — npaBBiit mieveRoit cycTaB os- 2KeH HAXOAMTBCA Hail HOCKOM JeBoii Hor), Hor. Kak BKAMM, TeXHUKa YKIOHA OMpenenseTcsH CorlacoBaHHOCTHIO paGoTbi Mb, Hor H TynoBuula. Bce zBuKeHMA — 3berDA MpHema OTIMYaIOTCA HEOONHILON AaMEINTYLO M1 ObICTpOTO!. Oco6oe BHUMaHMe Npu cOyueHun GoKcepa- HOBHYKa YKIOHAM CieayeT OOpaturh Ha YACTOTY BbINOAHEHMA MIpveMa: BEINOMHSONM 3anWATy AOIKEH YKIOHATLCA POBHO HaCTOJIBKO, UTOObI yap MpoTHBHNKa Mpowen mumo. He Sombie! Yenous Mpvembl 3auiHTHl, GoKcep WoOMKeH Hay4HTbCH HX MCNOMB3OBaTD B pasyIMYHbIX TaK- THYECKHX CHTYaUMAX. STO 3HaYHT, UTO EMYy HY%x- HO HayUMTbCA SaUMIAaTbCA KaXKbIM 13 H3BECT- HbIX MpMeMOB B TepeABWKEHUK JUOOLIM cnoco- 60M, BO BCex HalpaBneHnax H Cc JOGO CKO- pocrsy. Tlycts Hexotoprie coyeTanua 6yazyr Heyn06- HbIMH, HalIpHMep 3aLl(HTa YKIOHOM NpH YeyHOY- HOM nepezBHXxXeHUH. 3aTo 9TOo — BKNAay B ABHra- TCIbHbI OMbIT }OHOTO GOKCepa, eLle OHO (3a- MacHoe) peilleHHe BOIMOXHOM B GOIO TakTHYe- cxoit 3a2a4H. Kpome toro, npx o6yseHun GoKce- 58 — Pa-HOBHYKa B TeX Ke LENAX MMeer CMBICI AyONMpOBaTb YNpaxKHeHHA B NpOTMRONMOTOXKHOK cToiKe. K Texnmucckoit mogroTosKe CienyeT oTHecTH HM O6yyeHHe HaunHa- rollero OoKcepa OOMAHHEIM MOMPOTOBMTEMbHLIM DeiicrBuam — qbun- mam. O6y1eHKe (bHHTAaM LODKHO COMPOROxKaTh O6yueHHe COOTBETCTBY- JOLUMM Mpvemam: (buHT-ydap — nocse ycBoeHMua yapa, PuHT-nepedeu- enue — TOCI€ yCBROCHUA COOTBETCTBYIOLIETO BUA MepeBKOKeHHA. HasHayeHne cbuHTa — yesHHcbopMMpoBaTb MpOTHBHHKa O Balunx HaMepeHHAx, UTOObI CIPOBOLMMPOBATh efo Ha HyXKHHIe BaM TeiiCTBMA: 3alvTy, araky 4 T.n. TexHuKa (pHHTa HeciOxKHasd: MHT pyKoit HH TYNOBMINEM — 9TO, KaK MIpaBMsO, HauatbHad (basa KaKOTO-J1HOO yla- Pa; dbuHT MepexByxxeHMeM — 9TO BHE3AMHOe H3MeHEHHe Bsa Tepe- ABYOKEHMA, CLO HallpaBIeHMA WIM CKOpOcTH. Kak mpaBuno, (bUHTH BEINONHSIOTCA He OTIebHEIMH CerMeHTaMu Teyia (TOKO PyKaMM, TYOBUEM WIM HoraMn), aB Kommuiexce. Baxxo Hay4HTb MOMOLOrO GoKcepa OTIMYAT (PUT OT KCTHHHOFO TelicrBu: OCHOBHOM NpHsHaK PuHTa — OHOBpeMeHHOe Haaso ABXKeHMA Boc- MH CerMeHTaMM Tena, B TO BPEMA KaK B MCTHHHOM JleiCTBHM OHH BKTOUAIOTCH pasHOBpeMeHHO. Tlo TakTuke Mcnonb30BaHHA (PUHTbL MOXKHO YCIOBHO pa3yesHT Ha ipa knacca: 1) cbuHT 1191 NOBHUINeHUS adpcbeKTHBHOCTH araki1; 2) (buHT JUI# BbISOBa MIPOTMBHHKa Ha aTaky, 4TOOBI KOHTpaTakoBate. Mepspiit OTIMYaeTCA OT BTOporo GoMBIUeH CKOPOCTBIO MK MeHBINeH aMILIMTy- Hoi, T.e. cbasa cpMHTa AA aTaKM KOpoue M BLITONHAeTCA GricTpec, YeM (PHHT 1A KOHTpaTaKH. Yoap npamoii aegoti ¢ myaocuwe. Tlogpogsuiee yripaxHenne: ylap MpsMoii Nesoli B TyIOBMWe 43 yuebHON crotiKu (Mo TexHUKe ‘3TO yap NPAMOii CBO B ronoBy M3 y. C. C HEKOTOpBIM CruOaHMem HOF B KOJI€HAX H YKIOHOM BIIpaBo). Ocnosba TexHUKH yAapa NpaMoii NeBoit B TyNOBNULe Ha Mec- Te): a) MepeMewjeHue Tena Bepen; 6) HakKNOH TYNOBMUIa Beper- BIpaBo C OMHOBpeMeHHBIM HeOOMLIUHM Crv6aHHemM NeBoil HOTM B KO- JICHHOM Cycrabe (HaKIOH HeOoubIO — Kak MPH 3alMTe yKMOHOM BMpawo); B) ylapHoe ABMXxKeHHe JeBOii PyKOit. Metanu TeXHMKH: NomOxKeHHe ToONOBL, MpaBolt pyKM KaK B GoeBoli CTOHKe, BOSBPaT B MCXONHOE MONOXKEHKE H T_T. BninonHaa yap NpAMOH AeBO: B TYNOBMUIC, GOKCep CaM OKa3bIBa- TCA B YSSBUMOM TonoxKeHMK. Tostomy 3ieCh Ocobyt0 BaxXHOCTE TIpH- o6peTaeT Taka WeTaNb TeXHHKM, Kak OBICTpbIii BO3BpaT B HCKOAHOe MONOXEHME, YTO 3ABMCUT OT SCTKOM BOSBpalarOUei paOoTb! JIEBOH Horn. TexHika TipsMoro yHapa MeBolt B TYIOBMINE C arom (puc. 3.12) or- TMYAETCH TOMLKO 3BEHOM, a OCHOBA — TeXHHKa TOrO 2xe yilapa, Ho 6e3 Wara: NepemMeuletHe Tea Brepen ocyllecrBMAeTCA C ONHOBpPCMCHHEIM BBIUATMBAHMeM JIeBOU HOroii HM OcTaBeHHeM MpaBbot Horm Ha MecTe. 59 Tlepppte yenexn HadHHaronHx 60K- CepoB Mp BLINTONHeEHMN MpAMoro yaa- pa JIcBOH B TYOBMULE CuIeAyeT 3akpe- nmurb. Ho 3aKpenuth cBoeo6pasHo — TOGMBaTECA Tex 2Ke YCIeXxOB B BLITION- HEHHH, OLBAKO yxe HE OLHHOYHOTO yaapa ‘eso B TYNOBMULe, a B CBASKE C ApyruMu Goesbimu AeHCTBHAMM HB Pa3HBIX YCHORUAX: a) © yapoM sJe- Bol B ronoBy; 6) c buHTOM — yna- POM seBOli B ronoBy; B) Cc PHHTOM — yaapom Mepolt B TyNOBHULe; r) B yn- Pa@KHEHHAX C PasHbIMM MapTHepaMH, 4 TakKe Mp BLINOHEHMM YNpaxkKHEHH U3 NPOTHBOMONOXKHO! CTOI- KH HT.2. Tipvembi 3auintet oT pAmoro yoapa JeBoii B TyORMMe (B NOpanKe yesoxnenna). 1. Tlocrapka OKT! seBO WIM MpaBoii pyKH (B 3aBMCHMOCTH OT TOTO, Kakasi TOUKA TYIOBMUIa 3aLlIMUAeTCs). 2. OAMHOYHBIE Warn Ha3all 4 B CTOpOHEI. 3. Yxon Ha npasyio Kory (axanornmuHo oTKIOHY). Textxa BHINOAHEHMA AAHHDIX sauyHTHEIX LeHcTBHii NOLO6HAa Tex- HHKe PaCCMOTPEHHBIX PaHee MONCTABOK, ONMHOYHBIX 1NarOB, OTKOHA. @unr-yaap nepoit B TynOBKUle BLLIenseTca cpenM Mpounx cbuHTOB. XoTA TO JacTOTe MpHMeHEHMA GoKCepaMu BEICOKOH KBaTHuKALMK STOT (PHHT 3aHMMaeT Bropoe MecTO Nocne cbuHTa — npsMoro ymapa JleBOK B ronoBy, MO adbeKTMBHOCTH MocneLyIoOUHx JeH4CTBHii OH Ha- MHOrO OneperxkaeT BCE OCTAaNbHBe (MO pesynbTaTaM HabsmOpeHHi 3a COpeBHOBaTeAbHO AexTenbHocTbIo (C]]) GoxcepoB pasHol KBamM- ukalinu Ha COpeBHOBaHMAX pazaMunoro Maciurra6a c 1960-x rr. 10 HacTosulero BpeMeHy). Kak 4 TIpaMoii yaap NeBol B ronoBy, STOT yNap MOXeT BLIMON- HATBCA B UETBIPEX CYLUECTBEHHO pasitM4Hbix opMax: aTakyroulelt, OT- BeTHOH, ECTpeYHO M ONepexarouleli. C TAaKTHYeCKMMM BapHaHTaMH JIpyrukx felicrauii MbI ToxXe BCTpeyatMce paHee: 9TO MNepeyncMeHHbIe BILE TIPKCMbl 3aUlHTbl, BbINOJHACMBIC MPM Pa3TM4HbIX BHAX, Ha- MpabAeHHAX M CKOPOCTAX NepeBwMKeHHA, HW (HHT — MIpsMoii NERO B TYNOBULIE (4YTb MeICHHcc WIM 4UyTb GEICTpee B 3ABMCHMOCTH OT LETH TpuMeHeHua). Voap npamoii npacoii 6 zo020ey (puc. 3.13). Tlogpojsiiuee ynpaxkseHHe: yap NpaMoii npaBboit B ronoBy H3 NO- JIOKEHUA y_ Cc. OchHosBa TEXHMKM yyiapa Ha MecrTe: a) nepeMeuleHHe Tena Breped (pasruOaHuem c3aancToauleit Horm); 6) noBOpoT TyNOBMULA cipaba HaleBO OKONO BePTHKANbHOH OCH; B) yiapHoe BHXKCHHE npaboit pyKu. 60 Puc. 3.12. Jjetanu TexiMKH: nonoxeHxe ro- ‘JOB Kak B O. C., eBoH pyKH — npen- “fMledbe 4 KMCTb pyKH BO BpeMaA ynapa Nos- TATMBAWTCA ALIA SALHTEI PONOBbI HM Nepe- “AHeii “acty TYIOBMINa, BOSBpaT B Ucxo- HOe MomOKcHKe HT. 1. Tlepeiiru of ynapa mpamoit mpanoii Ha MecTe K ylapy npamotw npacoi ¢ wacom MOXKHO C MCTIOb3OBaHHEM MeTOLMYeCKO- ‘fo npuema, onpo6opaHHoro mpu o6y4e- “fm GoKcepa yiapy Mpsmoli meBoii: Ha _ cueT «paz» — war jeBoii Horoi c ofHO- Zz BPCMCHHbIM HayaOM YacTHuHOrO: nepe- MElCHHA MaCcBI Tea Ha Hee M MOBOpo- TOM TYNOBKINa cnpaba WaeBO; Ha cuer _ — 3aBeplleHHe yiapHoro JBWKe- | HMA C OMHOBPeMEHHEIM NOsWarnBaHHem MpaBoit Horoit. _ Jleranv rexHuKku Te xe. ' Paccmatpuras TOHKOCTH BLMONHeHMA (MocTpoeHHs) yapa, cile- AYCT YAUTHIBATD, YTO, COMACHO pe3yNbTaTaM CHeWHAIbHOLO MCCIE_O- BaHHA ero GvomexaHukKH (OvnuMoHoB B.V., Xycaituos 3.M., Pri- xepcxnii O.H., 1983), onrHMambHbIMN ABAIOTCA CHemyroUtMe CooT- MOWEHHA BKIata MBILILY — HCMONHMTeNeM WBMxKeHHA: paboTa TON- Kajlouel (c3aqucTosiuen) Horn — 39%, mpm TynoBMua — 37%, _ pyku — 24%. C yrenmuenvem TexHuueckoro apceHaita GoKcepa pacTeT 4 BO3MOxK- Hoe co KoMOMHaLMi, C yapaMM 4 (pHHTaMM JieBoit py- _ KOH. Tipwemei saws oT ylapa npaMoii mpaBoi B ronopy Ha nepBLIx Mopax Te xe, uTO M OT ynapa MPAMOM eBOH B romOBy: MOACTaBKH, OMMHOUHEIE War, YKIOHBI, OTKIOHH, OTCKOKH. SHech YMeCTHO BOOpyXUTb 3aHMMaIOLIMXCA NePBLIMH 3HaHMAMH H c YMEHVSIMH M0 BEINOJHEHMIO CNOXKHLX 3allNTHBIX JelicTBHit (HbIPKOM, , “S7oKMpopKoii u T.11.). Bezb c KaxX1bIM 3AHATHEM OHM OBJIaeBaOT HO- BbIMH JIBYX- V j1aKe TPexyapHBIMM CepuaMH, a OT HUX HY>KHO yMeT ‘“SBalnlareca, PexomeHjalimu no cocTaweHHIO COXKHBIX 3aLMTHBIX LelicTBHi. 1, Or kaxgoro ynapa cep NpoTHBHHKa 3allMaTEeA cuemyeT pas- WbIMH MpHemamn. 2. Tipuemni 3antMTbI OT NepBbIX JByX yNapoB Cepu He AOIKHEI GET " CAOXKHEIMK (T.€. ONKHbI BLINOMHATLCA C MOMOLIbIO PyK M TepexBH- _ %keHeM). Baxvo opmayeT TaKHM COX%KHBIM MpHeMoM, Kaxk caiiy-cren (oc- - OBa TeXHMKH: a) War B CTOPOHY AeBoit 11M MpaBoit Horo; 6) nepe- ‘Woc Macchi Tena Ha SITY HOTY C OMHOBpeMeHHLIM MOBOPOTOM TyOBH- ‘Mla CuleBa Hanlpavo WK CpaBa HaseBO COOTBETCTBEHHO). Puc. 3.13. 61 Vdap upamoii npaso# 6 mynosume. Hoasogsitee ynpaxkHe tte: yap NpaMoi npanoit B TynO- BULIC M3 MOJOMKEHHA Y.C. OcHoBa TeXHHKH yfapa Ha MecTe: a) MepeMelleHue Tena Brie- pen; 6) MoBoporT TyNOBMUa CIIpaBa HayIeBO C OAHOBPeMeNHBIM HE3Ha- YHTeIbHEIM HaKOHOM Biepes M HeGobUIKMM CrMOaHveM JIeBOH HOM; B) YilapHoe ABHXKeHMe MpaBol pyKu. Aletanm TexHM KM: NONOXxCHHE TONOBbI KaK B 6.c., eBast pyKa, MIpeAMIeube M KHCTb BO BPEMA Yilapa “MOTATMBAIOTCA> Ha 3auLUTY FO- JOBE M NepesHeli wacTH TyOBMINa, BOSBpaT B MoOxKeHue 6.c. H T.2. Tlo ananornx ¢ yiapom npAMod NeBoit B TyIOBMIe ynap NpsAMoii mpasoii B TYJIOBULUE C Wé020M OTAMYAETCA OT TONBKO UTO paccMoTpeH- HOLO JIMLUb 3BCHOM OCHOBbI TexXHHKH (prc. 3.14): nepemeueHue Tena BIEPEM OCYIMECTBIACTCA C OAHOBPEMEHHEIM BbIWarMBaHHeM JeBoi HO- Tol M OcTapleHHemM NpaLoit HOrH Ha MecTe. TIpv BbINOAHeHUN yiapa GOKcep Take OKa3bIBaeTCA B HeOsaro- MPKHATHOM NONOXKeHHM, eC ATHOpHpyerT TOSyIo 43 AeTANeH TexHH- ku. Tloatomy 3fecb HeoGxozMMO MOBbILIeHHOe BHAMAHKe HMeHHO K neranam. IIperrmeube nenoit pykM peKoMeHsyeTcs Tak pacnionaraT. BAOMb TYNOBHULa, YTOOBI KMCTb ee (B MepyaTKe) npuKpbiBaa Gonb- wyl0 YacTb Mua. 3a cueT pasrMOanHA NeBO HOrM TeNO GLICTpO BO3- BpaujaeTcs B HCXOMHOe NonoxKenne. Alanee 3aHsTMsat AOKHBI BKMOUATE CENYIOWIMe ypaxKHeHUA. I. Kom6unannu, «cpa3ku» 6oeBnIx nelicrauii ¢ KCTONb30BaHHeM yaapa NipsMoli NpaBoit B TYIOBMILIE; yHap B yNPaxKHEHUAX C PasHbIMH faprHepamu. 2. Tipwemot sauyursi or ylapa MpaMoii npasoit B TyOBMULe. 3. TIpHMeHeHue ynapa IpaMoi Mpaxoit B TyNOBMULe KaK buna. 4. Taxruueckne BapHaHTit MCnOmE3OBaHHA Beex STHX GoeBEIx ACit- crBnit. 5. Tiporepxa cneumanbubix 3HaHMit 1 yMeHHit 3aHMMaroLuNxca B yye6HoM Gow. Tipexxae vem nepeiitm K w3yueHnio cremyrounx GoeBbix LeiicrBnii (a 370 Gy- AYT yilapbl CHU3y WH GOKOBHIe), BCTIOM- HHM 0 JaBHeM CNOpe TEOpeTHKOB HM Mpak- THKOB 06 O¥epeAHOCTH M3ydeHHA 3THX yaapos. Muenua TeopeTHKos pacxogaTos: OZHM CYMTaIOT GoTee LeAecoobpasHon TlocneOBaTeNbHOCTE «TIpaMple — CHU3y— Soxospie» (Byres A.., 1964, 1967; Zbxepoar T.O., 1970; Oryperxor B.U., 1971; w ap.), apyruc —

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