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ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Read A. Co-ordination and Subordination in the notes The Simple Sentence Categories and Functions B.

. Chapter 24: Finite Adverbial Clauses from Parrot (pp 334-337) . OR C. Any grammar book that deals with this topic. Then answer the questions and do the activities below. 1. What is the difference between Coordinated and Subordinate Clauses? 2. What type of clauses are Adverbial Clauses? What are their functions? 3. What function words link Adverbial Clauses to the Main Clause? What general meanings do they express? 4. Which of the following options are possible. Account for your answer by giving examples of your own. Adverbial Clauses are always placed before Main Clauses. Adverbial Clauses may come before or after Main Clauses. Some Adverbial Clauses do not generally come before Main Clauses. ACTIVITIES A. Conditional Clauses ( You can find information in Chapter 18: Conditional Sentences from Parrot (pp 231-242) . a. In what ways are these four conditional clauses different? 1. If I get up in time, I go swimming. 2. If I get up in time, I'll go swimming. 3. My life would be pretty dull if I didn't tell lies. 4. My life would have been pretty dull if I hadn't told lies. Which verb forms are used in the main clauses and in the subordinate clauses? b. What is the difference in meaning between these pairs of sentences? 1a. If I have to pay too much income tax, I won't be able to afford a reasonable standard of living. 1b. If I have to pay too much income tax, I may not be able to afford a reasonable standard of living. 2a. Future generations will suffer if we don't do something about it now. 2b. Future generations can/could suffer if we don't do something about it now. c. How could this sentence be rewritten using the word unless.? Future generations will suffer if we don't do something about it now. d. Match a beginning a-c with an ending d-f and join the two with as long as, provided (that), or unless. a. You can come to my party... b. You mustn't telephone me... c. You'll pass your driving test... d. ...you have some important news. e. ...you spend enough time practising. f. ...you don't eat too much. B. Time Clauses Expand the reduced time clauses into finite time clauses. 1. When living in Washington, did you ever meet president Bush?

2. Having won the silver medal in the 100 metres, he went on to take gold in the 200 metres. 3. Reaching for the sugar, she knocked over his glass. 4. On entering the town, you will see the monument straight in front of you. 5. Once published, your book will sell very rapidly. C. Conditional and Concessive clauses Combine each of the pair of sentences below so as to form a single sentence containing a conditional or a concessive clause. 1. Stand up here. Then you can see the mountain clearly. 2. Stand up. Otherwise, you wont be able to see anything. 3. We strained our eyes. But we couldnt see anything. 4. You can strain your eyes . But still you wont be able to see anything. 5. I will let you come with me on one condition. You must do exactly what I tell you. 6. I am sure this story is untrue. Otherwise, it would be an absolute scandal. 7. I am sure that never really happened. Otherwise we would all be dead by now. 8. All you had to do was telephone me. Then I would have come round at once. 9. It doesnt matter what I say. He always does something different. 10. His difficulties were very great indeed. But he always overcame them in the end. D. Purpose and Result Clauses. Which of the dependent clauses below express (a) purpose, and which express (b) result. Account for your answer. The police used a loud-hailer so that everyone in the building heard them. They used a loud-hailer so that everyone could hear them. So that everyone could hear them, they used a loud-hailer. 4. We planted hundreds of roses so that the garden should look beautiful at the time of the wedding. 5. We watered the garden thoroughly so that it smelt fresh when the E. Manner Clauses Fill the gaps by: as, as if/though, in the way that, in any way (that), the way. 1. I cant play the guitar . you do. 2. Answer the question . you think suitable. 3. Answer this question . you think most suitable. 4. He talks to me . he were my grandfather. 5. Do . I say, not . I do. 6. He played . he was inspired.