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CO2 Safety and Operations Manual

Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Part No. 101273169

All information contained in this publication is confidential and proprietary property of Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Any reproduction or use of these instructions, drawings, or photographs without the express written permission of an officer of Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. is forbidden. 2001, Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Part No. 101273169
Copyright

Table of Contents

Preface Section 1Using CO2 Safely


Introduction .............................................................................. Respiratory Hazards ................................................................ Background ......................................................................... Precautions .......................................................................... Frozen Flesh ............................................................................ Background ......................................................................... Precautions .......................................................................... The Cannonball Effect ............................................................. Background ......................................................................... Precautions .......................................................................... Cracked Cylinder-Head Threads ............................................. Background ......................................................................... Precautions .......................................................................... Protective Front Covers ........................................................... Improperly Secured Lines ........................................................ Hammer Unions ....................................................................... Open Valves ............................................................................ Notes on Figure 1.2 ............................................................. Example ......................................................................... Notes on Figure 1.3 ............................................................. Example ......................................................................... 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5

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Section 2CO2 Properties


Differences Between CO2 and Water ...................................... CO2 Heat Capacities ............................................................... Delivering CO2 to the Job ........................................................ 1 6 7

Section 3CO2 Pumping Equipment


Boost Pumps ........................................................................... Liquid-Gas Separator ............................................................... Suction Y Header ..................................................................... HT-400 Pumps .................................................................... HQ-2000 Pumps .................................................................. HT-2000 Pumps .................................................................. HT-400 Fluid-End Cover Gasket ............................................. HT-400 Header Ring ................................................................ Pumping Liquid CO2 with a Positive-Displacement Pump ...... Performance Curves ........................................................... Determining the Correct Plunger Size ................................. Problem ......................................................................... Answer ........................................................................... Extending the Maximum Operating Pressure ...................... Example ......................................................................... 1 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7

Appendix ADetermining CO2 Discharge Temperatures


Numerical Approach ................................................................ Graphical Approach ................................................................. Example .............................................................................. 1 1 3

Appendix BModifying the Fluid Ends of HT-400 Pumps for CO2 Jobs
Tie-Bolt Arrangement ............................................................... Part Numbers ........................................................................... Modifying Fluid Ends ............................................................... 1 2 2

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Appendix CCO2 Job Procedures


Preparing the Equipment ......................................................... Determining Available CO2 Product for Job ............................ Downstream CO2 Turbine Meter with Temperature Probe .......................................................... Setting up the Job .................................................................... Pretreatment Safety Meeting ................................................... Pressure-Testing and Cooling Down ....................................... Vapor-Testing CO2 Lines .................................................... Testing CO2 Lines with Glycol ............................................ Liquid CO2 Pumping Procedure .............................................. Shutting Down ......................................................................... Disassembling Equipment ....................................................... 1 1 3 4 5 5 5 5 8 9 9

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Preface

Preface
For their safety and the safety of those around them, people who work with carbon dioxide (CO2) should know as much as possible about the substance. This manual provides detailed information essential to people who work with CO2. It consists of the following sections: Section 1 discusses the dangers associated with using CO2. Section 2 describes the physical properties of CO2. Section 3 describes CO2 pumping equipment. Appendix A describes how to determine the discharge temperatures for known pressures of CO2. Appendix B describes how to modify the fluid ends of HT-400 pumps for use with CO2. Appendix C provides CO2 job procedures.

ImportantWhen available, SAP part numbers have been provided within this manual. However, some parts have not yet been assigned SAP numbers. These parts are referred to by their Legacy part numbers.

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Preface

Preface

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1
Using CO2 Safely
CautionCO2 is a very dangerous substance that can cause severe injury, death, and equipment damage. Read this section thoroughly to learn how to prevent unnecessary accidents. people exposed will have a higher respiratory rate, but at extremely high concentrations (25.0% or 25,000 ppm), CO2 will paralyze the human respiratory system, possibly resulting in suffocation. CO2 is heavier than air and does not diffuse readily. In confined spaces, even the amount of CO2 released by breathing may become hazardous. Because you cannot see, smell, feel, or taste CO2, you could be exposed to dangerous levels of the compound without knowing it. Therefore, when CO2 is used in industry, it is treated as an industrial hazard. According to the 1968 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, the recommended threshold value for CO2 is 5,000 ppm. This value represents the concentration of CO2 to which workers can continuously be exposed without experiencing adverse effects. Table 1.1 (Page 2), lists the effects of exposure to various levels of CO2.

Introduction
CO2 is a colorless, odorless gas that can also exist in liquid and solid forms, depending on temperature and pressure conditions. The following hazards associated with CO2 are discussed in this section: respiratory hazards frozen flesh the cannonball effect cracked cylinder-head threads improperly secured lines hammer unions at low temperatures open valves

Precautions
To avoid exposure to dangerous levels of CO2, follow these guidelines: Properly ventilate all work areas exposed to CO2. Air must be able to move freely through the work area. Do not let CO2 build up to unacceptable levels (above 5,000 ppm) in the work area. Always properly drain the lines of CO2 boost pumps. Solid CO2 left in the lines will dissolve into gas, build up to dangerous levels, and push the good air out of the area.

Respiratory Hazards
Background
The amount of CO2 in the air regulates our breathing. Generally, the normal concentration of CO2 in the air is 0.003% or 300 parts per million (ppm). Exposure to higher levels of CO2 can result in various physical effects, as shown in Table 1.1 (Page 2). If the concentration of CO2 is only slightly higher than normal,

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Table 1.1Effects of Exposure to CO2


CO2 in Air (ppm) 0.1 to 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 12.0 to 15.0 25.0 Effect Slight, unnoticeable increase in respiration rate 50% increase in respiration rate 100% increase in respiration rate 300% increase in respiration rate Unconsciousness after a few minutes of exposure Unconsciousness immediately upon exposure Possible death after several hours of exposure

When working near CO2 equipment and lines, wear standard protective gear, as well as the following: face shield noncotton work gloves long pants not tucked into boots ear protection

The Cannonball Effect


Background
The cannonball effect occurs when slugs of solid CO2 shoot out of the hoses like cannonballs. Liquid CO2 will flash-set to dry ice slugs when you disconnect the hoses after a job. The slugs will lodge in the low areas of the hoses and hose ends. When the temperature in and around the hoses increases, the slugs will release gas, building pressure behind the slugs and forcing them to shoot out of the hoses.

Frozen Flesh
Background
Solid CO2, commonly known as dry ice, has a temperature of -109F. At this temperature, CO2 will freeze flesh upon contact.

Precautions
To prevent the cannonball effect, follow these guidelines: Keep low spots out of hoses, as shown in Figure 1.1 (Page 3). Carefully drain and clear hose lines after each job. Do not look into hoses or lines unless they have been properly drained. When using high-pressure pumps, never point cylinder-head covers toward personnel or other equipment.

Precautions
To prevent injury from solid CO2, follow these guidelines: Never pick up solid CO2 with your bare hands. Never let solid CO2 come into contact with any exposed skin. Never ingest solid CO2.

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Figure 1.1CO2 suction hose with minimal low spots

Cracked Cylinder-Head Threads


Background
At normal temperatures, the threads of cylinder-head cover retainers crack slowly. At the temperature of liquid CO2, cracking occurs more rapidly. Cracked cylinder-head threads can spontaneously fail, causing the cylinder heads to blow off. and Grizzly fluid ends from becoming damaged by proppant packed in front of the plunger. This is not a problem on the pumps which will be pumping CO2 and can cause a serious safety hazard due to a sudden release of liquid CO2 at the end of the CO2 pump. HT-2000Protective covers used in the HT-2000 pumps are hydraulically preloaded and do not pose a safety hazard in CO2 services.

Precautions
To avoid injury resulting from cracked cylinder-head threads, follow these guidelines: When possible, position pump cylinder heads away from personnel and other equipment. Regularly perform magnetic particle inspections on equipment. Use a cutting torch to destroy all parts that are cracked or otherwise damaged so that they will not be used by mistake.

Improperly Secured Lines


Improperly secured CO2 discharge lines can break or whip if the well kicks or if a closed valve is pumped into the line. To avoid such occurrences, follow current best practices for securing discharge irons. Prior to beginning the job, unhook the glycol return line and any other prime up lines that are not necessary when pumping downwell.

Hammer Unions Protective Front Covers


HT-400s and GrizzlyWhen pumping CO2, protective covers should be taken out of any HT-400s or Grizzlies and replaced with standard end caps. Protective front covers have been developed to protect HT-400 Hammer unions can become very brittle at the extreme temperature of dry ice and will easily break or chip. Rig down with caution.

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Open Valves
A temperature increase will cause any trapped liquid CO2 to expand and increase in pressure, possibly causing equipment damage or failure. To prevent trapping liquid CO2, ensure that one valve is always open before opening or closing other valves to change from the cool-down loop to the wellhead. Figure 1.2 (Page 5), and Figure 1.3 (Page 5), show the effect of temperature on a closed system. Pressures can be increased above the working pressure of the iron, hoses, and equipment. NoteTypical CO2 hoses used on the suction side of positive-displacement pumps have a working pressure of 500 psi. Therefore, you should confirm that all transports, receivers, suction hoses, suction manifolding, and boost pumps are properly rated and have working relief valves.

Example The pumps have been cooled downs, but the job is delayed. The transport or receiver valves are shut, and no downstream release is open. The initial pressure in the transport tank was 220 psi; therefore the temperature of the liquid CO2 was -15F. On a hot day, the temperature of the liquid CO2 in the transport tank reaches 10F, and the line pressure increases to 2,500 psi

Notes on Figure 1.3


Figure 1.3 (Page 5) shows the effects of temperature between the positive-displacement pump and the wellhead. Extra care must be taken to prevent a closedstop situation in which pressure cannot be released and consequently reaches a dangerous level. The pressure increase shown in Figure 1.3 depends on the initial pressure in the CO2 receiver/supplier tanks. This chart is based on a tank pressure of 200 psi. When lines are being tested, if the tank pressure is greater than 200 psi, then the pressure increase will be smaller. If the pressure is less than 200 psi, then the pressure increase will be greater.

Notes on Figure 1.2


Figure 1.2 shows the effects of temperature increases on lines and equipment between the CO2 storage vessel and the positive-displacement pumps. Pressure-relief valves should be installed on CO2 transports, suction hoses, and booster pumps. Ensure that these valves are in place and working properly.

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Example Lines containing liquid CO2 are tested to 5,000 psi. One line is left full of CO2 with no release open. On a
4,500
Hose Pressure If Temperature Increases Against Closed Stops (psi)

hot day, the liquid CO2 temperature reaches 100F, and the line pressure increases to 15,000 psi. .

4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 200

20F

10F

210

230 220 240 250 260 270 280 Receiver or Storage Tank Original Pressure (psi)

290

300

Figure 1.2Potential pressure buildup on lines and equipment between the CO2 storage vessels and positivedisplacement pumps if CO2 warms to 10 and 20F.

30,000

Line Pressure If Discharge Line Temperature Increases (psi)

25,000

120F 100F 80F 60F

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,00012,000 13,00014,000 15,000 1,000 2000 ,

Initial Test Pressure (psi)


Figure 1.3Potential pressure buildup downstream of positive-displacement CO2 pumps during pressure test

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2
CO2 Properties
Differences Between CO2 and Water
Like water, CO2 can exist as a liquid, a solid, or a vapor. Table 2.1 describes the similarities and differences between CO2 and water. As shown in Figure 2.1 (Page 2), the form of CO2 is primarily affected by temperature, but pressure and energy levels also affect its form. When handling CO2, remember the following: At its triple point (-69.9F), CO2 can be a liquid, a solid, or a vapor. At temperatures below the triple point, CO2 can be either a solid or a vapor. At temperatures between the triple point and the critical temperature (87.8F), CO2 can be a liquid or a vapor, depending on pressure and energy levels. At temperatures above the critical temperature, CO2 is a vapor, and no amount of pressure will transform it into a liquid. Table 2.2 (Page 3) lists values for different properties of CO2 at temperatures ranging from -147F to 87.8F.

Table 2.1Similarities and Differences between CO2 and Water


Form Vapor Similarities Both are clear and odorless. Neither will burn or explode. Neither is poisonous. Both are clear and have a similar weight. Both are white and have a temperature of approximately -109F. Both can turn directly into a vapor from a solid state. Differences CO2 is heavier than air; water is not.

Liquid

The viscosity of liquid CO2 is 1/10th that of water. Unlike water, CO2 expands when it changes from a solid to a liquid form. The triple point for CO2 is -69.9F. The triple point for water is 32F.

Solid

Transitional States

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5 9.

l ga lb/

9.

b/g 0l

al

Liquid region
1,000 800 600 500 400 300 200

Critical point

100 80

Solid region

Pressure (psig)

60 50 40 30 20

Triple point

Vapor region (superheated)

8.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

0.1 -180

-160

-140

-120

ndary Vapor bou ndary

10

Solid bou

-100

-80

Temperature (F)

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

2,000

al b/g l al 5 b/ g 8. l 0 gal 8. lb / l .5 ga l b/ .0

80

100

Figure 2.1CO2 equilibrium curve

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Table 2.2Properties of CO2


Volume Temp (F) Pressure ft3/lb Vapor psia -147 -140 -130 -120 Solid or Vapor -110 2.14 3.19 5.39 8.85 14.22 psig Vg 35.80 24.50 14.74 9.13 5.85 Liquid Vf 0.0100 0.0100 0.0101 0.0101 0.0102 Density lb/ft3 Vapor I/Vg 0.0279 0.0408 0.0678 0.1095 0.1709 Liquid I/Vf 99.60 99.30 98.81 98.23 97.66 Enthalpy (1) BTU/lb Vapor hg 128.2 129.3 130.7 132.1 133.3 Liquid hf -123.3 -121.4 -118.7 -116.0 -113.1 Entropy BTU (lb) (R) Vapor Sg 0.4832 0.4691 0.4500 0.4318 0.4145 Liquid Vapor Sf -0.3214 -0.3153 -0.3068 -0.2986 -0.2904 Liquid Viscosity cp

-109.4 -Boiling point at 1 atmosphere (sublimes) -109.4 -105 -100 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -69.9 14.70 17.80 22.34 27.60 34.05 41.67 50.70 61.75 74.90 75.1 0.03 3.13 7.67 12.96 19.38 27.00 36.03 47.08 60.23 60.43 5.69 4.72 3.80 3.09 2.52 2.07 1.70 1.40 1.17 1.16 0.0102 0.0102 0.0103 0.0103 0.0104 0.0104 0.0104 0.0105 0.0105 0.0105 0.1757 0.2118 0.2631 0.3236 0.3968 0.4830 0.5882 0.7142 0.8547 0.8620 97.56 97.28 96.90 96.53 96.15 95.78 95.33 94.88 94.43 94.43 133.4 133.9 134.4 134.9 135.3 135.6 135.8 135.9 136.0 136.0 -112.9 -111.5 -110.0 -108.3 -106.5 -104.5 -102.3 -100.1 -98.0 -97.8 0.4134 0.4062 0.3981 0.03902 0.3822 0.3742 0.3665 0.3585 0.3508 0.3506 -0.2898 -0.2860 -0.2815 -0.2768 -0.2720 -0.2667 -0.2610 -0.2551 -0.2494 -0.2493

Triple Point

-69.9 Freezing point - tripple point (At this temperature, CO2 can be gas, liquid, or solid.) -69.9 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 75.1 78.59 82.42 86.39 90.49 94.75 99.15 103.69 108.40 113.25 118.27 123.45 128.80 134.31 140.00 145.87 152.01 158.15 60.43 63.92 67.75 71.72 75.82 80.08 84.48 89.02 93.73 98.58 103.60 108.78 114.13 119.64 125.33 131.20 137.34 143.48 1.1570 1.1095 1.0590 1.0100 0.9650 0.9250 0.8875 0.8520 0.8180 0.7840 0.7500 0.7200 0.6930 0.6660 0.6380 0.6113 0.5881 0.5650 0.0135 0.136 0.0136 0.0137 0.0137 0.0138 0.0138 0.0139 0.0139 0.0140 0.0140 0.0141 0.0141 0.0142 0.0143 0.0143 0.0144 0.0144 0.8643 0.9013 0.9442 0.9900 1.0362 1.0810 1.1267 1.1737 1.2224 1.2755 1.3333 1.3888 1.4430 1.5015 1.5673 1.6358 1.7003 1.7699 73.53 73.37 73.05 72.83 72.57 72.25 71.99 71.79 71.53 71.28 70.97 70.72 70.47 70.18 69.93 69.59 69.35 69.11 136.0 136.2 136.3 136.4 136.6 136.7 136.8 137.0 137.1 137.2 137.3 137.5 137.6 137.7 137.8 137.9 138.0 138.1 -13.7 -12.8 -11.9 -10.9 -10.1 -9.1 -8.2 -7.3 -6.4 -5.5 -4.6 -3.6 -2.7 -1.8 -0.9 0.0 0.95 +1.9 0.3506 0.3491 0.3475 0.3460 0.3444 0.3428 0.3413 0.3398 0.3383 0.3368 0.3354 0.3339 0.3325 0.3311 0.3297 0.3285 0.3271 0.3258 -0.0333 -0.0312 -0.0290 -00266 -0.0243 -0.0221 -0.0198 -0.0175 -0.0153 -0.0131 -0.0109 -0.0087 -0.0065 -0.0048 -0.0021 0.0000 0.0021 0.0043

Liquid or Vapor

-58 -56 -54 -52 -50 -48 -46 -44 -42 -40 -38 -36

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Table 2.2Properties of CO2


Volume Temp. (F) Pressure ft3/lb Vapor psia -34 -32 -30 -28 -26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 Liquid or Vapor -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 164.66 171.17 178.07 184.97 192.27 199.57 207.29 215.02 223.17 231.32 239.92 248.52 257.57 266.63 276.16 284.70 295.73 305.76 316.28 326.8 337.8 348.9 360.5 372.1 384.2 396.4 409.1 421.8 435.1 448.4 462.3 476.3 490.8 505.3 520.5 535.7 551.5 psig 149.99 156.50 163.40 170.30 177.60 184.90 192.62 200.35 208.50 216.65 225.25 233.85 242.90 251.96 261.49 271.03 281.06 291.09 301.61 312.1 323.13 334.2 345.8 357.4 369.5 381.7 394.4 407.1 420.4 433.7 447.6 461.6 476.1 490.6 505.8 521.0 536.7 Vg 0.5430 0.5210 0.5027 0.4845 0.4672 0.4500 0.4332 0.4165 0.4015 0.3865 0.3727 0.3590 0.3467 0.3345 0.3231 0.3118 0.3011 0.2905 0.2806 0.2708 0.2614 0.2520 0.2435 0.2350 0.2272 0.2195 0.2121 0.2048 0.1979 0.1910 0.1846 0.1782 0.1722 0.1663 0.1606 0.1550 0.1496 Liquid Vf 0.0145 0.0145 0.0146 0.0147 0.0147 0.0148 0.0149 0.0149 0.0150 0.0151 0.0151 0.0152 0.0153 0.0153 0.0154 0.0155 0.0156 0.0157 0.0157 0.0158 0.0159 0.0160 0.0161 0.0162 0.0163 0.0164 0.0165 0.0166 0.167 0.0168 0.0169 0.0170 0.0171 0.0173 0.0714 0.0175 0.0177 Density lb/ft3 Vapor I/Vg 1.8416 1.9193 1.9892 2.0639 2.1404 2.2222 2.3084 2.4009 2.4906 2.5873 2.6831 2.7855 2.8843 2.9895 3.0950 3.2071 3.3211 3.4423 3.5637 3.6927 3.8255 3.9682 4.1067 4.2553 4.4014 4.5558 4.7147 4.8828 5.0530 5.2356 5.5171 5.6116 5.8072 6.0132 6.2266 6.4516 6.6844 Liquid I/Vf 68.84 68.58 68.25 67.93 67.63 67.34 67.05 66.76 66.47 66.18 65.87 65.57 65.25 64.94 64.62 64.31 63.98 63.65 63.33 63.01 62.66 62.31 61.96 61.61 61.25 60.90 60.53 60.17 59.77 59.38 58.98 58.58 58.17 57.77 57.34 56.92 56.45 Enthalpy (1) BTU/lb Vapor hg 138.2 138.3 138.35 138.4 138.5 138.6 138.65 138.7 138.75 138.8 138.8 138.8 138.85 138.9 138.9 138.9 139.9 138.9 138.9 138.9 138.85 138.8 138.75 138.7 138.65 138.6 138.55 138.5 138.4 138.3 138.15 138.0 137.85 137.7 137.5 137.3 137.05 Liquid hf 2.85 3.8 4.7 5.6 6.5 7.4 8.3 9.2 10.7 11.2 12.05 12.9 13.95 15.0 15.95 16.9 17.85 18.8 19.8 20.8 21.85 22.9 23.95 25.0 26.15 27.3 28.45 29.6 30.7 31.8 33.05 34.3 35.55 36.8 38.05 39.3 40.55 Entropy BTU (lb) (R) Vapor Sg 0.3245 0.3232 0.3218 0.3205 0.3217 0.3180 0.3167 0.3155 0.3142 0.3130 0.3117 0.3104 0.3104 0.3079 0.3079 0.3054 0.3037 0.3030 0.3018 0.3006 0.2994 0.2982 0.2970 0.2958 0.2945 0.2933 0.2921 0.2909 0.2897 0.2885 0.2873 0.2861 0.2859 0.2837 0.2882 0.2807 0.2791 Liquid Vapor Sf 0.0054 0.0085 0.0105 0.0126 0.0147 0.0168 0.0179 0.0210 0.0231 0.252 0.0272 0.0293 0.314 0.0335 0.0355 0.0376 0.0397 0.0419 0.0440 0.0462 0.0482 0.0503 0.525 0.0547 0.0569 0.0591 0.0613 0.0636 0.0660 0.0684 0.0707 0.0730 0.0754 0.0778 0.0800 0.0823 0.0847 0.0135a 0.0110 0.0132a 0.115 Liquid Viscosity cp

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Table 2.2Properties of CO2


Volume Temp. (F) Pressure ft3/lb Vapor psia 40 42 44 48 50 52 54 Liquid or Vapor 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 Vapor 87.8 567.3 583.8 600.4 634.9 652.8 670.8 689.5 708.3 727.8 747.7 767.7 788.1 809.3 830.6 852.7 874.9 898.0 921.1 945.2 969.3 995.0 1020.7 1046.4 1072.1 psig 552.6 569.1 585.7 620.2 638.1 656.1 674.8 693.6 713.1 732.7 753.0 773.4 794.6 815.9 838.0 860.2 883.3 906.4 930.5 954.6 980.3 1006.0 1031.7 1057.4 Vg 0.1442 0.1392 0.1342 0.1250 0.1206 0.1163 0.1121 0.1080 0.1037 0.0995 0.0957 0.0920 0.0881 0.0842 0.0801 0.0760 0.0720 0.0680 0.0640 0.0600 0.0537 0.0474 0.0411 0.0345 Liquid Vf 0.0178 0.0180 0.0181 0.0185 0.0186 0.0188 0.0190 0.0192 0.0194 0.0197 0.0199 0.0202 0.0205 0.0207 0.0211 0.0214 0.0219 0.0224 0.0230 0.0237 0.0258 0.0284 0.0315 0.0345 Density lb/ft3 Vapor I/Vg 6.9348 7.1839 7.4515 8.0000 8.2918 8.5984 8.9206 9.2592 9.6432 10.050 10.449 10.869 11.351 11.876 12.484 13.158 13.889 14.706 15.625 16.667 18.622 21.097 24.331 28.96 Liquid I/Vf 55.99 55.51 55.04 54.00 53.49 52.99 52.45 51.92 51.34 50.76 50.11 49.46 48.78 48.10 47.35 46.60 45.62 44.64 43.41 42.19 38.69 35.19 31.69 28.96 Enthalpy (1) BTU/lb Vapor hg 136.8 136.5 136.2 135.5 135.05 134.6 134.0 133.4 132.8 132.2 131.45 130.7 129.8 128.9 127.7 126.5 124.7 122.9 120.95 119.0 113.5 108.0 102.6 97.1 Liquid hf 41.8 42.6 44.4 47.1 48.5 49.9 51.85 52.8 54.25 55.7 57.25 58.8 59.4 62.0 63.8 65.6 67.85 69.9 70.95 74.0 79.8 85.5 91.3 97.1 Entropy BTU (lb) (R) Vapor Sg 0.2775 0.2760 0.2745 0.2715 0.2698 0.2681 0.2663 0.2645 0.2625 0.2606 0.2584 0.2563 0.2539 0.2516 0.2480 0.2455 0.2420 0.2386 0.2345 0.2305 0.2199 0.2093 0.1987 0.1880 Liquid Vapor Sf 0.0872 0.0897 0.0922 0.0972 0.0999 0.1026 0.1053 0.1080 0.1108 0.1136 0.1164 0.1192 0.1221 0.1250 0.1283 0.1316 0.1353 0.1390 0.1429 0.1469 0.1571 0.1673 0.1775 0.1880 0.064 0.0140a 0.095 Liquid Viscosity cp

87.8 - Critical temperature

aAt

one atmosphere pressure

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CO2 Heat Capacities


The thermal conductivity for CO2 vapor at 1 atm and 32F is 0.0085 Btu/hr/ft2/F/ft. Table 2.3 lists the characteristics of CO2 vapor. Table 2.4 lists the heat capac-

ities of CO2 vapor at various temperatures. Table 2.5 lists the heat capacities of CO2 liquid at various temperatures.

Table 2.3Characteristics of CO2 Vapor


Property Molecular weight (M) Specific volume (v) at 14.7 psia and 68F Gas constant (R = pv/T)a CO2 gas constant (R0) p Vm/R0Tb
ap b

Value = = = = = 44.01 lb/mol 8.755 ft3/lb 35.11 ft-lb/lb R 0.04512 Btu/lb R 1,545.3 ft-lb (lb-mol, R) 1.986 Btu/(lb-mol, R) 1.000

= psia, T = R Vm = volume per mole

Table 2.4Heat Capacity of CO2 Vapor at 1 atm


Temperature (F) Cpa 32 59 212
aCp bCv

Table 2.5Heat Capacity of Liquid CO2


Temperature (F) -30 Btu/lb/F 0.45 0.48 0.62 0.75

Btu/lb/F Cp Cvb = Kc 1.304

0 30 60

0.205 0.215

= specific heat at constant pressure = specific heat at constant volume c K = specific heat ratio

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Delivering CO2 to the Job


In a tanker, liquid CO2 boils slowly because it absorbs the heat that is outside the tank (Figure 2.2 ). Liquid CO2 behaves like water in a car radiator when the car engine is at operating temperature and the radiators pressure cap is on. If the cap is removed slowly, the decrease in pressure will cause the water in the radiator to boil. Similarly, when liquid CO2 is removed from the tanker, pressure decreases in the tank and causes the CO2 to boil more rapidly (Figure 2.3 ). Boiling will continue until enough vapor has formed, or until the liquid is cool enough to satisfy conditions in the saturated liquid line. CautionSlowly remove liquid CO2 from the tanker. If liquid CO2 is released too quickly, boiling will become extremely violent, possibly causing injury. The circles in Figures 2.2 and 2.3 represent vapor bubbles.

Vapor Liquid slowly boiling

Figure 2.2Liquid CO2 in sealed tank (boiling caused by tank absorbing outside heat)

Vapor

Liquid increased boiling

Figure 2.3Liquid CO2 during the emptying process

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Section

3
CO2 Pumping Equipment
This section provides information about CO2 pumping equipment and includes performance charts for various sizes of HT-400, HT-2000, and Grizzly pumps.

Boost Pumps
Boost pumps prevent CO2 from boiling in the suction manifold by increasing pressure. This pressure increase changes CO2 vapor into liquid, which reduces vapor locking in the high-pressure pump. Although the boost pump prevents liquid CO2 from boiling while it is in the suction manifold, the CO2 will still boil during the suction stroke because of the rapid acceleration of the plunger, as shown in Figure 3.1. Boiling will increase because of heat left in the unswept volume of the fluid section. This heat is a result of friction, engine horsepower, and atmosphere. The most efficient pump for boosting CO2 pressure is a centrifugal pump. A centrifugal boost pump can pump a liquid containing some vapor and can run dry for short periods. If the pump is powered by a hydraulic drive, operators do not have to heat the CO2 by pumping it through a bypass valve. Figure 3.2 (Page 2) shows a centrifugal pump with a hydraulic drive. Figure 3.3 (Page 2) and Figure 3.4 (Page 3) demonstrate dimensions and a pressure-volume curve for a centrifugal boost pump with a 10.19-in. impeller. CO2 can be pumped without a boost pump when the pump rate is low (typically below 1 bbl/min). The maximum rates without a booster will vary depending on the suppliers equipment and the tanks starting pressures. Figure 3.5 (Page 3) depicts an arrangement for pumping CO2 without a boost pump.
September 2001 1 of 14 Section 3
Plunger on discharge stroke

Plunger on suction stroke

Figure 3.1HT-400 plunger in discharge and suction strokes

CO2 Safety Manual

CO2 Pump vent Pressure transducer Treating fluid Flowmeter Checkvalve Temperature recorder

To wellhead

Checkvalve Gas purge valve Injection-pump fluid end

CO2 transport

Relief valve Suction

10.00-in.

24.69-in. Trico 1.625-in. Shaft dia. oiler w/0.375-in. Keyway y

Liquid-gas separator Boost pump

Figure 3.2CO2 centrifugal boost pump with hydraulic drive

4-in., 300-lb ANSI Flange


3/ -in. dia.-8 holes 4

on 7.88-in. dia. B.C.

10.00-in. dia.

Discharge

7.50 in. 8-in., 300-lb ANSI Flange


7/ -in. dia.-12 holes 8

10.00 in.

24.69 in. Trico Oiler 1.625-in. Shaft dia. w/ 0.375-in. keyway

10.75 in.

on 13-in. dia. B.C.

Suction

15-in. dia.

Figure 3.3Dimensions of centrifugal boost pump with 10.19-in. impeller

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CO2 Safety Manual

16

NPSH
266

10.6 5.5

10-in. Dia.

45

55

62

Total Head (ft)

69

213

9-in. Dia. 8-in. Dia.

76

73 59 bhp 49 bhp

160

107

29 bhp

39 bhp

146

292

438

584

730

876

1,022

U.S. gal/min
Figure 3.4Pressure-volume curve for centrifugal boost pump with 10.19-in. impeller

Presssure transducer Treating fluid Checkvalve Flowmeter

Temperature recorder CO2 Pump vent

To wellhead Gas purge valve CO2 transport Checkvalve

Injection-pump fluid end

Figure 3.5Arrangement for pumping CO2 without a booster

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Section 3

NPSH (ft)

73

76

78%

CO2 Safety Manual

Liquid-Gas Separator
If the liquid-gas separator is used correctly, it will save some CO2 and cool the standby pump. Separators are used on most boost-pump units. Figure 3.6 shows the separator with liquid CO2 at the proper operating level. The liquid level should be kept between the high and low tubes connected to the 1/4-in. indicator valves. Table 3.1 lists some problems and solutions related to the presence of liquid in the liquidgas separator. ImportantNever allow the vent valve on the separator to release dry ice. If this condition occurs, the separator cannot function properly because it is completely full of CO2, and CO2 is being wasted.

Table 3.1Liquid CO2 in the Liquid-Gas Separator


Condition Liquid CO2 comes out of both indicator valves. CO2 vapor comes out of both indicator valves. CO2 vapor comes out of one indicator valve, and liquid CO2 comes out of the other. Problem The level of liquid CO2 in the separator is too high. The level of liquid CO2 in the separator is too low. The liquid level is correct. Solution Slightly close the vent valve. Slightly open the vent valve. No adjustment is necessary. Continue pumping the job.

Liquid CO2 is drawn off here.


Figure 3.6Liquid-gas separator

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CO2 Safety Manual

Suction Y Header
HT-400 Pumps
A new suction Y header is available from the Duncan warehouse. It is specifically designed for use with CO2, but it can also be used with sand and other stimulation fluids. Use the new header for all CO2 pumping services. Standard suction Y headers (Part Nos. 100054527 and 280.00668) cannot withstand the low fluid temperatures and high boost pressures associated with pumping CO2. The new suction Y header is designed according to the ANSI B31.3 piping code and can withstand a working pressure of 500 psi. Special materials and welding techniques give the header exceptional low-temperature impact resistance and an operating temperature range of -75 to +300F. The new suction Y header uses a 4-in. low-temperature hammer union connection, allowing the header to be used in standard stimulation service. Table 3.2 lists available parts for the suction Y header. These parts are available in a kit (Part No. 100058529). Table 3.2Part Numbers for the Suction Y Header
Part Number 100011736 100002455 100015419a
a

CautionSuction Y headers must be welded by personnel certified to weld ASME P9B, Group I materials.

HQ-2000 Pumps
Three suction headers are available for the HQ-2000 pump, all of which are designed for pumping CO2.

HT-2000 Pumps
Available suction headers for HT-2000 pumps are designed for pumping CO2. ImportantUse nuts and studs only as outlined in bulletin SEQ-01-001, which is available at the following address: http://halworld.halnet.com/hes/ hesps/hespspe/hespspe_content/fracacid/equip/ bulletin/seq01001.pdf

Description Suction Y header for CO2 service Hex cap screw, 5/8-in., 11 UNC 1 3/4-in O-ring, 90d, 5 3/8 4 7/8 1/4

HT-400 Fluid-End Cover Gasket


NoteSee Appendix B of this manual for instructions on modifying the fluid ends of HT-400 pumps. New fluid-end cover gaskets for the HT-400 pump have been tested successfully in all pumping services. These gaskets are harder than standard rubber gaskets and are more difficult to install, but they will provide longer service and can be used for all pumping services. See Table 3.3 for part numbers. Table 3.3Fluid-End Cover Gaskets for CO2 Service with HT-400 Pumps
Part Number 100002857 100058449 101208040 101208478 Description No. 3 cover gasket No. 4 cover gasket No. 5 cover gasket No. 6 cover gasket

O-ring 100001979 can be substituted.

NoteFor short pumping interruptions, the boost pumps and the HT-400 pumps can be placed in neutral, but long delays may require pumps to be reprimed. The time after which a pump must be reprimed depends on factors such as ambient temperatures and the pressure in the treatment line. When working with the CO2 suction header, use ASTM 320-L7 screws rather than standard cap screws. ASTM 320-L7 screws have superior low-temperature impact strength.

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Section 3

CO2 Safety Manual

HT-400 Header Ring


Another improvement in CO2 service is a new urethane header ring. When used in CO2 and Xylene services, the standard header ring swells and blisters, significantly decreasing its working life. A urethane header ring suitable for use in CO2, Xylene, and standard services has been tested and is now available for general use. Table 3.4 lists part numbers. Table 3.4Urethane Header Rings for CO2 Service with HT-400 Pumps
Part Number 100058346 100002897 100002949 100058486 100058613 Size 3 3/8 in. 4 5 in. 4 1/2 in. 5 in. 6 in.

ambient temperature plunger size suction-hose diameter and length packing lubrication

Performance Curves
Figure 3.7 (Page 7) through Figure 3.19 (Page 13) show theoretical performance curves for various plunger sizes used with Halliburton pumps. For a given plunger size, each chart shows the maximum pressure at which a pump can operate without vapor-locking, depending on flow rate and ambient temperature. These performance curves are based on the following assumptions: The differential boost pressure is 60 psi (4 bar). The suction hose has a 4-in. ID and is 10 ft long. The plunger packing is poorly lubricated. NoteUsing a differential boost pressure lower than 60 psi (4 bar) or a suction hose longer than 10 ft would invalidate the charts; however, a higher differential boost pressure or a shorter suction hose would be beneficial. Pumps will cavitate when used outside their performance ranges for pumping CO2.

To install the new header ring, follow the installation instructions in the HT-400 Repair and Overhaul Manual (Part No. 100002809). Tighten the packing to a 30-lb pull with a standard (short) packing wrench. CautionOvertightening will cause the ring to get too hot and melt. NoteSet the plunger lube system to 15 to 20 psi. Use a low-temperature rock-drill oil with a pour point of -40F or less, or use C-3 hydraulic fluid. ImportantPumping systems that use recirculating oil are not recommended for CO2 services. The CO2 can impregnate the oil, causing the reservoir tank to expand and rupture.

Determining the Correct Plunger Size


Problem You want to use an HT-400 pump to pump liquid CO2. The job pressure is 7,397 psi (510 bar), the flow rate is 63 gal/min, and the ambient temperature is 100F. What is the correct plunger size for the job? Answer

Pumping Liquid CO2 with a PositiveDisplacement Pump


The following factors influence the performance of a crankshaft pump during operations with liquid CO2: differential boost pressure (pressure rise across boost pump) discharge pressure pump speed (flow rate)

The answer is based on a 60-psi differential boost pressure provided by a Halliburton boost trailer. Figure 3.7 (Page 7) through Figure 3.8 (Page 8) show that 3 3/8-in. and 4-in. plungers are unsatisfactory for this job. Under the pumping conditions described in the problem above, these plunger sizes cause vapor locking. Figure 3.9 (Page 8) shows that the 4 1/2-in. plunger can operate at a maximum pressure of 8,000 psi, making it suitable for this job.

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CO2 Safety Manual

Extending the Maximum Operating Pressure


To extend the maximum operating pressure of a pump beyond the values listed in the performance charts, perform the following: 1. 2. 3. Increase the differential boost pressure above 60 psi. Thermally insulate the suction hose and the fluid end of the pump. Lubricate the fluid-end packing with Dexron II or an equivalent low-viscosity oil.

Example Theoretically, the 3 3/8-in. plunger can operate at 15,000 psi (with a flow rate between 1.2 and 1.5 bbl/min and an ambient temperature of 120F). You can ensure that the plunger operates correctly at this pressure by using a 100-psi differential boost pressure, a 2-in. ID suction hose, thermal insulation, and packing lubrication. See Appendix C of this manual for information about modifying the fluid end of the HT-400 pump for use with CO2.

100,000 50,000 Maximum operating pressure = 20,000 psi

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000 60F 100F 80F 120F

0F

20F 40F

1,000 0.1

0.5

1 Rate (bbl/min)

10

Figure 3.7Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-400 pump with a 3 3/8-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

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CO2 Safety Manual

100,000 50,000 Maximum operating pressure = 14,000 psi

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000 60F 100F 80F 120F

0F

20F 40F

1,000 0.1

0.5

1 Rate (bbl/min)

10

Figure 3.8Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-400 pump with a 4-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

100,000 50,000

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000 0F 20F


40F 60F 100F 80F 120F

Maximum operating pressure = 11,200 psi

1,000

0.1

0.5

1 Rate (bbl/min)

10

Figure 3.9Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-400 pump with a 4 1/2-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

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CO2 Safety Manual

100,000

50,000

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000 0F 20F 40F 60F 100F 80F 120F Maximum operating Pressure = 9,000 psi

1,000 0.1

0.5

1 Rate (bbl/min)

10

Figure 3.10Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-400 pump with a 5-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

100,000 50,000

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000
0F 20F 60F 100F 40F 80F 120F

Maximum Operating Pressure = 6,250 psi

1,000 5 1 10 Rate (bbl/min) Figure 3.11Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-400 pump with a 6-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi 0.1 0.5

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CO2 Safety Manual

100,000 50,000 Maximum operating Pressure = 20,000 psi 10,000 5,000 20F 40F 1,000
60F 100F 80F 120F

Pressure (psi)

0F

0.1

0.5

1 Rate (bbl/min)

10

Figure 3.12Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HQ-2000 (Grizzly) pump with a 3 3/8-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

100,000 50,000

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000 0F 20F 60F 100F 40F 80F 120F Maximum operating Pressure = 14,000 psi

1 5 10 Rate (bbl/min) Figure 3.13Minimum flow rate for liquid CO in an HQ-2000 (Grizzly) pump with a 4-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

1,000 0.1

0.5

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CO2 Safety Manual

100,000 50,000

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000

Maximum operating Pressure = 11,200 psi

0F

20F 40F

80F 120F 60F 100F 1 Rate (bbl/min) 5 10

1,000 0.1

0.5

Figure 3.14Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HQ-2000 (Grizzly) pump with a 4 1/2-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

100,000 50,000

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000
0F

Maximum operating Pressure = 9,000 psi 20F 60F 100F 40F 80F 120F 0.5 1 Rate (bbl/min) 5 10

1,000 0.1

Figure 3.15Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HQ-2000 (Grizzly) pump with a 5-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

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CO2 Safety Manual

10,000

5,000

Pressure (psi)

0F

20F 60F 100F 40F 80F 120F

Maximum operating pressure = 6,250 psi

1,000 0.1

0.5

1 Rate (bbl/min)

10

Figure 3.16Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HQ-2000 (Grizzly) pump with a 6-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

100,000 50,000 Maximum operating pressure = 20,000 psi

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000 120F 40F 80F 20F 60F 100F

0F 1,000 0.1

0.5

5 Rate (bbl/min)

10

50

100

Figure 3.17Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-2000 pump with a 4 1/2-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

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CO2 Safety Manual

100,000 50,000 Maximum operating pressure = 15,000 psi

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000

0F 1,000 0.1

120F 100F 40F 80F 20F 60F

10 100 50 5 Rate (bbl/min) Figure 3.18Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-2000 pump with a 5-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi 0.5 1

100,000 50,000 Maximum operating pressure = 11,500 psi

Pressure (psi)

10,000 5,000 0F 60F 100F 20F 40F 80F 120F

1,000 0.1

0.5

1 Rate (bbl/min)

10

Figure 3.19Minimum flow rate for liquid CO2 in an HT-2000 pump with a 6-in. plunger at a differential boost pressure of 60 psi

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Appendix

A
Appendix ADetermining CO2 Discharge Temperatures
The temperature of the CO2 entering the wellhead determines the amount of tubing contraction that will occur during a job. Therefore, people who use CO2 for oilfield operations must be able to determine CO2 discharge temperatures. After the CO2 discharge temperature has been determined, software programs can be used for determining the temperature of the mixture containing CO2 and water or hydrocarbon-based stimulation fluid. The soft-ware program CO2 Calcs, which is available in HalWins StimWin package, can be used for determining the temperature of the mixture entering the wellhead, and StimWins TMP program is used for determining tubing contraction. Equation 1 is based on the assumption of adiabatic compression, and it predicts the discharge temperature within 2F of available experimental data. Use Equation 2 to calculate the absolute temperature for a given tank pressure (in psi): Tt = 402.65 + 0.19056 Pt .......................................Eq. 2 Generally, tank pressure varies from 280 psi to approximately 220 psi as the liquid level decreases. The reduced pressure causes the suction-fluid temperature to vary between -4 and -15.4F, resulting in a CO2 discharge-temperature fluctuation of approximately 11.4F.

Graphical Approach Numerical Approach


Use Equation 1 to calculate the discharge temperature of liquid CO2 as a function of the discharge pressure: Td = Tt Ea..............................................................Eq. 1 Where Td = absolute temperature of CO2 at discharge, R Ts = absolute temperature of CO2 in the tank, R a = [1.257 10-5 - 2.2147 10-10 (Pd - Pt )][Pd - Pt ] Pd = discharge pressure, psi Pt = suction pressure (pressure in the CO2 tank), psi
September 2001 1 of 4 Appendix A

Table A.1 (Page 2) shows the discharge temperature of CO2 as a function of discharge and tank pressures. You can accurately determine discharge temperatures from Table A.1 (Page 2), but interpolation is required for intermediate values.

CO2 Safety Manual

Table A.1Discharge Temperature of Liquid CO2 as a Function of Discharge and Tank Pressures
Discharge Pressure (psi) 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 Tank Pressure (psi) 200 -14.88 -9.55 -4.36 0.69 5.59 10.33 14.91 19.33 23.56 27.63 31.50 35.19 38.69 41.98 45.08 220 -11.14 -5.77 -0.53 4.56 9.50 14.28 18.90 23.35 27.62 31.72 35.63 39.35 42.87 46.20 49.32 240 -7.41 -1.99 3.29 8.42 13.40 18.23 22.88 27.37 31.68 35.81 39.75 43.50 47.05 50.41 53.55 260 -3.68 1.79 7.11 12.29 17.31 22.17 26.87 31.39 35.73 39.90 43.87 47.65 51.24 54.62 57.79 280 0.05 5.56 10.93 16.15 21.21 26.11 30.85 35.41 39.79 43.98 47.99 51.80 55.41 58.82 62.02 300 3.79 9.34 14.76 20.02 25.12 30.06 34.83 39.43 43.85 48.08 52.12 55.96 59.60 63.04 66.26

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Example
Figure A.1 provides curves for various CO2 discharge temperatures. To determine the discharge temperature for a particular discharge pressure, follow the line for the appropriate discharge pressure upward until you
70

reach the appropriate curve for tank pressure. Then, follow that line to the left. For example, if the discharge pressure is 5,000 psi and the tank pressure is 280 psi, the discharge temperature would be 21F.

60

50

30 0
=
Ta nk Pr es su r

Discharge Temperature (F)

ps 26 i 0 24 ps i 22 0 p s 0 ps i i
2

40

28 0

ps i

30 +21F 20

00

i ps

10

-10

-20

5,000

Discharge Pressure (psi)

10,000

15,000

Figure A.1CO2 discharge temperatures

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Appendix A

CO2 Safety Manual

Appendix A

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Appendix

B
Appendix BModifying the Fluid Ends of HT-400 Pumps for CO2 Jobs
Tie-Bolt Arrangement
To pump CO2 with HT-400 pumps fitted with true 4-in., 4 4 1/2-in., or 4 1/2-in. fluid ends, you must modify the tie-bolt arrangement. The left side of Figure B.1 depicts the current fluid-end arrangement, which includes a 1 3/8-in. diameter top tie-bolt and a single 3/4-in. diameter bottom tie-bolt. The right side of the figure depicts the new, modified arrangement, which eliminates the bottom 3/4-in. tiebolt and inserts two 1-in. diameter tie-bolts through the fluid-end sections. This new arrangement lowers cyclic
Current design

bolt stress and reduces the possibility of CO2 leakage at the discharge-passage seals. Use the improved top tie-bolt (Part No. 100002993, 1- 32 1/2-in.) for all fluid-end assemblies. This top tie-bolt will be standard on new fluid ends and will replace the old top tie-bolt. In addition, use improved nuts (Part No. 100002976) with the new top tie-bolts.

Top tie bolts Discharge flanges

Modified design

Discharge passage

Discharge passage

Flangeattaching studs

Fluid-end assembly

1-in. Washer Drilled through 1 1 /16-in.

Fluid-end assembly

Current bottom tie bolt

New bottom tie bolts 1-in. x 32 1/2-in.

1-in. Internal hex head nut

Figure B.1Old and new tie-bolt arrangements

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Appendix B

CO2 Safety Manual

Part Numbers
Table B.1 lists the sizes and part numbers for drilled, single fluid-end sections and complete fluid-end assemblies that are available from the Duncan warehouse. Table B.1Drilled, Single Fluid-End Sections and Complete Fluid-End Assemblies
Fluid-End Size (in.) True 4 4 /2
a 1

Table B.2 lists the part numbers and quantities of tiebolts, washers, and hex nuts required for modifying a complete fluid-end (three-section) assembly in the field. Table B.2Tie-Bolt, Washer, and Hex Nut Part Numbers
Tie-Bolt Part No.a Top Bottom
a

Part No. of Drilled Section 101240205 100058461

Part No. of Complete Fluid-End Assemblya 316.2291 316.2391

Washer Part No. 100002798b (four units)

Hex Nut Part No. 100002976 (two units) 100002811 (four units)

100002993 (one unit) 100002994 (two units)

Equipped with curved discharge flanges on both sides and plungers for L-spacers.

Use the short top tie-bolt (Part No. 100002893) with narrow blank flanges. bThis washer is specially hardened.

Modifying Fluid Ends


To modify a fluid end, perform the following: 1. Disassemble the fluid end: a. Drill a 1 1/16-in. diameter hole through all three fluid-end sections at the location of the flangeattaching studs. b. Pilot-drill the fluid-end sections with a /8- or 3 /4-in. bit. NoteDrill slowly from both sides of each section so that the bit can walk to the centerline. 2. 3. 4. Coat all threads of the tie-bolts with thread lubricant. Place 1 32 1/2-in. flange tie-bolts (Part No. 100002994) through the 1 1/16-in. drilled holes. Place hardened washers (Part No. 100002798) and hex nuts on each end of the new tie-bolts.
5

CautionDo not substitute other washers for the hardened washers. Only hardened washers can withstand the stresses associated with these tiebolts. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Adjust the torque of the 1-in. flange tie-bolts to 200 lb-ft. Place the top tie-bolt through the discharge flanges, and secure the top tie-bolt with nuts. Adjust the torque of the top tie-bolt to 200 lb-ft. While holding one nut fixed, tighten each 1-in. tie-bolt 11/4 turns. Hold one nut fixed, and tighten the top tie-bolt one full turn.

Appendix B

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Appendix

C
Appendix CCO2 Job Procedures
Preparing the Equipment
To prepare equipment for use with CO2, perform the following: 1. 2. Magnetically inspect the HT-400, HT-1000, and Grizzly pumps or intensifiers. Use a clean rag or methanol to dry out the fluid ends and flowmeter bearings.

Determining Available CO2 Product for Job


The volume of CO2 delivered to location should always be greater than the necessary volume expected for the job. When ordering CO2, consider the following: The first ton of liquid CO2 added into a receiver or storage device on location will be converted to gas. This gas cap is necessary for pushing the liquid CO2 out of the receiver. At least 5% of the product in the receiver at the beginning of the job will be converted to CO2 gas. As the job progresses, the pressure in the receiver will decrease, and additional liquid CO2 will be converted to gas. The location of the bottom liquid sump varies on different receivers. Most sumps are located in the center of the CO2 receiver, but some sumps are located in the front or back. See Figure C.1 (Page 2). However, the liquid lines are not always located adjacent to the sump. Therefore, you should always have the CO2 supplier verify the location of the sump as well as whether the tanks are level or leaning to the front or back. Adjust accordingly for losses resulting from inaccessible liquids left at the bottom of the tank. Conditions such as ambient temperatures, wind, and the length of time the product is left in the receiver will cause additional losses. These losses are especially common in the summer when the receivers or transports can reach the maximum tank pressure within a few days. Consequently, CO2 gas will be vented to the atmosphere.

CautionWater left in the fluid ends or flowmeter bearings will freeze, allowing ice to plug valves and prevent the turbine from spinning. 3. To prevent valves from becoming plugged with ice, lubricate the plunger with one of the following materials suitable for low temperatures: 5W motor oil Automatic transmission fluid Diesel fuel Conoco DN-600 Mobil SHC734 ImportantEnsure that all heavier lubricants have been flushed from the system 4. 5. 6. Verify that all valves, seats, and inserts are in excellent condition. Replace seals that leak during acid, cement, or water pumping. Clean out the boost-trailer strainer.

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Appendix C

CO2 Safety Manual

The volume of CO2 necessary for cooling down each pump varies. The volume of CO2 used in the field will vary depending on ambient temperature, wind, and the distance from the suction hose to

other equipment, such as the pump, the suction manifolding arrangement, and the plunger. Follow these guidelines for determining the volume of CO2 required for cooling an individual pump: HT-400 pump = 2 to 3 tons per pump Grizzly pump = 3 to 4 tons per pump HT-2000 pump = 3 to 4 tons per pump During job delays, additional CO2 may be necessary for performing vapor tests and cooldowns.

Figure C.1Level CO2 receiver with sump in middle

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Downstream CO2 Turbine Meter with Temperature Probe


To accurately meter CO2, you must consider the effects of temperature and pressure. A CO2 turbine meter will be within 1% tolerance if it (1) is properly calibrated, (2) includes a temperature probe downstream of a positive-displacement pump, (3) and designed to account for the wellhead treating pressure (WHTP). Table C.1 shows the limitations of a turbine meter that is not designed to compensate for the effects of temperature. When a temperature probe is not used, the expected temperature should be determined and manually entered into the data-acquisition system (DAS) to limit the error factor. If a turbine meter is used on both the booster trailer and downstream of the positivedisplacement pumps, the meters will track each other. Consequently, both meters will be inaccurate because decreasing pressure in the receivers will cause temperature fluctuations during the job. Appendix A provides guidelines for determining CO2 discharge temperatures.

Table C.1
Storage Receiver Pressure (psi) WHTP Error Percentageb

When CO2 Temperature is Not Accounted For 200 300 200 300 200 300 Storage Receiver Pressure (psi) 2,000 2,000 6,000 6,000 8,000 8,000 WHTP 7.2 3.2 10.5 7.3 14.3 11.8 Error Percentageb

With a Hard-Entered CO2 Discharge Temperature of 30F 200 300 200 300 200 300 2,000 2,000 6,000 6,000 8,000 8,000 8.9 4.8 3.0 0.0 -0.6 -2.8

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Appendix C

CO2 Safety Manual

Setting up the Job


To set up a CO2 pumping job, perform the following steps: 1. 2. Connect the vapor lines between the liquid CO2 containers to equalize pressure. Install a vapor line from the CO2 supply to the CO2 booster separator (Figure C.2).

Figure C.3CO2 hose with pressure release, secured with chain

7. 8.

Clean all unions, and lubricate them with diesel. Ensure that the flowmeter is a cryogenic flow. Do not purge through the flowmeter at a high velocity with vapor. This prevents the turbine from overspeeding. Secure all discharge lines.

Figure C.2Vapor line (smaller hose) used to equalize presure between receivers

9.

3. 4.

Ensure that the hoses you will be using have been approved for CO2 service. To reduce heat absorption by the CO2, ensure that the suction hoses are the minimum required lengths. Inspect all external covers and braids for damage.

10. Install a check valve or manifold trailer in the discharge of each HT-400 pump. 11. Install a check valve on the CO2 line upstream of the master CO2 liquid valve. 12. Install a plug valve and a check valve on the nonCO2 liquid line upstream of the master CO2 liquid valve. 13. Install a check valve in the treating line as close to the well as possible. 14. Use a plug valve and a choke on the release line at the wellhead, placing the plug valve upstream of the choke.

5.

CautionAlways use 4-in. hose unions for CO2 service; 5-in. unions are not rated for CO2 suction pressures. 6. Securely chain all hose connections (Figure C.3).

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Pretreatment Safety Meeting


To ensure the safety of personnel and equipment, hold a pretreatment safety meeting before each CO2 job: 1. 2. Inform personnel about the jobs maximum pressure and the pressure-testing procedures used. Discuss job hazards, emergency procedures, fire fighting equipment, personal safety equipment, and an emergency meeting place. Ensure that personnel are familiar with universal hand signals for CO2 in case a verbal communication breakdown occurs. Figure C.4 shows hand signals associated with CO2. 2. 3. Release pressure, and repair any leaks. After repairing the leaks, repeat this procedure.

Testing CO2 Lines with Glycol


Figure C.5 (Page 6) shows the glycol tank setup for testing lines. After vapor-testing the CO2 lines, test them with glycol as follows: 1. Prepare a -50F mixture containing 11 parts ethylene glycol (antifreeze) and 8 parts water for pressure-testing. Hook up the glycol to the suction side of the pump nearest to the wellhead. Install a release line to the glycol trailer.

3.

2. 3.

ImportantDo not use rubber hoses for the release line.


Liquid
Figure C.4Hand signals

Vapor

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Open the bleeder tee. Start boosting glycol through the suction lines to ensure good returns. Engage the positive-displacement pump, and prime the pumps, one at a time, to the glycol trailer. Shut in the plug valve at the bleeder tee. Engage one pump with the engine at idle, and increase the line pressure up to 20% of the test pressure. Engage the other pumps (one at a time) in gear to initially open (bump) the check valves at the current line pressure and test the lines to the desired pressure.

4.

Supply 5-minute escape packs to all personnel, and randomly choose one individual to demonstrate proper pack use. Inform operators that once liquid CO2 has been admitted into the system, leaking unions in the CO2 line must not be tightened.

5.

CautionNever tighten CO2 unions after CO2 has been admitted into the system. The unions could break.

9.

Pressure-Testing and Cooling Down


A typical line-test procedure is demonstrated in Figure C.6 (Page 7).

10. Monitor the pressure chart for leaks. 11. Open the bleeder tee to the glycol trailer, and release pressure. 12. Repair any leaks, and retest if leaks were found. 13. If the glycol trailer includes a suction pump, vaccum fluid out of the suction hose and pumps. 14. Hook up the CO2 suction hose to the pumps. 15. Release pressure from the CO2 units to push out any excess glycol.

Vapor-Testing CO2 Lines


Perform the following low-pressure (< 350 psi) gas test to identify rank leaks: 1. Using vapor lines and gas from the top of the CO2 product source, vapor-test all lines up to a master CO2/liquid valve.

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16. When vapor is present at the trailer, shut off gas vapor. 17. Before beginning the job, unhook the steel line at the bleeder tee going to the glycol tank.

ImportantIf the ethylene glycol mixture and the formation are incompatible, remove as much of the mixture as possible from the discharge lines and the pumps by displacing the mixture with CO2 vapor through the release lines and back into the acid transport. Save this mixture for use during other jobs.

Figure C.5Glycol trailer with suction hose to pump and steel line release back to trailer

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HT-400s pumping liquid phase

No fluid CO2 contacts these high-pressure liquid lines. Can use water for pressuretesting. Check valve Low-torque valves

Check valve Wellhead

Frac tanks

Master CO2 liquid valve Check valve Blender Flowmeter Temperature recorder Discharge iron for CO2 Liquid Antifreeze solution required in this line for pressuretesting.

Pressure transducer 1-in. Lo-Torc bleeder tee

HT-400s pumping CO2 CO2 boost trailer

Unhook line at bleeder tee after purging glycol with vapor. Secured release line Choke

Glycol Tank CO2 transports

Figure C.6Typical line-test procedure

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Liquid CO2 Pumping Procedure


To pump CO2, perform the following: 1. Close the release valves on top of the HT-400 pumps, and allow the CO2 vapor pressure to reach the maximum value. Completely close the CO2 supply valve. Slowly open the main CO2 source liquid-line valve. Start the boost pumps. Prime each HT-400 pump through the release valve located on top of the pump (Figure C.7). Open the master CO2 liquid valve tee. NoteThe pump is primed when a solid, white stream of gas and dry ice/snow continuously blows from the discharge (Figure C.8 and Figure C.9). 7. Slowly close the release valve on each HT-400 pump and begin pumping CO2.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

NoteFor short interruptions in pumping, the boost pumps and HT-400 pumps can be placed in neutral. However, long delays may require that the pumps be reprimed. The point at which pumps must be reprimed depends on conditions such as ambient temperature, wind speed, and manifolding.

Figure C.7Positive-displacement pumps with remote and manual valves

CO2 liquid

CO2 gas

Figure C.8Initial CO2 gas during pump prime-up

Figure C.9CO2 pump primed with liquid CO2

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Shutting Down
To shut down the CO2 job, perform the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shut down the fracturing pumps. Close all liquid CO2 source supply valves at the container. Open the vapor supply valves, and admit CO2 vapor into the system. Close the plug valve in the CO2 discharge line at the master CO2 liquid valve. Slowly open the release valve first at the bleeder tee and then at each fracturing pump. 1. When the job is complete, close all valves and remove the vapor line. To disassemble the equipment after a CO2 job, perform the following steps:

CautionDo not exceed a pressure of 400 psi. The hoses cannot withstand pressures above 400 psi. 2. Allow the frost to melt on the outside of the unions. Then, gently hammer the unions loose.

CautionDo not allow the manifold pressure to drop below 100 psi because dry ice will form. 6. Place the fracturing pumps in first gear. Allow the pumps to purge the system at idle until only vapor is discharged. Allow the system pressure to bleed off.

CautionHammer gently on pipe unions. The unions can become brittle at the temperature of dry ice and will easily break or chip.

7.

CautionDo not flex the rubber hoses until the frost has melted from the outside. The liners in the hoses are not flexible at the temperature of dry ice.

Disassembling Equipment
CautionIf the pressure drops below 70 psi when the job stops, wait 30 minutes before draining the system to allow vapor pressure and heat from the atmosphere to melt any dry ice. This will prevent the cannonball effect, which can cause dry-ice slugs to shoot out of hoses. (See Section 1.) After venting the discharge lines, ensure that the boost pump does not contain residual liquids. Slowly drain the liquid CO2, opening the valves at the lowest points of the boost pump first. Then, drain the vent line. Ensure that the boost-pump pressure is above 100 psi.

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