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Apart from the efforts of myself, the success of any project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. I would like to show my greatest appreciation to our Sociology professor. I can't say thank you enough for her tremendous support and help. I feel motivated and encouraged every time I attend her class. Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized. The guidance and support received from her was vital for the success of the project. I am grateful for her constant support and help.

Raja Sanmanbir Singh

What is Crime?

Crime is the breaking of rules or laws for which some governing authority can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Crimes may also result in cautions, rehabilitation or be unenforced. Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently, in different localities, at different time stages of the so-called "crime", from planning, disclosure, supposedly intended, supposedly prepared, incomplete, complete or future proclaimed after the "crime". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime; for example: breaches of contract and of other civil law may rank as "offences" or as "infractions". Modern societies generally regard crimes as offences against the public or the state, as distinguished from torts. Crime in the social and legal framework is the set of facts or assumptions that are part of a case in which they were committed acts punishable under criminal law, and the application of which depends on the agent of a sentence or security measure criminal. Usually includes a felony violation of a criminal rule or act against law, in particular at the expense of people or moral. A crime may be illegal or perfectly legal. Illegal and punishable crime is the violation of any rule of administrative, fiscal or criminal liability on the part of agents of the state or practice of any wrongdoing and notoriously harmful to self or against third parties, provided for in criminal law, since they practiced with guilt. Legal and not punishable crime are all acts in self-defense or otherwise determined by the illegal or criminal conduct of others that happened in the first place.

Types of Crimes

Crimes Against Persons Crimes against persons, also called personal crimes, include murder, aggravated assault, rape, and robbery. Personal crimes are unevenly distributed in the United States, with young, urban, poor, and racial minorities committing these crimes more than others. Crimes Against Property Property crimes involve theft of property without bodily harm, such as burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson. Like personal crimes, young, urban, poor, and racial minorities generally commit these crimes more than others. Crimes Against Morality Crimes against morality are also called victimless crimes because there is not complainant, or victim. Prostitution, illegal gambling, and illegal drug use are all examples of victimless crimes. White-Collar Crime White-collar crimes are crimes that committed by people of high social status who commit their crimes in the context of their occupation. This includes embezzling (stealing money from ones employer), insider trading, and tax evasion and other violations of income tax laws. White-collar crimes generally generate less concern in the public mind than other types of crime, however in terms of total dollars, white-collar crimes are

even more consequential for society. Nonetheless, these crimes are generally the least investigated and least prosecuted. Organized Crime Organized crime is crime committed by structured groups typically involving the distribution of illegal goods and services to others. Many people think of the Mafia when they think of organized crime, but the term can refer to any group that exercises control over large illegal enterprises (such as the drug trade, illegal gambling, prostitution, weapons smuggling, or money laundering). A key sociological concept in the study or organized crime is that these industries are organized along the same lines as legitimate businesses and take on a corporate form. There are typically senior partners who control the business profits, workers who manage and work for the business, and clients who buy the goods and services that the organization provides.

What is Deviance?

The word deviance connotes odd or unacceptable behavior, but in the sociological sense of the word, deviance is simply any violation of societys norms. Deviance can range from something minor, such as a traffic violation, to something major, such as murder. Each society defines what is deviant and what is not, and definitions of deviance differ widely between societies. For example, some societies have much more stringent rules regarding gender roles than we have in the United States, and still other societies rules governing gender roles are less stringent than ours. Deviance is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society. Deviance can be criminal or non-criminal. The sociological discipline that deals with crime is criminology. Today, Americans consider such activities as alcoholism, excessive gambling, being nude in public places, playing with fire, stealing, lying, refusing to bathe, purchasing the services of prostitutes, and cross-dressingto name only a fewas deviant. People who engage in deviant behavior are referred to as deviants.

Different Theories of Deviance

1. Differential-association theory Edwin Sutherland Edwin Sutherland coined the phrase differential association to address the issue of how people learn deviance. According to this theory, the environment plays a major role in deciding which norms people learn to violate. Specifically, people within a particular reference group provide norms of conformity and deviance, and thus heavily influence the way other people look at the world, including how they react. People also learn their norms from various socializing agentsparents, teachers, ministers, family, friends, co-workers, and the media. In short, people learn criminal behavior, like other behaviors, from their interactions with others, especially in intimate groups.

2. Anomie theory Robert Merton Anomie refers to the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist. In the 1960s, Robert Merton used the term to describe the differences between socially accepted goals and the availability of means to achieve those goals. Merton stressed, for instance, that attaining wealth is a major goal of Americans, but not all Americans possess the means to do this, especially members of minority and disadvantaged groups. Those who find the road to riches closed to them experience anomie, because an obstacle has thwarted their pursuit of a socially approved goal. When this happens, these individuals may

employ deviant behaviors to attain their goals, retaliate against society, or merely make a point. 3. Control theory Walter Reckless According to Walter Reckless's control theory, both inner and outer controls work against deviant tendencies. People may wantat least some of the timeto act in deviant ways, but most do not. They have various restraints: internal controls, such as conscience, values, integrity, morality, and the desire to be a good person; and outer controls, such as police, family, friends, and religious authorities. Travis Hirschi noted that these inner and outer restraints form a person's self-control, which prevents acting against social norms. The key to developing self-control is proper socialization, especially early in childhood. Children who lack this selfcontrol, then, may grow up to commit crimes and other deviant behaviors.

4. Labeling theory - William Chambliss A type of symbolic interaction, labeling theory concerns the meanings people derive from one another's labels, symbols, actions, and reactions. This theory holds that behaviors are deviant only when society labels them as deviant. As such, conforming members of society, who interpret certain behaviors as deviant and then attach this label to individuals, determine the distinction between deviance and non-deviance. Labeling theory questions who applies what label to whom, why they do this, and what happens as a result of this labeling.

What is Social Control?

When we use the term Social Control, the ideas which generally comes in mind is of police, court, law, force, prison of force and harassment. But in sociological term it is used in broader sense. Social control has been defined by MacIver as "the way in which entire social order coheres and maintain itself-how it operates as a whole, as a changing equilibrium." Ogburn defines it as the patterns of pressure which a society exerts to maintain order and established rules." Landis defines social control as "A social process by which social organization is built and maintained." On the basis of above definition it is cleared that social control is different from concept of self control. To understand this concept further, there are three important things to learn. 1. Social control is an influence, which may be exerted through various means of control like public opinion, force, public appeal, social, religious organizations. 2. This influence should be implemented by society-there are so many groups who exercise this influence, like family, trade union church ,state, school ,neighborhood, clubs, religious groups etc. 3. The influence should be exercised for promoting the welfare and interest of the entire group.

Types of Social Control

1. Informal means of control - Internalisation of norms and values by a process known as socialization, which is defined as "the process by which an individual, born with behavioral potentialities of enormously wide range, is led to develop actual behavior which is confined to the narrower range of what is acceptable for him by the group standards." The social values present in individuals are products of informal social control, exercised implicitly by a society through particular customs, norms, and mores. Individuals internalize the values of their society, whether conscious or not of the indoctrination. Traditional society relies mostly on informal social control embedded in its customary culture to socialize its members. Informal sanctions may include shame, ridicule, sarcasm, criticism, and disapproval, which can cause an individual to stray towards the social norms of the society. In extreme cases sanctions may include social discrimination and exclusion. Informal social control usually has more effect on individuals because the social values become internalized, thus becoming an aspect of the individual's personality. Informal sanctions check 'deviant' behavior. An example of a negative sanction comes from a scene in the Pink Floyd film 'The Wall,' whereby the young protagonist is ridiculed and verbally abused by a high school teacher for writing poetry in a mathematics class. Another example from the movie 'About a Boy', when a young boy hesitates to jump from a high springboard and is ridiculed for his fear. Though he eventually jumps, his behaviour is controlled by shame.


Informal controls reward or punish acceptable or unacceptable behaviour (i.e., deviance) and are varied from individual to individual, group to group, and society to society. For example, at a Women's Institute meeting, a disapproving look might convey the message that it is inappropriate to flirt with the minister. In a criminal gang, on the other hand, a stronger sanction applies in the case of someone threatening to inform to the police of illegal activity. 2. Formal means of social control - External sanctions enforced by government to prevent the establishment of chaos or anomie in society. Some theorists, such as mile Durkheim, refer to this form of control as regulation. Formal Social Control is based on the idea of legal and formal norms of behaviour. That is, rules of behaviour that are written down and, in societies such as our own, that apply equally to everyone. Where laws are involved, it is usual to find a group of people, normally employed by the government, whose job it is to enforce the law. In our society, for example, the main agency of formal social control is the police and the judiciary, although the armed forces can, on occasions, be used to perform this role. Not all formal norms are laws, however. When you are accepted into an organisation, you agree to abide by the formal rules governing behaviour in this institution. In this example, if you do not attend classes then you will be punished in some way. In general terms, formal rules and social controls exist to tell everyone within a society or social group what is and is not acceptable in terms of behaviour. Such formal controls usually exist where a group is very large and its members are not in day-to-day contact with each other.


The Social Functions of Crime and Deviance

Promote Social Unity Emile Durkheim observed, deviance helps unify a group. An us against them attitude reinforces the sense of community and the belief in shared values. Clarifying Norms Crime and Deviance both serve to define the boundaries of acceptable behavior. When rules are broken, members of society are reminded of the norms that guide social life; the punishment serves as a warning to others that certain behaviors will not be accepted by society. Promotes Social Change Groups do not always agree on what to do when their boundaries are pushed and deviated. Social deviance may force a group to rethink and redefine its moral boundaries. Identifying Problems Deviance can help bring about social change by identifying problem areas. When a particular is violated by a large number of people, it often is indication that something in the organization of society needs to be changed. Providing Jobs Judge, Lawyers, police officers, prison personnel, parole officers, manufactures of electronic security systems, the scientists who study criminal behavior all have legitimate jobs based on the existence of deviance.