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Recruitment and Selection at Moser Baer

A PROJECT REPORT in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA)

Submitted by

Project Guide

GARIMA
BBA(CAM)5 Sem Enrol No.:00221501909
th

Ms.Bunty Dahiya

CHANDERPRABHU JAIN COLLEGE OF HIGHER STUDIES


& SCHOOL OF LAW

GURU GOBIND SINGH INDERPRASTHA UNIVERSITY


December 2011

Recruitment And Selection

Table Of Content

CONTENTS o Acknowledgement o Declaration o Objective of study o Executive summary o HR planning and measurement 1- Introduction 2- Manpower planning 3- Flowchart o Employee recruitment 1- Introduction 2- Source of recruitment 3- Flow chart o Selection 1- Introduction 2- Procedure of selection 3- Flowchart o Organization structure o Recruitment procedure of Moserbaer o Selection procedure of Moserbaer o Flowchart o Sample of questionnaire o Data analysis o Conclusion o Limitation

o Recommendation o Bibliography

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It represents a constructive co-operation and enthusiastic guidance of the persons who remained sources of inspiration and contribution to the present study deserve to be acknowledgement in the right earnest. I expressed a deep sense of gratitude in reverence of my guide ms.Bunty Dahiya of our college, Mr.Subodh Sinha of Personnel Department and Mrs.Shobha of HR Department (Moser Baer India Ltd.) for their scholarly guidance, instructive suggestions, continuous encouragement and close supervision at every stage of this work despite their over bust time schedule. I would like to thank the entire employees and managers for giving their valuable inputs in making these project a success. I owe my humble gratitude to faculty guide, Chander Prabhu Jain College of Higher Studies, Narela. Garima

DECLARATION

I hereby jointly declare that the project People Management System, a status report is completely an original work. The facts and figures presented in this report are primary data collected by individual efforts personally through interviews with regard to the interaction held. Name of student: Garima Name of Guide: Ms.Bunty Dahiya

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Ms. Garima student of BBA(CAM) final year, has undergone the project titled a report on Manpower Recruitment and Selection of Moser Baer in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B.B.A. to GGSIP University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi is a record of the candidate own work carried out by him under my/our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree. Signature Ms.Bunty Dahiya

Objective of the Project

All students learn theoretical subjects in their classroom, but as we are the management students, apart from theoretical studies we need to get a deeper insight into the practical aspects of those theories by working as a part of organization during our summer training is a period in which a student can apply his theoretical knowledge in practical field. Basically practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge have a very broad difference. So this training has high importance as to know how both the aspects are applied together. The study of management acquires most crucial position in the business administration. In order to be successful, it is necessary to give priority to the management in an organization. But it cant be denied that the study of management would be more educational, materialistic and even more interesting, if it is to be paired with the work in organization as an employee. The training session helps to get details about the working process in the organization. It has helped me to know about the organizational management and discipline, which has its own importance. The training has been a life long experience.

Corporate Office of MOSERBAER

Executive Summary

Moser Baer India Ltd. (Noida) is one of the worlds largest manufactures of storage-media. With the record sales of Rs33601 million in 2000-2001 MBI achieved a significant share of 5% of the global consumer data storage market. MBI is an ISO 9002 certified company, and the blue chip buyers sell its products to customers in 82 countries across 6 continents. It has 6 manufacturing plants in India, has 5 global brands & has put in place a strong distribution network in Europe & America to keep in close touch with clients. Stringent adherence to quality standards with a zero-error mission and constant value additions have entrusted the major resellers & retailers in Europe & America. The MBI Product range includes Magnetic Recordable Media, also known as Micro, Floppy Disks or Diskettes and Optical Recordable Media, which includes recordable compact disks, data media & audio storage products. About 90% sales of IVIBI products are to markets abroad particularly in Europe. In India its sales is close to 50% of the total market share for storage media products. Moser Baer India Ltd. Is the worlds third largest manufacturer of magnetic, recordable media & optical recordable media. The companys net sales grew from 333.9 crore in 2001 to 1,069.5

crore last years. In the same period net profit grew from 138.5 crore to 245.3 crore. MBI is now counting on the fresh capacity to propel itself forward as the DVD market explodes. The characteristics that set Moser Baer apart from others are as follows: o MBI has proved its ability to execute projects fast and at low cost. o MBI is no competition of significance in the domestic market. o It has rumpled up capacity for DVD-R, demand for which is set to explode. o There is low production cost. A large range of products, quality and a strong distribution network. The changing global trade scenario has already dragged Moser Baer into 5 antidumping cases initiated by the European Commission. The latest was a proposal in midway this year to impose a 7.3% countervailing duty on imports of CD-Rs originating in India. Fortunately for the company, it has emerged victorious in all anti- dumping cases so far. The company enjoys a solid backing from its strategic equity investors, International Finance Corporation, Wartburg Pincus, & JF Electra.

Moser Baer was incorporated in March 1983. MBI was started at Noida Export Processing Zone (NEPZ). The first product launched was Punching Machine, then it switched over to the production of Floppy and later on CDs and now over DVD. It has entered 20th year of operations in India. MBI has made its mark as one of the largest optical and magnetic media production companies in the world. With an 80 member in-house research and engineering team striving for continuous enhancement of machine design, process design, product-innovation, MBI has ploughed back 2.0 to 2.5 of annual revenues into research and development. MBI today is the third largest optical media manufacturer with 11% market share. It has capered 45% market share in a market that is expected to grow 5 times over next 3 years. Mr. Deepak Puri founded the company. Moser Baer India Ltd. is an ISO 9002 certified company, and blue chip buyers customers in 82 countries sell its products across 6 continents. It has 6 manufacturing plants in India, has 5 global brands and has put in place a strong distribution network in Europe and America to keep in close touch with clients.

Market is already providing to be a cakewalk. Three months after the launch of its own brand, Moser Baer has already exceeded its first target of a 10% share of the market. Challenges being faced by Moser Baer o The company has to be careful with where its apex is going. It cant make too much product specific investment. The life cycle of most storage media formats peters out after 10 years or so. o The other challenge is to consolidate in the domestic market. Which accounts for merely 20% of sales & where MBI has just lunched its own eponymous brand.

INDUSTRY STUDY Moser Baer operates in the removal data storage industry. The min categories re s under: o MGNESTIC MEDI- computer tapes, data cartridges, and magnetic tapes like compact cassette, VHS, beta COM, etc. o OPTICAL MEDIA- CD & DVD formats including recordable, rewritable & pre-recorded formats. o SOLID STATE MEDIA- memory stick, multimedia cards etc. With the growth in availability of digital content, the optional category has undergone an explosion in demand over the last few years. Optical media has the obvious choice of the consumers due to the easy availability of drives, high capacity & low cost per megabyte. MBI is currently positioned as one of the largest manufacturers of optical products in the world. The market for these products is global in nature demand. MBI like its peers in Japan & Taiwan, caters, to the major global markets & has the additional advantages of satisfying a large & fast growing domestic demand. The major brands in the industry are

household names like SAMSUNG, SONY, VERBATIM, TDK, MAXELL, IMATION BASF etc. most manufacturers including MBI supply to a number of these branded players & usually have strong long-term relationships with them. MBI presently supplies its products to 8 of the top global brands on a medium to long term basis & has strategic relationships with some of these companies encompassing a range of activities including, but not sourcing collaborative R & D programs, reciprocal training programs etc.

Theoretical Overview

MANPOWER PLANNING Manpower planning may be defined a strategy for the acquisition, utilization, improvement and preservation on of the human resources of n enterprise. It is the activity of the management, which is aimed to coordinating the requirement for and the availability of different types of employees. This involves ensuring that the firm has enough of the right kind of people t the right time and also dusting the requirement to the available supply. Coleman has defined human resources of manpower planning s the process of determining manpower requirement and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization. Steiner defines manpower planning s Strategy for the acquisition, improvement and preservation of an enterprises human resources. It relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower. The major activities of manpower planning include: 1. Forecasting future manpower requirements, either in term of mathematical projections of trends in the economy and

development in the industry or of judgment estimates based upon specific future plans of the company. 2. Making and inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these resources re employed optimally. 3. Anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy, both quantitatively and quantitatively. 4. Planning the human for recruitment, selection, training, development, utilization transfer, promotion, motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements re properly met. The manpower planning is a part of the corporate plan, without the corporate plan, there can not be manpower plan. Importance of manpower planning 1. Coping with change-HRP enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive forces markets, technology, products and government regulations. Such changes generate changes in job content, skill demands arid number and type

of personnel. Shortage of people may be induced in come areas while surplus in other may occur. 2. Creating highly talented personnel: Jobs are becoming highly intellectual and incumbents are getting vastly professional. The HR manager must use his/her ingenuity to attract and retain qualified and skilled personnel. 3. Protection of weaker selections: In matters of employment and promotions. Sufficient representation needs to SC/ST candidates, physically handicapped, children of the socially and politically oppressed and backward class citizens. These groups enjoy a given percentage of jobs, withstanding the constitutional provision with guarantees equal opportunities for ll. A well conceived personnel planning program would project the interests of such groups. 4. International Strategies- International expansion strategies depend upon HRP. The departments ability to fill key jobs with foreign nationals and the re-assignment of employees from within or across national borders is a major challenge facing inter-global operation, the need for HRP will grow, as will the need to integrate HRP more closely into the organizations strategic plan.

5. Foundation For Personnel Functions- Manpower planning provides essential information for designing and personnel functions. Such as recruitment, personnel government (transfer, promotions, layoffs) and training and development. 6. Increasing investment in Human Resources- Another compelling reason for HRP is the investment an organization makes in human resources. Human assets as opposed to physical asset can increase in value. An employee who gradually develops his pier skills and abilities becomes a more valuable resource. 7. Resistance to change and move- There is a growing resistance among employees to change and move, there is also a growing emphasis on self-evaluation and on evaluation of loyalty and dedications to the organization. All those changes are making it more difficult for the organization to assume that it can move its employees around anywhere and anytime it thus increasing the importance and necessity of planning ahead. 8. Other benefitsFollowing are potential benefits of HRP I. Upper management has a better view of the HR dimensions of business decisions.

II.

Personnel cost may be less because the management can anticipate imbalance before they become unmanageable and expensive.

III. IV. V. VI.

More times is providing to locate source talent. Better opportunities exist to include women and minority groups in future growth plans. Better planning of assignment to develop mangers can be done. Major and successful demands on local labor can be made.

Factors Affecting HRP 1. Type and strategy of organization: The type of organization is an important consideration because it dreaminess the production process involved, number and type of staff needed and supervisory and managerial personnel required. Manufacturing organizations are more complex in this respect in than those that render services. The strategy of the organization: defines the organizations HR needs. For example, a strategy of internal growth means that additional employees must be hired. Acquisitions or merges on the other hand probably means that the organization will need to plan for layoffs since merges tends to create duplicate or overlapping positions that can he handled more efficiently with fewer employees.

Internal growth

Growth through merges and acquisitions Broad

Narrow

Informal

Formal

Reactive

Proactive

Inflexible

Flexible

2. Organizational growth cycles and planning: The stages of an organizations growth can have considerable influence on HRP. Small organizations in the embryonic stage may not have personnel planning.

Need of planning is felt when the organization enters the growth stage. HR forecasting becomes essential. Internal development of people also begins to receive attention in order to keep up with the growth. 3. Environmental Uncertainties: HR mangers rarely have the privilege of operation in stable and predictable environment. Political, social and economic changes effect all organizations. Personnel planners deal with environmental uncertainties by carefully formulation recruitment, selection and training and development policies and programs.

The Planning Process HRP essentially involves forecasting personnel need assessing personnel supply and matching demand-supply factors through personnel related programs. The planning process is influenced by overall organizational objectives and the environment of business. Figure illustrates the planning process.
Environment

Organizational Objectives and policies

HR need forecast

HR supply forecast

HR Programming

HR Implementation

Control and Evaluation of Program

ced Surplus, Restricted


Hiring, Reduced Hours, VRS, Layoffs, etc.

Shortage Recruitment and selection

Organizational Objectives and Policies HR plans need to be based on organizational objectives. In practice, this implies that the objectives of the HR plan must be derived from organizational objectives. Specific requirements in terms of number and characteristics of employees should be derived from the organizational objectives. As was stated in the previous chapter, organizational objectives are defined by the top management and the role of HRP is to sub serve, the overall objectives by ensuring availability and utilization of human resources. Once the organizational objectives are specified, communicated and understood by all concerned, the HR department must specify its objectives with regard to HR utilization in the organization. In developing these objectives, specific policies need to be formulated to address the following questions: 1. Are vacancies to be filled by promotion from within or hiring from outside? 2. How do the training and development objectives interface with the HRP objectives? 3. What union constraints are encountered in HRP and what policies are needed to handled these constraints?

4. How to enrich employees job? Should the routine and bearing jobs continue or are eliminated? 5. How to down size the organization to make it more competitive? 6. To what extent production and operations be automated and what can be done about those displaced/ 7. How to ensure continuous availability of adaptive and flexible work-force?

HR Demand Forecast Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future required the quantity and quality of people required. The basis of the forecast must be the annual budget and long term corporate plan. Translate into activity levels for each function and department. Demand forecasting must consider several factors both external as well as internal; among the external factors is competition (foreign and domestic), Economic climate, laws and regulatory bodies, changes in technology and social factors, internal factors include budgets constraints, production levels, new products and services organizational structure, and employee separations. Demand forecasting is common among organizations though they may not do personnel-supply forecasting.

Forecasting Techniques Managerial judgment. This technique is very simple. In this managers sit together, discuss and arrive at a figure, which would be the future demand for labour; the technique may involve a bottom-up or a top-down approach. In the first, Line managers submit their departmental proposals to the top managers who arrives at the company forecasts. In the topdown approach, top managers prepare company and departmental forecasts. These forecasts are reviewed with departmental heads and agreed upon. Neither of these approaches is accurate a combination of the two could yield positive results. In the bottom-up and top-down approaches, departmental heads are provided with broad guidelines. Armed with such guidelines and in consultation with the HRP selection in the HRM department, departmental managers can prepare forecasts for their respective departments.

Ratio-trend analysis: This is the quickest forecasting technique. The technique involves studying past ratios; say between the number of workers and sales in an organization and forecasting future ratios, making some allowance for changes in the organization or its methods. Given table shows how actual and forecast ratios between the number of routine proposals to be processed by an insurance companys underwriting department and the number of underwriters employed could be used to forecast future requirements. Demand Forecast Inspectors Year -3
actual

Production 1500 1800 2000 2209 2500 2750

Inspector Inspector 150 180 180 200 210 230 1 1 1 1 1 1

Production 10 10 11 11 12 12

-2

Last year Next year


Forecast

+2 +3

Calculated by reference to forecast activity levels. Calculated by applying forecast ratio to forecast activity levels.

1- Mathematical Models: This expresses the relationship between independent variables (like investment, sales, production etc) and dependent variables (e.g.-number of workers required). Thus a number of variables influencing manpower future needs are put into a formula. Several types of models e.g.- regression, optimization and probabilistic models can be used. These are complex and are used only by big organization. 2- Work-study Techniques: These can be used when it is possible to apply work measurement to calculate the length of amount of labour restarting point operation and the amount of labour required. The starting point in a manufacturing company as a whole or volume of output for in a production budget, prepared in terms of volume of saleable products for the company as a whole, or volumes of output for individual departments. The budget of productive hours is then compiled using standard hours for direct labour. The planned volume of units to be produced to give the total number of planned hours for the period then multiplies the standard hours per unit of output. This is then divided by the number of actual working hours for an individual operator to show the number of absenteeism and

idle time. Following is a highly simplified example of this procedure. a. Planned output for next year b. Standard hours per unit c. Planned flours for the year d. Productive hour per man/year 2000 units 5 100,000 2000

(Allowing normal overtime, absenteeism and idle time) e. Number of direct workers required(4/5) 50 Work-study technique for direct workers can be combined with ratio-trend analysis to for indirect workers, establishing the ratio between the two categories. Same logic extended to any other category of employees. 3. Delphi technique: Named after the ancient Greek oracle at the city Delphi, the Delphi technique is a method of forecasting personnel needs. It solicits estimates of personnel needs from a group of managers. The HRP experts are surveyed again after they receive this feedback. Summaries and surveys are repeated until the experts opinions begin to agree. The agreement reached is the forecast of personnel needs. The distinguishing feature of the Delphi technique is the absence of interaction among experts.

HR Supply Forecast Personnel demand analysis provides, the managers with the means of estimating the member and kind of employees. That will be required. The next logical step for the management is to determine whether it will be able to produce the required number of personnel and the sources for such procurement. Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an organization after making allowance from absenteeism, internal movements and promotions, wastage and change in hours and other conditions of work. *HR Programming: Once an organizations personnel and supply are forecast, the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employees at the HR programming, the third step in the planning process, therefore, assume greater importance. * HR Plans Implementation: Implementation requires converting an HR plan into action. A series of action programs are initiated as a part of such programs are recruitment, selection and placement, training, and development, retaining and redeployment: the retention plan arid the redundancy plan.

* Control and Evaluation: This represents the fifth and the final phase in the GRIP process. The HR plan should include budgets, targets and standards. It should also clarify responsibilities for implementation and control, arid establishes reporting, which will enable achievement to be monitored plan. These may simply report on the numbers employed against establishments (identifying both those who are in post and those who are in pipeline) and on the numbers recruited against the recruitment targets. But they should be also report employment cost against budget. And trends in wastage arid employment ratios. Requisites for Successful HRP 1. HRP must recognize as an integral part of corporate planning. The planner of human resources must therefore, be aware of the corporate objectives. 2. Backing of the top management for HRP absolutely essential. 3. HRP responsibility should be centralized in order to coordinate consultation between different management levels. 4. Personnel record must be competing, up to date and readily available.

5. The time horizon of the plan must be long enough to permit any remedial action. 6. The techniques of planning should be those best suited to the date available and the degree of accuracy required. 7. Plans should be prepared by skills level rather than by aggregates. 8. Data collection, analysis, techniques of planning and the plans themselves need to be constantly revised and improved in the light of experience.

EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT Recruitment forms the first stage in the process. Which continues with selection and feasts with the placement of the candidate. Recruiting makes it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operation. Recruiting is the discovering of operations of the organization potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. In other words it is a linking activity being together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. According to Date Yoder, Recruitment is a process to discover the manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force. In simple terms, recruitment is a process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected. Through theoretically, recruitment proves is said to end with the receipt of applications, in practice the extents to the screening of applicants so as to eliminate those who are not qualified for the job.

Purpose of Recruitment The general purpose of recruitment to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. Specially the purpose is to 1. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization it conjunction with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities. 2. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. 3. Help in increase the success rate of selection process by reducing the number of visibly, under qualified or over qualified job applicants. 4. Help in reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected will leave organization only after a short period of time. 5. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force. 6. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. 7. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. 8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various, recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.

Factors Governing Recruitment Given its key role and external visibility, recruitment is naturally subject to influence of several factors. These include external as well as internal forces: External factors 1. Supply and Demand of particular importance is the supply and demand of specific skills in the famous market. If the demand for a particular skill is high relative to the supply an extraordinary recruiting effort may be needed. For instance, the demand for programmers and financial analysts is likely to be higher than their supply, as opposed to the demandsupply relationship for non-technical employees. 2. Unemployment rate: When the unemployment rate in a given area is high, the companys recruitment process may be simpler. The number of unsolicited applicants is usually greater, and the increased size of the labour pool provides better opportunities for attracting qualified applicants. 3. Labour market: Labour market conditions in a local area are of primary importance in recruiting for most non-managerial, supervisory and middle management position. However, so

far as recruitment for executive and professional positions is concerned, conditions of all market are important. 4. Political and legal considerations: reservation of jobs for SCs, STs, minorities and other backward classes (018Cs) is a political decision. There is a strong case for giving preference to people hailing from less advantaged selections of the society. Reservation has been accepted as inevitable by all selections of the society. The Supreme Court also has agreed upon 50 percent reservation of seats and jobs. 5. Companys image: The Companys image also matters in attracting large number of job seekers. Blue chip companies attract large number of applicants. Often, it is not money that is important, it is the perception of the jobseekers about the company that matters in attracting qualified perspective employees. Internal Factors 1. Recruiting Policy: One of the internal factors is the recruiting policy of the organization. Most organizations have a policy on recruiting internally (from own employees) or externally (from outside the organization). Generally, the policy is to prefer internal sourcing, as own employees know the

company well and can recommend candidates who fit the organizations culture. 2. Temporary arid Part-time Employees: An organization hiring temporary and part-time employees, all organization hiring temporary and part-time employees is in a loss advantageous position attracting sufficient applications. 3. Local citizens: In multinational corporations (MNCs), there is the policy relating to the recruitment of local citizens. MNCs operating in our country prefers local citizens, as they can understand local language customs and business practices well. 4. Human Resource Planning (HRP): A major internal factor that can determine the success of the recruiting programmed is whether or not company engages in HRP in most cases a company connote attract prospective employees in sufficient numbers and with required skills overnight. It takes time to examine the alternatives regarding the appropriate sources of recruits and the most productive methods for obtaining then, once the best alternative have been identified, recruiting plans may be made. Effective HRO greatly facilitates the recruiting efforts.

5. Size: Size is another internal factor having its influence on the recruitment process. An organization with one hundred thousand employees will find recruiting less problematic than an organization with just one hundred employees. 6. Cost: Cost of recruiting is yet another internal factor that has to be considered. Recruiting cost are calculated per new hire and the figure is considerable now a clays. Recruiters must, therefore, operate within budgets. Careful HRP and forethought by recruiters call minimize recruitment costs. One cost-saving measure, for instance, is recruiting for multiple job openings simultaneous.

Recruitment Process As was started earlier, recruitment refers to the process of identifying, and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified job applicants; the process comprises five interrelated stages. Viz (1) planning, (2) strategy development, (3) searching, (4) screening, and (5) evaluation and control ideal recruitment programmed is the one that attracts a relatively larger number of qualified applicants who will survive the screening process and accept positions with the organization, when offered. Recruitment programs can miss the ideal in many-ways- By failing to attract an adequate applicant pool; by under/over selling the organization or by inadequately screening applicants before they enter the selection process. Thus, to approach the ideal, individuals responsible for the recruitment process must know how many and what types of employees are needed, where and how to look for individuals with the appropriate qualifications and interests, what inducements to use (or avoid) for various types of applicant groups, how to distinguish applicants who are unqualified from those who have a reasonable chance of success and how to evaluate their work.

Recruitment Planning The first stage in the recruitment process is planning. Planning involves the translation of these jobs translation of likely job vacancies and information about (1) type into a set of objectives or targets that specify the (a) number and (b) type applicants to be contacted.

Sources of Recruitment 1) Direct methods- The mostly used source of recruitment is direct method of recruitment. Its types are as follows: a) Promotion- Companies can give promotion to existing employees. This method of recruitment saves a lot of time, money and efforts because the company does not have to train the existing employee. Since the employee has already worked with the company. He is familiar with the working culture and working style. It is a method of encouraging efficient workers. b) Manned exhibits- The organizations send recruiters to conventions and seminars setting Lip exhibits at fairs and using mobile offices to go to the desired centers. c) Previous applicants- Although riot truly an internal source, those who have previously applied for jobs can be contacted by mail, a quick and inexpensive way to fill all unexpected opening. 2) Indirect methods cover advertising in newspaper, on the radio, in trade and professional journals technical journals and brochures. When qualified and experienced persons are not available through other sources, advertising in newspapers professional and technical journals is made.

Whereas all types of advertisements can be made in newspapers and magazines and only particular types of posts should be advertised in the professional and technical journals for example, only engineering jobs should be inserted in journals of engineering. A well thought-out and planned advertisement for an appointment reduces the possibility of unqualified people applying the advertisement is clear and to the point, candidates can access their abilities and suitability of the position and only those who possess the requisite qualifications will apply. 3) Third Party methods- Various agencies are used for recruitment under these methods. These include commercial and private employment agencies, state agencies, placement agencies, government employment agencies. 4) Other methods- These methods include: a) Indoctrination seminars for college professors: These are arranged to discuss the problems of companies to which professors are invited. Visits and banquets are arranged so that professors may be favorably impressed and later speak well of the company and help in getting required personnel. b) Friends and relatives of present employees constitute a good source from which employees may be drawn. This,

however, is likely to encourage nepotism i.e. persons of ones own community or case may only be employed. This may create problems for the organization. c) Trade union is often called on by the employs to supply whatever additional employees may be needed. Unions may be asked for recommendations largely as a matter of courtesy and an evidence of goodwill and cooperation. d) Professional societies may provide leads and clues in providing promising candidates for engineering technical arid management positions. Some of these maintain mail order placement services. e) Temporary helps agencies employ their own labour forces, both full-time and part-time and make them available to their client organizations for temporary needs. f) Casuals labour source is one, which presents itself daily at the factory gate or employment office. Most industrial rely to some extent on this source. This source is the most uncertain of all sources. g) Deputation: Persons possessing certain abilities useful to another organization are sometime deputed to it for a specified

duration. Ready expertise is available but, as you can guess such employees do riot easily become part of organization. They can also be categorized as 1. Internal Recruitment 2. External Recruitment 1. Internal Recruitment Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from those who are currently employed. Internal sources include present employees, employee referrals, former employees and former applicants. a) Present employees: Promotions and transfers from among the present employees can be good source of recruitment. b) Employees Referrals: As emplaned above in friends and relatives of present employees. c) Former Employee: Some retired employees may be willing to come back to work on a part time basis or may recommended some one who would be interested in working for the company. Advantages of internal recruitment 1. It is less costly.

2. Organizations have better knowledge about the internal candidates. 3. Enhancement of employee moral and motivation. Disadvantages of internal recruitment 1. It perpetuates the old concept of doing things. 2. Organization complains of unit raiding in which divisions compete for the some people. 3. Morale problem for the not promoted.

2. External Recruitment 1. Professional or trade associations: As explained above. 2. Advertisements: As explained above in indirect methods. 3. Employment Exchanges: As explained above in state or public employment agencies. 4. Campus Recruitment: As explained above in school and colleges. 5. Walk-ins, Write-ins and Talk-ins: The most common and least expensive approaches candidates are direct applications. Walk-ins are preferable as they are free from the hassles associated with other methods of recruitment. Write-ins are those who send written enquiries. These

jobseekers are asked to complete applications forms for further processing. Talk-ins are becoming popular now a days, jobs aspirants are required to meet the recruiter an appropriate date for detailed talks. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter. 6. Consultants: As explained above in private employment agencies. 7. Radio and television: As explained above in indirect methods. 8. Competitors: Rivals firms can be a source of recruitment. Popularly called Poaching or raiding this method involves identifying the right people in rival companies, offering them better tell and using them away. For instance, several executives of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company so also from BEL to BPL. Advantages of External Recruitment 1. Benefits of new skills, new talents and new experiences to organizations. 2. Compliance with reservation policy becomes easily. 3. Scope for resentment, jealousies and heartburn are avoided.

Disadvantages of External Recruitment 1. Better morale and motivation associated with internal recruiting is designed to the organization. 2. External recruitment is costly. 3. Adjustment of new employees to the organizational culture takes longer time.

SELECTION Meaning and definition Selection is the process of picking individual (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. A formal definition of selection is It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. The role of selecting organizations effective in crucial for at least. Two reasons: 1. Work Performance: work performance depends on individuals. The best way of improved performance is to hire people who have the competence and the willingness to work. Arguing from the employee viewpoint, poor or inappropriate choice can be demoralize to the individual concerned. Who finds himself in the wrong job and demotivating to the rest of the work force, effective selection, therefore, assumes greater relevance. 2. Cost: Cost incurred in recruiting and hiring personnel speaks volumes about the role of selection, here is one instant to prove how expensive recruitment has become. Pepsi has

gone on a crash recruitment drive. Six people from the company took over the entire Oberoi Business Center in Mumbai for six days, three thousand applicants in response to an advertisement issued earlier were scanned applicants were asked to respond by fax within hundred hours; finally, the short listed persons were flown in and in are viewed. Quite an expensive affair by any standard! In the US, it is much more expensive. The cost of searching for and training a top level executive may run into $2,150,000. Outcomes of the Selection Decision

False Negative Error Success

True Positive (High Hit)

Failure

True Negative (Low Hit)

False Positive Error

Failure Predicted

Success Predicted

Outcomes of the Selection Decision An organization with a false positive error incurs three types of costs. The first type is incurred while the person is employed. This can be the result of production of profit losses, damaged company reputation, accidents due to negligence, absenteeism, and the like. The second type of cost is associated with the training, transfer or terminating the services of the employee. Cost of replacing an employee with a fresh one cost of hiring, training and replacement constitute the third type of costs. Generally, the most important the job, the greater the cost of the selection error. In the case of false negative error, an applicant who would have succeeded is rejected because of predicted failure. Most of the false negative errors go unnoticed except when the applicants belong to a reserve category and file a discrimination charge. Costs associated with this type error are generally difficult to estimate. A careful selection will help an organization avoid cost associated with both false positive as well as false negative error. Selection Process Selection process involves rejection of unsuitable of less successive applicants. This may be done at any of the successive

hurdles. Which an applicant must cross. These noises act as screens designed to eliminate an unqualified applicant at any point in the process. This technique is known as the successive hurdles technique figure below gives these hurdles.

Physical examination

Preliminary interview

Application form

Second interview

Yoder calls these hurdles go, no-go gauges. Those who qualify a hurdle go to the next one; those who do not qualify are dropped out. Not all selection processes, however, include these hurdles. The complexity of the process usually increases with the level and

Testing

Rejections

References

Recommendation

responsibility of the position to be filled. Moreover, these hurdles need not necessarily be placed in the same order. Their arrangement may differ from organization to organization. 1. Initial screening or preliminary interview: This is a sorting process in which prospective applicants are given the necessary information about the nature of the job and also necessary information is elicited from the candidates about their education, experience, skill, salary expected, etc. if the candidate is found to be suitable, he is selected for further process and if not, lie is eliminated. This is a crude screening and can be done across the counter in the organizations employment offices. This is done by a junior executive in the personnel department. Due care should be taken so that suitable candidates are not turned down in a hurry. When a candidate is found suitable an application form is given to him to fill in and submit. 2. Application scrutiny: Sometimes applications are asked on a plain sheet. This is done where no application forms are designed. The applicant is asked to give details about age, marital status, educational qualification, work experience and references different type of application forms may be used by the same organization for different types of employees,

e.g. one for managers, the other for supervisors and a third for other employees. Some forms are simple, general and easily answerable, while others may require elaborate, complex and detailed information. Reference to nationality, race, caste, religion and place of birth has been regarded as evidence of discriminatory attitude and should be avoided. An application form should be designed to serve as a highly effective preliminary screening device, particularly, when applications are received in direct response to an advertisement and without any preliminary interview. The application can be used in two ways: (a) to find out on the basis of information contained therein as to the chances of success to the candidate in the job for which he is applying, and (b) to provide a starting point for the interview, it is often possible to reject candidates of the basis of scrutiny of the application as they are found to be lacking in educational standards, experience, of some other relevant eligibility and traits. 3. Selection Tests: A test is a sample of an aspect of an individuals behavior, performance or attitude. It can also be a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior to two or more persons. Purpose of test: The basis assumption

underlying the use of tests in personnel selection is that individuals are different in their job-related abilities and skills and that these skills can be adequately and accurately measured. Tests seek to eliminate the possibility of prejudice on the part of the interviewer of supervisor, potential ability only will govern selection decisions. The other major advantage is that the tests may uncover qualifications and talents that would no be detected by interviews or by listing of education and job experiences. Types of Tests The various tests used in selection can be put into four categories. 1. Achievement of Intelligence Tests: These are also called proficiency tests. These measure the skills or knowledge, which is acquired as a result of training programmed and on the job experience. These measure what the applicant can do. These are of two types: a. Test for measuring job knowledge: These are known as Trade tests. These are administered to determine knowledge of typing shorting and in operating calculators,

adding machine or simple mechanical equipment these are primarily. Oral tests consisting of a series of question which are believed to be satisfactory answered only by those who know supplemented by written, picture of performance types. b. Work sample tests: These measures the proficiency with which equipment can be handles by the candidate. This done by giving him a piece of work to judge how efficiently he does it. For example, a typing test would provide the material to be typed and note the time taken and mistakes committed. 2. Aptitude of Potential Ability test: These tests measure the ability of a candidate to learn a new job or skills. Through these tests you can detect peculiarity of defects in a persons sensory or intellectual capacity. These focus attention on particular types of talent such as learning, reasoning and mechanical or musical aptitude, instruments used and variously described as tests of intelligence. Mental ability, mental alertness of simply as personnel tests. These are of three types:

a. Mental Tests: These measure the overall intellectual ability or the intelligence quotient (I.Q.) of a person and enable us to know whether he has the mental capacity to deal with new problems. These determine an- employees fluency in language, memory, induction, speed of perception. b. Mechanical Aptitude Test: These measure the capacity of a person to learn a particular type mechanical work. These are useful when apprentice, mechanics, maintenance workers, and mechanical technicians are to be selected. c. Psychomotor or skill tests: These measure a persons ability to do a specific job. These are administers to determine mental dexterity or motor ability and similar attributes involving muscular movement, control and coordination. These are primarily used in the selection of workers who have to perform semiskilled and repetitive. Like assembly work, packing, testing, inspection and so on. 3. Personality Test: These discover clues to an individual value system, his emotional reactions, maturity and his characteristic mood. The tests help in assessing a persons

motivation, his ability to adjust himself to the stresses of everyday life and his capacity for inter-personal relations and for projecting and impressive image of him. They are expressed in terms of the emotional control, optimism decisiveness sociability, conformity, objectivity, patience, fear, distrust, initiative, judgment, dominance, impulsiveness, sympathy, integrity and stability. These tests are given to predict potential performance and success for supervisory or managerial jobs. The personality tests are basically of three types: a. Objective Tests: These measure neurotic tendencies, dominance submission and self confidence. b. Projective Tests: In these tests, a candidate is asked to project his own interpretation onto certain standard stimuli. The way in which his responds to these stimuli depends on his own values, motives and personality. c. Situation Test: These measure an applicants reaction when he is placed in a particular situation his ability to undergo stress and his demonstration of ingenuity under pressure. These tests usually relate to a leaderless group situation in which some problems are posed to a group and its members are asked to without the help of a leader.

4. Interests Tests: These tests are designed to discover a persons areas of interest and to identify the kind of work that will satisfy him. The interest tests are used for vocational guidance, and are assessed in the form of answers to a wellprepared questionnaire. Limitations of Selection Tests From the basis description of test describes above, one should not conclude that a hundred percent prediction of an individuals on-the-job success can be made through these tests. These tests at best reveal that candidates who have scored above the predetermined cut-off points are likely to be more successful than those who have scored below the cut-off point. Tests are useful when the number of applicants are large moreover tests will serve no useful purpose if they are not properly constructed or selected or administered.

Interview An interview is a conservative with a purpose between one person on one side and another person at the other. An interview should serve three purposes, viz 1. Obtaining information 2. Giving information and 3. Motivation It should provide an appraisal of personality by obtaining relevant information about the prospective employees background, training work history, education and interests. Types of interview: 1. Informal Interview: This may takes place anywhere. The employer or a manager in the personnel department may ask a few question like name place of birth, previous experience, etc. it is not planned and is used widely when the labour market is tight and you need workers very badly. A friend or a relative of the employer may take a candidate to the house of the employer or manager where this type of interview may conduct. 2. Formal Interview: This is held in a more formal atmosphere in the employment office by the employment officer with the

help of well-structured question the fine and place of the interview are stipulated by the employment office. 3. Planned Interview: This is a formal interview carefully planned. The interview has a plan action of action worked out in relation to time to be devoted to each candidate, type of information to be sought, and information to be given the modality of interview and so on. He may use the plan with some amount of flexibility. 4. Patterned Interview: This is a planned interview but planned to a higher degree of accuracy, precision and exactitude. A list of question and areas is carefully prepared. The interview goes down the list of question asking them one after another. 5. Nondirective Interview: This is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely the interviewer is a careful and patient listener; prodding whenever the candidate is silent the idea to give the candidate completes freedom to sell himself without encumbrances of the interviewers questions. 6. Depth Interview: This is designed to intensively examine the candidates background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on a particular subject of special interest

of the candidate. The theory behind it is that if the candidate is found good in his area of special interest, the chances are high that if job he would take serious interest in it. 7. Stress Interview: This is designed to test the candidates and his conduct and behavior by putting him under conditions of stress and strain. This is very useful to test the behavior of individuals under disagreeable and situation. 8. Group Interview: This is designed to see how the candidates react to and against each other. All the candidates may be brought together in the office and they may be interviews the candidates. The candidates may alternatively be given a topic for discussion and be observed as to who will lead the discussion, how each will make his presentation and how they will react to each others views and presentation. 9. Panel Interview: This is done by members of the interview board of a selection committee. This is done usually for supervisor and managerial positions. It pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the panel. The candidate may be asked to meet the panel individually for a fairly lengthy interview.

Interview Rating Important aspects of personality can be categorize under the following sever main headings: 1. Physical make-tip: health, physique, age, appearance, heading speech. 2. Attainment education: Occupation training and experience. 3. Intelligence: Basic and effective 4. Special aptitude written and oral fluency of expression, innumeracy, organization ability and administrative.

Flow Chart of Recruitment & Selection


Start

Organization objectives & policies

HR need forecast

HR supply forecast

HR Programming

HR Implementation

Control & Evaluation of programming

If surplus

Is manpower surplus or shortage

If shortage

Restricted hiring, reduced hours vs. by off etc

Recruitment, selection

Recruitment

Selection

Is internal recruitment ?

From external of internal

No Yes
*Present employees *Employees referrals *Former employee *Previous application

External recruitment

*Professional to trade association *Advertisements *Employment exchanges *Campus recruitment *Walk-ins, writing and talk-ins *Consultants

consultants

Internal Audit

External Audit (Outsiders Agencies Ex NCP)

Initial screening

Application Scrutiny

Selection Tests

Is for worker of technicians or clerk

For Workers

No

Is for staff or mgt post?

Yes
*Mechanical Aptitude test *Psychomotor or skill test For Staff

No Yes
Is for mgt post? *Test for measuring job knowledge *Work sample test *Mental test *Personality test

Yes

*Aptitude or potential ability test *Personality test *Interest test

Interviews

For workers, no interview

For staff & mgt post

*Informal *Formal *Planned *Pressured *Non-directive *Depth interview *Stress interview *Group *Panel

*Physical examination *Reference check *Final decision

Yes
Stop Placement Is the person suitable of job?

Organization structure
Selection Tests

Executive Director

President

HOD (mkt. Int)

HOD (Mkt.Dom)

Plant Head

HOD (Tech.)

HOD (Comm)

HOD(M aterial)

HOD (HR)

HOD (P & P)

HOD (QA)

HOD (Maint)

HOD (R & D)

HOD (Utility)

HOD (Store)

RECRUITMENT PROCESS AT MOSERBAER

The Process of Recruitment at MBIL Through the gap analysis technique & work study technique managers of MBIL estimate: The require manpower Skill level for their respective department on the basis of their relative experience Expected future work load Employees efficiency

HODs fill up requisition through detailed out detailed work report.

HR manager analysis the requirement of position based on effective planning

Requisition recommended by functional head are forwarding enclosed for approval by Plant HR Head and plant head of Moserbaer.

HR Department invite application for recruitment approval from plant head through various resources Resume bank Director referrals News paper delivery Nawkri.com (Net Advertisement)

MBIL Recruit the employee from different sources: Private employment agencies State or public employment agencies Professional or trade associations Advertisement Employment exchanges Campus recruitment Consultants Manpower planning requisition form attached in Annexure.

Recruitment The general process flow for recruitment MBIL is represented as below:
Employee resignations Staff requisition HODs fill up requisition/ justification in case of new position/ manpower planning figure with HR

Analysis by HR of the position based on requirements and planning

Recommended by functional head via HR head plant head Resume Bank/Direct of Referrals/News Paper ad/ nawkri.com/ newspaper.com

Approval from HO for AM & above

Invite application

Initial screening/ short listing by concerned HODs Preliminary interview based on seniority & experience of candidate. In case of Engineer fresher test is conducted

Interview Dates/Panel for interview/final short listing done by HR

Final interview by functional head HR Plant head and HR head

For experienced candidates antecedents are checked by HR dept.

Issue of offer letter/ Appointment letter and joining formalities up to senior engineer level

MOSERBAER (I) LTD Process Flow Chart


Start Employee resignation

Staff requisition HODs request for manpower plan Reg from HR Analyses by HR Recommended by AGM (HR) to GM (P) Resume bank MBIL Newspaper ad Approval from GM (HR) & President Invite applications Initial screening by HOD & HR Interview date/panel for interview by HR Is candidate fresher? interview Conduct written test Final interview by GMP

Jobstreet.com

Issue of LOI to candidate For experienced candidates antecedents are checked by HR

Issue of appointment letter

Stop

SELECTION PROCESS AT MOSERBAER

SELECTION PROCESS OF MOSERBAER

Selection process of MBIL includes two rounds Initial screening round/ preliminary interview Written test (in case of fresher) Final round Step 1 initial screening of preliminary interview round This is a sorting process in which prospective applicants are given the necessary information about the nature of job and also necessary in formation is elicited from the candidates about the education experience, skill, salary expected etc. if the candidate is found to be suitable, he is selected for further process and if not he is eliminated. In MBIL the initial screening is done by concern manager HR representative. Step 2, HR department conduct written test for fresher candidate. Experienced candidate are directly forwarded final round. Types of tests Achievement of intelligence tests: These are also called proficiency test. These measure the skills relative the job experience these measure what the applicant can do. These are two types.

a) Test for measure job knowledge: These are known as trade knowledge of typing shorting and in operating calculators, computers, adding machine, dictating and transcribing machines or simple mechanical equipment these are primarily oral tests consisting of a series of question which are believed to be satisfactory answered only by those who know supplemented by written picture or performance types. b) Work sample test: these measures the proficiency with which equipment can be handle by the candidate. This is suitable for secretarial and clerical job. Step 3 Final Round For experienced candidate and the candidate who have qualified the written test faced the interview which is conducted by functional head, head HR, plant Head, HR manager. Joining letter is to the candidate who has qualified the final round. Joining letter contains all the information about the joining date, time, place etc. One of the joining date, candidate submits his candidate service related documents, complete joining formalities.

If HR manager is satisfied with the available information than the finally issue the appointment letter for placement. Flow Chart of Selection Process at MBIL
Start
Initial screening by HOD & HR
Interview Date/Panel for interview by HR

Interview
Is candidate fresher?

Final Interview by GPM

Conduct written test

Issue of LOI to candidate

Issue of Appointment Letter

For experienced candidates antecedents are checked by HR

STOP

QUESTIONNAIRE

Questionnaire

1. Name-... 2. Age: less than 25( ), 25-35( ), 45 and more ( ). 3. Gender: Male( ), Female( ) 4. Educational qualification 5. Job specification: Marketing ( ), Finance ( ), B.Tech ( ), I.T.I ( ), Others ( ). If other please specify. 6. Number of year worked in the organization: Less than 5 yrs ( ), 5-10 ( ), more than 10 yrs ( ) 7. Kindly state the total number of jobs you were involved with before. 8. Kindly mention the total number of years of work you are working.. 9. Recruitment of employees from? Employment exchange ( ), Consultant ( ), direct advertisement ( ) 10. Are you satisfied with the selection technique of Moserbaer? Yes ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) No ( ) 11. Do you think technique of interview should be changed/

12. Is there ay job security available by the management?

Yes ( ) Yes ( )

No ( ) No ( )

13. Is there an appointment letter is given by Moserbaer? 14. The nature of population of Moserbaer. Selects candidates mainly from background. I.T.I. ( ), Diploma ( ), B.E. ( ), any other professional degree ( ) 15. The process of interview at Moserbaer is Outstanding ( ), Good ( ), Above average ( ), Below average ( ), Unsatisfactory ( ) 16. Does Moserbaer impart any training before final placement? Yes ( ) candidates from open market? Yes ( ) a candidates? Yes ( ) check the relevant boxes) TV ( ), advertisement of NET ( ), Advertisement of Local/national daily ( ), All of them ( ) No ( ) 19. The employment advertisement is generally made through( No ( ) 18. Do you think physical examination is necessary for selection No ( ) 17. Do you think advertisement of Moserbaer attracts the

20. The selection tech of Moserbaer comprise of Written test ( ), Interview ( ), Group discussion ( ), Antecedent verification ( ), all of above ( ) 21. Are you satisfied with the recruitment process of your Co.? Yes ( ) effectively? Yes ( ) No ( ) No ( ) 22. Does the induction given to you carrying out your job

THANK YOU FOR YOUR RESPONSE

DATA ANALYSIS

The employment advertisement is generally made through

advertisement
20% 10%

TV advertisement on Net

10%
advertisement on local/national daily other

60%

The selection tech of moserbaer comprise of


10% 10% 5% 10%

selection tech

written test interview group discussion autocedent verification all of above

65%

Do you think technique of interview should be changed?

30%

Yes No

70%

Is there any job security available by the management?

.
5%

Yes No

95%

The process of interview at Moserbaer is

.
30% 60%
outstanding good above average below average unsatisfactory

10%

Does Moserbaer impart any training before final placement?

.
20%

Yes No

80%

Recruitment of employees from?

2% 82%

11%
employment exchange direct advertisement consultant internal advertisement

5%

Are you satisfied with the selection technique of moserbaer?


30%

Yes No

70%

Is there an appointment letter is given by moserbaer?

100%
Yes No

The nature of population, selects candidates mainly from background.


2%

.
13%

10%

ITI

75%

Diploma B.E. business management

Are you satisfied with the recruitment process of your co.?

.
10%

Yes No

90%

Does the inductin given to you help in carrying out your jo effectively?

.
10%

Yes No

90%

Do you think advertisement of moserbaer attract the candidates from open market?

.
10%

Yes No

90%

Do you think physical examination is necessary for selecting a candidate?


10%

Yes No

90%

CONCLUSION

Conclusion 1. Moserbaer India LTD (Noida) is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of storage media. 2. The MBI product rang includes magnetic recordable media also known as Micro Floppy disks as diskettes and optical Recordable media, Which includes recordable compact disks, data media and audio storage products. 3. MBI today is the third largest optical media manufacturer with 11% market share. 4. It is the comprehensive study which reflects the techniques o the industries. 5. The techniques of the Moserbaer are comprehensive and exclusive for finding right person at right place. 6. The employees of Moserbaer are highly satisfied with the strategy of MBI. 7. The organization structure of MBI is well defned and clear. 8. From the last two years different techniques of selection was included in the selection process of the company. 9. The HRP of Moserbaer is highly effective.

LIMITATIONS

Limitations

1. The employees were ready to speak out the problems but were afraid to put it in writing. 2. Convincing employees to fill the questionnaire was also a major hindrance. 3. A comprehensive study of Moserbaer selection and recruitment elements take a lot of time. So a period of award six weeks or so has actual as a constraint. 4. It was also difficult to convince the HR people meet out project could help them in the long run. Because of this we could not get tell the information we needed.

RECOMMENDATION

Recommendation 1. There should be internal advertisement about the vacancies in the company.

2. The company should provide the job security to their employees. 3. They should include the fresher candidate. 4. The major group of the employees in moserbaer are B.tech or ITI. The company should consider the candidate from other professional background that is MBA and MCA. 5. The company should advertise about its media storage products.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliography 1. Human resource and personnel management by K. Ashwathappa 2. Information from Moserbaer brochure 3. Moserbaer website (www.moserbaer.com)