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The Coming of the Greeks: I. The Geographical Distribution of Pre-Greek Place-Names Author(s): J. B.

Haley Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1928), pp. 141-145 Published by: Archaeological Institute of America Stable URL: . Accessed: 01/07/2013 14:38
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AT the suggestion of Professor Blegen I have prepared the accompanying map designed to exhibit the distribution of pre-Greek placenames and their probable source. The material I have taken almost exclusively from Fick's Die vorgriechischen Ortsnamen. Although I have consulted the various reviews of this work and other pertinent discussions available, I have ignored Fick's hazardous attempt to assign the names specifically to the Carians, Lycians, Lydians, Pelasgians, etc., and treated them en masse. Even so, the evidence of pre-Greek origin is of widely varying degrees of cogency, and while I have excluded some of the most doubtful cases, there will remain many names the pre-Greek character of which is far from indisputable. In general it is safe to say that Fick's list of pre-Greek place-names errs more on the side of inclusion than on that of omission. On the other hand, I feel convinced that some of the names I have excluded are really pre-Greek names in Greek disguise and owe their Greek appearance to the fact that they were confused by folketymology with Greek words of somewhat similar sound. Cf. the form in the Textus Receptus of the New Testament, '1epoa6Xvyja, which probably owes its rough breathing to the Greek adjective 'ep6bs. The map contains those place-names in Greece that seem to be related to place-names in Asia Minor. I have subdivided these names on the basis of the three kinds of evidence attesting their connection with Asia Minor. Group A includes those place-names that are identical with place-names in Asia Minor, Group B those that have suffixes that are common in Asia Minor, and Group C those in which the radical element is identical with or similar to the radical element in place-names in Asia Minor. The differences among these three groups are not those of relationship, but of the evidence whereby this relationship is indicated. On the map the names in Group A are written in capital letters, those in Group B in small letters with initial capitals, those in Group C in "italics" with initial capitals. In Group B, names with the suffixes -nth- or -s(s)- are underscored. It may be that a given name does not belong exclusively to any one of the groups, but shows two, or even all three kinds of evidence. Labyrinthos, for example, has a suffix that is common in Asia Minor, and the root of the word seems to occur in the name Labranda in 141

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Ionia. Not only is Parnassos shown by root and suffix to be related to place-names in Asia Minor, but the name actually occurs there. However, for the sake of clearness and to avoid confusion, each name is classified under only one group. If the name occurs in Asia Minor it is classified under Group A. Names that are shown by both root and suffix to be connected with Asia Minor are put in Group B, since I regard the suffixes as affording clearer and more satisfactory evidence than the roots. In Group C, therefore, are left those names which are shown only by their roots to be related to place-names in Asia Minor. The existence of a series of place-names in Greece that is identical with a series in Asia Minor clearly indicates, it seems to me, that one is original and the other transferred. Coincidence is out of the question for such a large number of names as those contained in Group A. And the evidence shows, in my opinion, that the transfer was from Asia Minor to Greece rather than that the converse was true. For the number of these names is so large relatively to the Greek names that the Greeks certainly carried to Asia Minor as to make it improbable that these two groups belong together. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of these names in Asia Minor makes it seem improbable that they were brought over by the Greeks. Certainly it is not likely that places so far inland as Hermos, Kadmos, and Skiritis owe their names to Greek influence, to say nothing of Parnassos, which is in the very heart of Asia Minor. When we come to consider Group B the case is even clearer. It is conceivable that whole names might have been transferred from Greece to Asia Minor, but suffixes are out of the question, in view of the fact that these suffixes occur in names that are widely distributed in Asia Minor but are utterly foreign to Greece and to Greek. Kretschmer, Einleitung in die Geschichteder griechischen Sprache, has argued convincingly for the non-Greek character of the two suffixes -nth- (the identity of which with the -nd- suffix in Asia Minor he establishes) and -s(s)- in place-names in Greece. He admits that the first of these suffixes occurs in some words, and the second in a great many that are Greek. The fact, however, that both of these suffixes occur with great frequency in Asia Minor, and that in Greece they occur attached to a great number of place-names the roots of which obviously are not Greek, leads him to think that these placenames originated in Asia Minor. In the case of the -nth- this explains why a suffix which has such a meager existence in Greek apart from place-names occurs with such frequency in them. The suffixes -1-, -m-, -mn-, -n-, -r- and -t- I have included in Group B. I do not mean to imply that such suffixes are always non-Greek and that any place-name with any one of them is without further

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ado to be called Anatolian. What I am suggesting is that Kretschmer's arguments for the suffixes -nth- and -s(s)- are applicable to these suffixes also. It is needless to cite examples of these suffixes in Greek words. They all admittedly occur in numerous Greek words. But it may be worth while to cite a few examples of their occurrence in placenames in Asia Minor: -1-: Tmolos, Mykale, Karmalas, Kinolis, Phaselis; -m-: Idyma, Olymos, Sasima, Sidyma, Hyromos; -mn-: Kremna, Larymna, Ordymnos, Methymna, Kalymna; -n-: Adana, Amanos, Dardanos, Lagina, Halasarna, Kyrnos; -r-: Balbura, Gargara, Isaura, Karura, Patara; -t-: Kozanata, Sindata, Othatatis. Since, then, these suffixes occur frequently in Asia Minor, and since place-names with non-Greek roots occur in Greece with these same suffixes, I regard such names as derived from Asia Minor and include them in Group B, though without the underscoring which distinguishes names in -nth- and -s(s). Of the three groups the names in Group C afford the least satisfactory evidence for a connection with Asia Minor. The assumption of identity of roots is bound to be precarious when we are dealing with words in a language about which we know so little as we do about the language of Asia Minor. And since the meaning of the words is not known, we are forced to rely on similarities of sound and spelling, which are no doubt deceptive in some cases. Thus the independent evidence which Group C furnishes is rather weak. It is strengthened, however, by the fact that the distribution of Group C on the map is essentially the same as that of Groups A and B. This would seem to increase the likelihood that in most of the cases the assumption of relationship with names in Asia Minor is correct. The following tables give the names in each of the three groups, alphabetically arranged: GRouP A "AIac MvKaX7w6's KeMvlbpts
r "Aaaos "Eppo. eO)aLL

Aalpw'a A&pvuza

"'OXvj-ros IIapvaaabs Ilipyayov

'Iap avos

AbK auros
Mayvlia Mipyla'aa

b~.os S XKetpir T &ppa TEpjqaa6s

Kapla KarraXia


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-nth'ApaHpvvpos 'ApaKvv os ' E pb2avOo; BepEKvvoS KIpwtdos

HpaLtros lpaotos H

'Hptbavbs Oevali 'I7avi6 Ka ppos

aX r77r6 2v" -,r T aco-arus6 o's a TEv, Tiaua T trap?'otos


Kbptvoso K vdos Aafibptvwo O1v6 ca II pEreirvOo Tos IIpo aXtv os


Ki"POS AE pva
va MEzhd MvKa^vat


TvAw'-bs aXaTc'vr rr6777 o 'T/77nTTr


SatvpO s TLpvps (TLpvvdos)


Kl w4Xor

T evLp'vPl Ti Pvo


Kav&q 2H -r-

'A/.wvtoA 'Ap877Tr6
BivKaoOs Bpeo BptX77rTr6o'

Ora t

'Etwiavpos "E~pvpa


Fapy'7y1rs 'IXto-6s Kapvtov Kepf KEp77tbs K?7776, Kvwoos Kopltia Aaplrtov Aapartov

Klraptos Kbayovp 2XaaLam Mep'liapot


KiK pa Korlpa
II apos II




PtLOv. va - 'AMXKvpva 'AXr'Y6b 'Artb6av's

ptop Ttr "fxepos 'lX Lapos -tE'lvaros Kaiparos



'OpEUodo'ltot IIa'yauat HotKtXa6abs

BeXIua B'r2 Feprlvia


T aby(erov

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'A13la AMiXaa IIplavaov

"Apo "ApLtop v KaXvb& KopbrAE#a&ta

Mao-s Me aaldros MEraa MoOv


apwv Tpa/urba Tpoti 'Ta





The following tables contain the rest of the pre-Greek place-names in Greece not included on the map. Group D consists of names that may be related to names in Asia Minor, but which were so uncertain that I did not feel justified in putting them on the map. A -th- and an -En- suffix occur several times each, but I have not been able to establish their connection with Asia Minor. And finally, Group E, the residuum, is a heterogeneous group of pre-Greek place-names for the origins and relationships of which the evidence seems to be lacking. They may or may not be related to place-names in Asia Minor. At any rate I have been unable to find any specific indication of such connection. GROUPD
'A/.bKXat KAvLdos


W rndos

'EXE60,s n00SO 'IOaKf

KeXvbpbs AbKatov

KpOtS Hpvrls (II &pvbo ')

Her-a7pdoso lKlaiYO

-en'Apabjv O17P'PV TpoLj'V (Group C)

AefO3(Group C) GRouP E "'Apf a



Maao-aX l

Fbp7Uvs Fbprvv

'Io'rphv Kows

Mtbea MtP&6a

A 80wv


Zapa 'Hernv'ela

Aff os

lovXla T apaypa 'QpobS J. B. HALEY


Al7Xavroiv AlbpKELO

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