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Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Prairie View A&M University

CVEG 4043: Environmental Engineering Design

Fall 2013

Laboratory Report on
Assigned September 10th, 2013

Submitted by Issa Joseph


To Dr. Raghava R. Kommalapati, PE, PhD, BCEE

Chlorination: the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. Water that has been treated with chlorine is effective in preventing the spread of waterborne disease. Typically it is used at water treatment plants and added to public water supplies Ozonation: A method for ozonation of a water stream by providing at least 70% by volume oxygen feed gas, generating 4-8% by wt. Ozone can be added at several points throughout the treatment system, such as during pre-oxidation, intermediate oxidation or final disinfection. In most cases Ozonation is used for pre-oxidation, before a sand filter or an active carbon filter. Additionally removal of micro pollutants and enhancement of flocculation/coagulation. Coagulation: The process in which the negative charge on particles is neutralized, usually by addition of positive charges such as those provided by alum. The neutralization of particles allows them to clump together forming larger particles which are easier to settle. Screening: Screening is the removal of coarse solids in wastewater which may cause wear or clogging of equipment. It is the first unit operation encountered in wastewater treatment plants. Bar racks and screens are common types of screening device. Sedimentation: is a physical water treatment process using gravity to remove suspended solids from water. The small parts have a high velocity so they won't settle. The bigger parts do have the ability to deposite because those particles have a heavier weight and are able to settle easier than the small ones Filtration: is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass Flocculation In water treatment, the slow mixing process in which particles that have had their charge neutralized (coagulation) are encouraged to clump together with other particles, creating larger masses that will settle more rapidly. Absorption: The process where chemicals in a gas or liquid are attracted to a solid, such as activated carbon, and held in a thin layer at the surface of the solid. Ion Exchange: A process in water treatment used to remove chemicals, especially those causing hardness. The ion exchange resin is composed of small plastic beads which have sodium ions on the surface. When untreated water is passed through the resion, the hardness ions (calcium and magnesium) exchange with the sodium ions on the resin, reducing the hardness of the water. Oxidation: processes make use of (chemical) oxidants to reduce COD/BOD levels, and to remove both organic and oxidisable inorganic components. The processes can completely oxidise organic materials to carbon dioxide and water, although it is often not necessary to operate the processes to this level of treatment Chemical Oxidation : Chemical precipitation is the most common method for removing dissolved metals from wastewater solution containing toxic metals. To convert the dissolved metals into solid particle form, a precipitation reagent is added to the mixture. A chemical reaction, triggered by the reagent, causes the dissolved metals to form solid particles

Chemical Precipitation: is a method of wastewater treatment. Wastewater treatment chemicals are added to form particles which settle and remove contaminants. The treated water is then decanted and appropriately disposed of or reused. The resultant sludge can be dewatered to reduce volume and must be appropriately disposed of. Aeration: is the process of bringing water and air into close contact in order to remove dissolved gases, such as carbon dioxide, and to oxidize dissolved metals such as iron. It can also be used to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOC) in the water. Aeration is often the first major process at the treatment plant. During aeration, constituents are removed or modified before they can interfere with the treatment processes. Vacuum deaeration is used at temperatures below the atmospheric boiling point to reduce the corrosion rate in water distribution systems. A vacuum is applied to the system to bring the water to its saturation temperature. Spray nozzles break the water into small particles to facilitate gas removal and vent the exhaust gases. Incoming water enters through spray nozzles and falls through a columns packed with Raschig rings to other synthetic packing. In this way, water is reduced to thin films and droplets, which promote the release of dissolved gases. The released gases and water vapor are removed through the vacuum, which is maintained by steam jet eductors or vacuum pumps, depending on the size of the system. Vacuum deaerators remove oxygen less efficiently that pressure units. Comminution: the grinding of coarse solids into smaller and more uniform size, which are then returned back to the flow stream for subsequent treatment. This can prevent clogging of equipment whilst avoiding the need for handling screenings. Flotation: is the separation of suspended and floatable solid particles from wastewater. This is achieved by introducing fine air bubbles into the wastewater. Land Treatment: The land treatment is one alternative where wastewater is disposed onto land. According to Crites, land treatment refers to the application of partially treated wastewater to the land that is designed, constructed and operated to treat wastewater through the use of crops, irrigation methods, ground and surface water monitoring to conform to specific water quality limits. Activated Sludge: is a process for treating sewage and industrial wastewaters using air and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa. Trickling Filters: is a bed of gravel or plastic media over which pretreated wastewater is sprayed. In trickling filter systems, microorganisms attach themselves to the media in the bed and form a biological film over it. As the wastewater trickles through the media, the microorganisms consume and remove contaminants from the water Rotating Biological Contractors: process removes the grit and other solids through a screening process followed by a period of settlement. The RBC process involves allowing the wastewater to come in contact with a biological medium in order to remove pollutants in the wastewater before discharge of the treated wastewater to the environment, usually a body of water (river, lake or ocean). A rotating biological contactor is a type of secondary treatment process. It

consists of a series of closely spaced, parallel discs mounted on a rotating shaft which is supported just above the surface of the waste water. Aerated Lagoons: a holding and/or treatment pond provided with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation of wastewaters. Oxidation Ponds: Oxidation ponds, also called lagoons or stabilization ponds are large, shallow ponds designed to treat wastewater through the interaction of sunlight, bacteria, and algae. Algae grow using energy from the sun and carbon dioxide and inorganic compounds released by bacteria in water. Intermittent Sand Filtration: The intermittent sand filter is a specially prepared bed of sand on which effluents from primary treatment or from trickling filters or secondary settling tanks may be applied intermittently by using troughs or perforated pip distributors Denutrification: is the conversion of nitrate (N03) to nitrogen gas (N2). Heterotrophic bacteria use the nitrate as an oxygen source under anoxic conditions to break down organic substances Ammonia Stripping: is a simple desorption process used to lower the ammonia content of a wastewater stream. Some wastewaters contain large amounts of ammonia and/or nitrogencontaining compounds that may readily form ammonia. It is often easier and less expensive to remove nitrogen from wastewater in the form of ammonia than to convert it to nitrate-nitrogen before removing it Breakpoint Chlorination : The process of adding sufficient free available chlorine to completely oxidize all organic matter and ammonia or nitrogen compounds. All chlorine added after that point is free available chlorine. Metal Salt coagulation: when added to water metal ions such as aluminum react to from soluble monomeric and polymeric species and solid precipitates Biological/Chemical Phosphorus removal: The removal of phosphorous from wastewater involves the incorporation of phosphate into TSS and the subsequent removal from these solids. Phosphorous can be incorporated into either biological solids (e.g. micro organisms) or chemical precipitates. Carbon Absorption is a process where a solid is used for removing a soluble substance from the water. In this process active carbon is the solid. Activated carbon is produced specifically so as to achieve a very big internal surface (between 500 - 1500 m2/g). This big internal surface makes active carbon ideal for adsorption. Active carbon comes in two variations: Powder Activated Carbon (PAC) and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The GAC version is mostly used in water treatment, it can adsorb the following soluble substances Water is pumped in a column which contains active carbon, this water leaves the column through a draining system. The activity of an active carbon column depends on the temperature and the nature of the substances. Water goes through the column constantly, which gives an accumulation of substances in the filter. For that reason the filter needs to be replace

periodically. A used filter can be regenerated in different ways, granular carbon can be regenerated easily by oxidizing the organic matter. The efficiency of the active carbon decreases by 5 - 10% 1). A small part of the active carbon is destroyed during the regeneration process and must be replaced. If you work with different columns in series, you can assure that you will not have a total exhaustion of your purification system

Reverse Osmosis: is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane. RO can remove many types of molecules and ions from solutions and is used in both industrial processes and in producing potable water Electrodialysis: is used to transport salt ions from one solution through ion-exchange membranes to another solution under the influence of an applied electric potential difference. Electrolysis Process where electrical energy will change in chemical energy. The process happens in an electrolyte, a watery solution or a salt melting which gives the ions a possibility to transfer between two electrodes. The electrolyte is the connection between the two electrodes, which are also connected to a direct current. If you apply an electrical current, the positive ions migrate to the cathode while the negative ions will migrate to the anode. At the electrodes, the cations will be reduced and the anions will be oxidated. Membrane separation: any of several processes for separating the components of mixtures by using thin barriers between two miscible fluids; any trans membrane force leads to preferential transport of one or more feed components. Activated sludge: aerated sewage containing aerobic microorganisms that help to break it down Aerobic Filtration is a form of anaerobic digester. The digestion tank contains a filter medium where anaerobic microbial populations organisms that live in the absence of oxygen can establish themselves. Such filters are commonly employed in the treatment of waste water Aerobic Ponds: aerobic microorganisms use dissolved oxygen to degrade the organic matter into carbon dioxide, water and cell biomass. Passive or naturally aerated ponds rely on oxygen produced by phytoplankton during photosynthesis and, to a lesser extent, diffusion of oxygen from the air into surface layers (Shilton 2005). Microorganism growth is rapid, and a large proportion of the organic matter is converted into cell biomass (which may also need to be treated and stabilised before the reuse of recovered sludge). Anaerobic Digestion: Sludge digestion is carried out in the absence of free oxygen by anaerobic organisms. The facultative and anaerobic organisms break down the complex molecular structure of these solids setting free the "bound" water and obtaining oxygen and food for their growth. Anaerobic stabilisation processes work at normal temperatures (< 40C) or within the range of

thermophile bacteria, where 50-65C are reached alone by the heat development of the biochemical processes. Hydrolysis : is a chemical process in which a molecule of water is added to a substance. Sometimes this addition causes both substance and water molecule to split into two parts. In such reactions, one fragment of the target molecule (or parent molecule) gains a hydrogen ion. Incineration: is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.[1] Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. Solvent Extraction: is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilitys in two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. It is an of a substance from one liquid phase into another liquid phase. Acid: The quantitative capacity of water to neutralize a base, expressed in ppm or mg/L calcium carbonate equivalent. The number of hydrogen atoms that are present determines this. It is usually measured by titration with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide.

Evaporation: is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which, instead, occurs within the entire mass of the liquid and can also take place when the vapor phase is saturated, such as when steam is produced in a boiler Caustic Stripping: is the removal, corroding, or destroying of living tissue using a strong acid. This is used usually in the removal Chemical Reduction: is a chemical reaction in which an element gains a electron. Gravimetric Separation: is the separation of dry chemical by weight. Encapsulation: is the enclosing of a substance either gas or liquid inside a capsule or capsule like contraption. Fixation: is the conversion of a element, usually nitrogen, in the air to a fertilizer and/or compound. Reduction: is the removal of oxygen and /or the combination of hydrogen to a compound. Dissolving: is the process of passing from a solid or liquid in a solution. Reuse: is the reintroduction of a by-product or waste material as an input into a manufacturing process without any physical or chemical change.

Neutralization: is the process of neutralizing acidic waste before it enters into the system. Fixed Film Nitrification/ Dentrification: is the process in which high levels of ammonia, nitrates and nitrogen concentrations are lowered in waste water Suspended Growth Nitrification: is the oxidation of ammonia nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen to decrease oxygen demand. This uses methanol as a food source to support the growth of microorganisms. Lime coagulation: is the use of lime to cause particles to become destabilized and begin to clump together within a solution so that solid particle settlement can occur.

Explain each method What is it used for How is it used