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Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,

which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2001, and are referred to as the "Marrakesh Accords." Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. In Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the "Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol" was adopted. The amendment includes:

New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020; A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHG) to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period; and Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol which specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period.

On 21 December 2012, the amendment was circulated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, acting in his capacity as Depositary, to all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol. During the first commitment period, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community committed to reduce GHG emissions to an average of five percent against 1990 levels. During the second commitment period, Parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020; however, the composition of Parties in the second commitment period is different from the first. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty that sets binding obligations on industrialised countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The UNFCCC is an environmental treaty with the goal of preventing "dangerous" anthropogenic (i.e., human-induced) interference of the climate system.[10] According to the UNFCC website, the Protocol "recognises that developed countries are principly responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, and places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities.""[11]There are 192 parties to the convention, including 191 states (all the UN members, except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan and the United States) and the European Union.[12] The United States signed but did not ratify the Protocol and Canada withdrew from it in 2011.[2] The Protocol was adopted by Parties to the UNFCCC in 1997, and entered into force in 2005.[6] As part of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries have agreed to legally binding limitations/reductions in their emissions of greenhouse gases in two commitments periods. The first commitment period applies to emissions between 2008-2012, and the second commitment period applies to emissions between 2013-2020. The protocol was amended in 2012 to accommodate the second commitment period,[13][14][15] but this amendment has (as of January 2013) not entered into legal force.[7]

The 37 countries with binding targets in the second commitment period are Australia, all members of the European Union, Belarus, Croatia, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets.[16] Japan, New Zealand, and Russia have participated in Kyoto's first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second commitment period. Other developed countries without second-round targets are Canada (which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012) and the United States (which has not ratified the Protocol). International emissions trading allows developed countries to trade their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.[17] They can trade emissions quotas among themselves, and can also receive credit for financing emissions reductions in developing countries.[17] Developed countries may use emissions trading until late 2014 or 2015 to meet their first-round targets.[18] Developing countries do not have binding targets under the Kyoto Protocol, but are still committed under the treaty to reduce their emissions.[19] Actions taken by developed and developing countries to reduce emissions include support for renewable energy, improving energy efficiency, and reducing deforestation.[20] Under the Protocol, emissions of developing countries are allowed to grow in accordance with their development needs.[21] The treaty recognizes that developed countries have contributed the most to the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (around 77% of emissions between 1750 and 2004),[22] and that carbon dioxide emissions per person in developing countries (2.9 tonnes in 2010)[23] are, on average, lower than emissions per person in developed countries (10.4 tonnes in 2010).[23] A number of developed countries have commented that the Kyoto targets only apply to a small share of annual global emissions.[24][25][26][27] Countries with second-round Kyoto targets made up 13.4% of annual global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in 2010.[28] Many developing countries have emphasized the need for developed countries to have strong, binding emissions targets.[29][30] At the global scale, existing policies appear to be too weak to prevent global warming exceeding 2 or 1.5 degrees Celsius, relative to the pre-industrial level.[31] The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treatydesigned to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on 16 September 1987, and entered into force on 1 January 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then, it has undergone seven revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing). It is believed that if the international agreement is adhered to, the ozone layer is expected to recover by 2050.[1] Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol".[2] The two ozone treaties have been ratified by 197 states and the European Union[3] making them the most widely ratified treaties in United Nations history. ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS OF THE PHILIPPINES ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND POLICIES

Bio 425/426/427 (Environmental Issues and Policies) P.D. 984 Pollution Control Law P.D. 1151 Philippine Environmental Policy

- defines the general policies on he pursuit of a better quality of life for the present and future generations and mandates the undertaking the environmental impact assessments for all projects, which may significantly affect the environment. P.D. 1152 Philippine Environmental Policy - defines the policy objectives and the strategies for the various aspects of environmental management, such as air and water quality management, natural source development, land management, and waste management. It launches a comprehensive national program of environmental protection and management, with reference to policies and standards of noise, air quality, water quality, classification of water and waste management. P.D. 1586 defines the framework for the implementation of the environmental impact assessment as the mechanism to reconcile the impacts of development projects on society and the physical environment. P.D. 389 (P.D. 705) The Forestry Reform Code - codifies, updates and raises forestry laws in the country. It emphasizes the sustainable utilization of forest resources. P.D. 330 & P.D. 953 laws on penalizing illegal cutting of trees P.D. 953 & 1153 laws on tree planting P.D. 331- laws requiring all public forests be developed on a sustained yield basis. P.D. 704 preservation of optimum productivity of fishery resources through conservation and protection. P.D. 1015 banning the operation of commercial fishing within a distance of 7 kilometers from the shoreline. P.D. 1058 increasing the penalties for illegal forms of fishing. P.D. 1219 providing for the protection of coral ecosystems. P.D. 1067 Water Code of the Philippines - adopts adequate measures to conserve and regulate the use of water in commercial, industrial and residential areas. It also provides other policy guidelines in water quality and management of water resources. P.D. 463 amended the Mining Act of 1936, requires all mining leaseholders to comply with Pollution Control Laws and regulations and provide for penalties for noncompliance. P.D. 1198 reinforces this provision for restoration of mined-out areas to this original condition to the extent possible. P.D. 1251 imposes fines on tailings and mine wastes and the fund generated is used to pay for the damages to land, agricultural crops, forests products, aquatic resources and infrastructures caused by pollution for mining operations. P.D. 984 The Pollution Control Law P.D. 1181 (supplements the provision of P.D. 984) providing for the abatement, control and prevention of vehicular pollution & establishing the maximum allowance emissions of specific air pollutants from all types of vehicle. P.D. 600 ( amended by P.D. 979) Water Pollution Control - prohibits the discharge of oil, noxious liquid substances, and other harmful substances into the countrys inland and territorial waters.

P.D. 825 prohibits the improper disposal of garbage P.D. 856 Sanitation Code

- places the responsibility in the local government units for he solid waste management in his area of production. P.D. 1144 Control of Pesticides R.A. 8749 Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 - provides for a comprehensive air pollution control policy R.A 3720 Food Additives R.A. 6425 Drugs R.A 280 Cosmetics R.A. 7160 Local Government Code of 1991 -provides that local government should share with the national government the responsibility in the management and maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction subject to national policies and other pertinent provisions of the code. R.A. 6969 Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act - authorizes the DENR to establish a program to regulate, restrict or prohibit the importation, manufacture, processing, sale, destruction, use and disposal of chemical substances, and mixture that present unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment. R.A. 8550 The Fisheries Code of the Philippines - defines the policies of the state in the protection, conservation and effective management of fisheries stock as well as identifying allowable fishing methods in Philippine coastal waters. R.A. 9003 The Solid Waste Management Act of 2001- an act providing for an ecological solid waste management program, creating the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties, appropriating funds therefor, and for other purposes. R.A. 9275- also known as the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 an act providing a comprehensive water quality management and for other purposes. R.A. 9729 also known as the Climate Change Act of 2009. - an act mainstreaming climate change into government policy formulations, establishing the framework strategy and program on climate change, creating for this purpose the climate change commission, and for other purposes. Natural resource, such as coal, oil, or natural gas, that takes millions of years to form naturally and therefore cannot be replaced once it is consumed; it will eventually be used up. The main energy sources used by humans are nonrenewable.In short, these are the things that can run out or can be used up. They usually come from the ground. There are fixed amounts of these resources. They are not living things and they are hard to find. They don't regrow and they are not replaced quickly.

Today, scientists find ways to limit the use of these resources of energy to make them more or less sustainable, lasting not just in the current generation, but also to the next. What are the non-renewable resources? a. Wood (Trees) Once served as the world's chief fuel. In many developing countries where there are lots of forested area, wood is still the main source of energy. It is also a source of livelihood like furniture making and sculpting (wood carvings). Also, the forests areas needed for farming are being indiscrimately burned using the kainging or slash and burn method. Although easier said than done, the trend must be towards the creation of sustainable forest: 1. Proper education on the value of forest to discourage slash and burns. 2. Harvesting only what is needed. 3. Planting to replace those harvested. 4. Zero-waste management on wood being harvested. Wood chips and grains can be harnessed as biomass energy. b. Coal This is a result of a half a million to even several million years of compression and heat applied to decaying plants growing in bogs or swampy areas. Because of this length of time for nature to form coal, it is considered a non renewable source of energy. About 26% of the world's energy still uses coal as their fuel source, whether for producing heat or electrical. The Philippines has an abundance of coal, especially in Regions II (Cagayan Valley), VI (Panay, Negros Oriental), and XIII or CARAGA (Agusan and Surigao provinces). The most notable coald-based power plants are Pagbilao 1 and 2 in Quezon province and ACMDC Coal Plant in Cebu. Problems using Coal a) accidents in coal mines b) diseases that result from breathing coal dust c) strip mining causes erosion of mining sites d) when burned, coal releases nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide and other impurities that pollute the air, leading to the formation of acid rain. The main pollutant that cause acid rain, industries eject sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere which bec See how the trees become leafless and dead because of their being exposed to acid rain c. Petroleum One of the world's most important resources. Its by products are essential in cooking and heating, powering vehicles and airplanes, and even electricity generation.

Most petroleum is removed from deep within the earth as a liquid called crude oil. Workers pump crude oil out of the earth through wells drilled into oil-bearing formation called reservoirs. Because it is liquid, crude oil can be economically transported long distances by pipelines to refineries. Refineries process it into gasoline and other petroleum products.omes part of the clouds and form acid rain Many parts of the country have shown good indications of the presence of petroleum. The Cagayan Valley, Central Plain of Luzon, Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon, Cebu, Leyte, Cotabato, Palawan, and Sulu Sea, are promising petroleum-bearing areas now. Commercial petroleum deposits have been discovered in the western coast of Palawan. Top Philippine sites with oil potential includes West Linapacan A/B in Palawan, Carnag-Malampaya in Palawan, Galoc also in Palawan, Maniguin in Mindoro-Cuyo and Matinloc in Palawan. Problems using petroleum a. it takes a lot to form. b. effective environmental management i. forest ecosystem must be preserved when creating oil pipes. ii. leak detectors must be present on oil and pipelines to detect even a minute spill, thus avoiding a bigger one. c. burning fuels and power plants contribute to the "greenhouse effect" d. proper maintenance of vehicles and power plants would ensure proper burning of these fossil fuels. D. Natural Gas natural gas comes from deposits in the earth it is a clean source of energy because it is refined naturally during its formation within the earth and does not require further refining. natural gas can be compressed into liquid and transported long distances through pipes. September 27, 2001 marked the entry of the Philippines as a producer of commercial grade natural gas with its discovery at the Malampaya well, off the wester coast of Palawan. It was inaugurated last October 16, 2001 at Malampaya - on shore gas plant in Tabangao, Batangas. It is a 4.5 billion-dollar project of Shell Philippines Exploration, BV Texaco Philippines, and the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC-EC) Potential supply of 8,000 barrels per day and expected income from 8-10 billion dollar. Top sites with natural gas potential includes Carnaga-Malampaya, San Martin in Palawan, San Antonio in Cagayan and Octon in Palawan.

A natural resource qualifies as a renewable resource if it is replenished by natural resources at a rate comparable or faster than its rate of consumption by humans or other users.Solar radiation, tides, winds, nuclear reactors, geothermal and hydroelectricity are perpetual resources that are in no danger of being used in excess of their long-term availability. The term alas has the connotation of sustainability of the handlings of waste products by the natural environment.Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. In nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. This is how the sun produces energy. In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electricity. The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium. Uranium is nonrenewable, though it is a common metal found in rocks all over the world. Nuclear plants use a certain kind of uranium, U-235, as fuel because its atoms are easily split apart. Though uranium is quite common, about 100 times more common than silver, U-235 is relatively rare. Most U.S. uranium is mined, in the Western United States. Once uranium is mined the U-235 must be extracted and processed before it can be used as a fuel. During nuclear fission, a small particle called a neutron hits the uranium atom and splits it, releasing a great amount of energy as heat and radiation. More neutrons are also released. These neutrons go on to bombard other uranium atoms, and the process repeats itself over and over again. This is called a chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are basically machines that contain and control chain reactions, while releasing heat at a controlled rate. In electric power plants, the reactors supply the heat to turn water into steam, which drives the turbinegenerators. The electricity travels through high voltage transmission lines and low voltage distribution lines to homes, schools, hospitals, factories, office buildings, rail systems and other users. Like all industrial processes, nuclear power generation has by-product wastes: spent (used) fuels, other radioactive waste, and heat. Spent fuels and other radioactive wastes are the principal environmental concern for nuclear power. Most nuclear waste is low-level radioactive waste. It consists of ordinary tools, protective clothing, wiping cloths and disposable items that have been contaminated with small amounts of radioactive dust or particles. These materials are subject to special regulation that govern their disposal so they will not come in contact with the outside environment. Solar power is the energy derived directly from the Sun. It is the most abundant source of energy on Earth. The fastest growing type of alternative energy, increasing at 50 percent a year, is the photovoltaic cell, which converts sunlight directly into energy. The Sun yearly delivers more than 10,000 times the energy that humans currently use. Wind power is derived from uneven heating of the Earth's surface from the Sun and the warm core. Most modern wind power is generated in the form of electricity by converting the rotation of turbine blades into electrical current by means of an electrical generator. In windmills (a much older technology) wind energy is used to turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like crushing grain or pumping water. Hydropower energy derived from the movement of water in rivers and oceans (or other energy differentials), can likewise be used to generate electricity using turbines, or can be used mechanically to do useful work. It is a very common resource. Geothermal power directly harnesses the natural flow of heat from the ground. The available energy from natural decay of radioactive elements in the earth's crust and mantle is approximately equal to that of incoming solar energy.

The natural heat within the earth is the motor of the "geothermal energy". In fact, the earth serves as a hot waterboiler. The heat of the earth warms up water (fluids) which is trapped in rock formations thousands of feet (3,000 meter) beneath the earth's surface. Worldwide, the Philippines rank second to the United States in producing geothermic energy. Leyte is of the island in the Philippines where geothermic power plants were developed. The developments here started in 1977 by the company Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC). Many of the geothermic natural resources are still waiting to be "harnessed for steam." Leyte is one of the Philippine islands where geothermal energy is produced. In the Philippines geothermal energy already provides 27% of the country's total electricity production generated in powr plants. Geothermal power plants are on the islands Luzon, Negros, Mindanao and Leyte. The production of the electricity by geothermal plants is cheaper than the electricity produced in plants by using natural gas and coal. It is even cheaper than electricity produced by hydro power stations. Biomass Energy or Bioconversion It is just composed of organic materials, most of which are waste. Sources include composting materials, wood, municipal and city wastes, bagasse, coconut waste and animal waste From biomass, one can get the following: ethanol (fermenting high carbohydrate biomass sources) biodiesel/biofuel (from Jethropa sp.) fuel oil Alcohol derived from corn, sugar cane, etc. is also a renewable source of energy. Similarly, oils from plants and seeds can be used as a substitute for non-renewable diesel. Methane is also considered as a renewable source of energy.

Environmental Laws

Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 African Elephant Conservation Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 has been codified in title 40, U.S.C. (40 U.S.C. 14101 et seq.) and will not be maintained as a separate compilation. Aquatic Resources Trust Fund, Provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1965 Relating to the Sport Fish Restoration Account as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Asbestos Laws as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Asian Elephant Conservation Act of 1997 as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended through P.L. 105-394, Nov. 13, 1998

Clean Air Act as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Coastal Barrier Resources Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Coastal Zone Reauthorization Act Amendments of 1990 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Deepwater Port Act of 1974 as amended through P.L. 108-59, July 14, 2003 Dingell-Johnson Sportfish Restoration Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Duck Stamp Act (Act of March 16, 1934) as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Endangered Species Act of 1973 as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended through P.L. 108-38, June 24, 2003. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as amended through P.L. 107-377, December 19, 2002. Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended through P.L. 107-303, Nov. 27, 2002 Federal Water Project Recreation Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Federal Wildlife and Sportfish Restoration Programs as amended through P.L. 104-333, Nov. 12, 1996 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Fur Seal Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Game Birds: Provisions Granting General Authority Regarding Game Birds and Other Wild Wild Birds as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Intermodal Surface Transportation Act of 1991 as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 John F. Kennedy Center Act as amended through P.L. 107-142, Feb. 12, 2002 Lacey Act as amended through P.L. 97-79, Nov. 16, 1981 Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Marine Protection Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Migratory Bird Conservation Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Migratory Bird Treaty Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 National Climate Protection Act as amended through P.L. 106-586, Dec. 29, 2000

National Dam Safety Program Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 National Environmental Education Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as amended through December 31, 2000 National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Establishment Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 National Highway System Act of 1995 as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 National Wildlife System Administration Act of 1966 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Noise Control Act of 1972 as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 North American Wetlands Conservation Act as amended through P.L. 107-137, Jan. 24, 2002 Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Oil Pollution Act of 1990 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Pribilof Islands: Section 105 of the Pribilof Islands Transition Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Provision Establishing Multinational Species Conservation Fund as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Public Buildings Act of 1959 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Recreational and Hunting Equipment, Provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1965 Relating to Taxes on Recreational Equipment and Taxes on Firearms as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Refuge Recreation Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Residential Lead-Based Pain Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994 as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act [Act of March 3, 1899] as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act as amended through P.L. 107-136, Jan. 24, 2002 Safe Drinking Water [Public Health Service Act] as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 (P.L. 104-182) that did not amend the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002

Sikes Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 St. Lawrence Seaway Act [Act of May 13, 1954] as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Title 23, U.S. Code, [Highways] as amended through P.L. 106-347, Oct. 13, 2000 Title 49, U.S. Code, [Transportation Laws] as amended through P.L. 107-142, Feb. 12, 2002 Toxic Substances Control Act as amended through P.L. 107-377, Dec. 31, 2002 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century as amended through P.L. 107-142, Feb. 12, 2002 Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Water Resources Development Act of 1986 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Water Resources Development Act of 1988 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Water Resources Development Act of 1990 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Water Resources Development Act of 1992 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Water Resources Development Act of 1996 as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000 Water Resources Planning Act as amended through P.L. 106-580, Dec. 29, 2000