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SETH JAI PARKASH MUKAND LAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, RADAUR

TO WARDS PRATIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY FOR BECHLOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECNICAL ENGINEERING

PROJECT ON

CAR STEERING OPRATED FRONT LIGHT


PREPARED AND SUBMITTED BY
SANJEEV K.PRABHAKAR SUNIL KUMAR RAJESHWAR ROLL NO.212154 ROLL NO.212152 ROLL NO.212159

SUBMITTED TO :MS. MAMTA JAIN


(PROJECT INCHARGE)

MR. V.K. VERMA


H.O.D. (MECH.-ENGG.)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING RADAUR

Certificate
Certified that the Project entitled CAR STEERING OPRATED FRONT LIGHT is prepared and submitted by

This is the record of the work carried out by the group Under our supervision and guidance. This is further certified that, they have worked with zeal for the complete semester for preparing this project.

Acknowledgement
After completing our project CAR STEERING OPRATED FRONT LIGHT, We wish to express my obligations to the college staff. We wish to express our obligations to our fellow project markers. We would like to thank and pay our obligations (H.O.D.-Mech. Engg.) for his guidance regarding the project. We would like to pay our special gratitude to (Project Incharge) for her every ready helps. We are also grateful to our family and friends for tolerating our infrequent appearances over the period of realizing this project.

For

CAR STEERING OPRATED FRONT LIGHT

Foreword
The present project on CAR STEERING OPRATED FRONT LIGHT is yet another contribution by Mr. Sanjeev K.Prabhakar (Roll No.212154), Mr. Sunil Kumar (Roll No.212152), Mr. Rajeshwar (Roll No.212159), Mr.Suresh Kumar (Roll No.212161) Praveen Kumar Roll (No.212156) and Mr. Pradeep Kumar (Roll No.212182), students 7th sem. G.B.P.P. Okhla, in their efforts to develop basic informative and instructive material for analysis and design of CAR STEERING OPRATED FRONT LIGHT. This report has been written as a part of the program of minor project as recommended by Borad of Technical Education Delhi as a part of curriculum in the starting of 7th semester of m... Writing a report on technical aspect is indeed a very challenging task. The student has to possess not only expertise in the subject matter but also the technique of selecting appropriate material from the vast fund of knowledge they have to have regarding the subject of project and present it in a way which the readers can easily understand. Judging from the remarks of the experts who reviewed the report and also on the basis of earlier projects by these students in the Mechanical field. I have no doubt in my mind that they had done an excellent job. The institute will, therefore fell amply rewarded if the other students and teachers may go through this report for enlarging their know how of CAR STEERING OPRATED FRONT LIGHT. Any suggestions for the improvement of this project and the report from all quarters will be most welcome.

Contents
1. CERTIFICATE..........................................................................6 2. COMPONENTS USED.................7 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.................................................8 4. FOREWORD..............................................................9 5. INTRODUCTIONS......................................................9 6. METHODOLOGIES.............................................10 7. HOW OUR MODEL WORKS........................................16 8. APPROXIMATE COST...........................................................19 9. CONCLUSIONS..................................................23 10. APPLICATIONS.........................................25 11. USES.............................................................25 12. WORKING COMPONENTS DETAIL....................................26

5. INTRODUCTIONS
A FRONT LAMP STEERING CONTROLLED LIGHT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IS DISCLOSED HAVING A LIGHT DISTRIBUTION MEANS MOVABLE TO VARY A LIGHT DISTRIBUTION PATTERN TO RIGHT AND LEFT MAXIMUM LIMIT POSITIONS IN CORNERING AREAS OF A VEHICLE, AND A CONTROL MEANS RESPONSIVE TO A TURNED ON STATE OF A HEAD LAMP SWITCH FOR ACTUATING THE LIGHT DISTRIBUTION MEANS TO CAUSE THE LIGHT DISTRIBUTION PATTERN TO BE VARIED ACCORDING TO A STEERING DIRECTION.

6. METHODOLOGIES
WE ARE CONSTRUCTING AN IRON FRAME APPROX. SIZE 2X3 FEETS. IN WHICH WE ARE FIXING TWO WHEELS AS FIX IN OUR VEHICLES AND THEN WE ADJOINS THOSE WHEEL WITH THE HELP OF TIE RODE AND THEN TIE RODE IS CONNECTED WITH STEERING RODE AS MENTION BELOW DIAGRAM.

NOW WE ARE FIXING TWO DC MOTOR ATTECH WITH FRONT LIGHT IN THE FRONT OF OUR FRAME AND MAKE THEM MOVING WITH THE HELP OF MICROCHIP AND READ SWITCHS ATTECH STEERING AND FRONT LIGHT DC MOTOR.

WE ARE ALSO USING SMALL ELECTRONIC MICROCHIP CIRCUIT TO MAKE THIS MECHANICAL STRUCTURE AUTOMATED WORKING.

7. HOW OUR MODEL WORKS


IN THIS PROJECT WE HAVE FIVE DIFFERENT MOVING POSITION OF THE FRONT LIGHT AS SHOWN BELOW.

1. POSITION 2-RIGHT 2. POSITION 1-RIGHT 3. POSITION 0-CENTRE 4. POSITION 1-LEFT 5. POSITION 2-LEFT

WE ARE USING IR INTREPUTER SENSOR TO IDENTIFY THE CURRENT POSITON OF FRONT LIGHT. THESE IR INTREPUTE PROVIED PULSE TO THE MICROCHIP CIRCUIT AND MICROCHIP CONTROL FRONT LIGHT FIXED DC MOTOR.

HOW IR INTREPUTER SENSOR WORKS


THESE IR INTREPUTER SENSOR WORK WHEN SOME OBSTRUCTION CUT TRANSMITTER (TX) AND RECEIVER (RX) SEE HOW IT WORKS

TX AND RX TRANSMITTING WAVE IN BETWEEN EACH OTHER

OBSTRUCTION CUT TO THE WAVE AND SENSOR GENRERATE PULSE

IR INTREPUTER SENSOR

NOW WE ARE USING THESE IR INTREPUTER SENSOR IN OUR MODEL TO MAKE MOVMENT AND IDENTIFED LIGHT POSITION,

IR INTREPUTER SENSOR PLACEMENT

HOW THESE SENSOR PLACED IN BETWEEN STEERING AND TIE RODE

WHEN STEERING MOVE, IT GIVE MOVEMENT TO TIE RODE. WE FIX ONE INTRUPTER BAR WITH TIE RODE WHEEL. WHEN WHEEL MOVES IT MOVE TO INTRUPTER BAR AND INTRUPTER BAR SHOT TO IR INTREPUTER SENSOR AS MENTION ABOVE. IR INTREPUTER SENSOR GIVE PULSE TO THE ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT AND CIRCUIT DRIVE THE FRONT LIGHT AS MENTION BELOW

FRONT LIGHT MOVEMENT

APPROXIMATE COST RS. 20000/-

CONCLUSIONS
THIS CAN BE VERY USEFUL SYSTEM IN OUR CAR WHEN WE ARE CUTTING TO THE CAR RIGHT/LIFT FOR MORE FRONT CLEAR VISIBLITY.

APPLICATIONS
THIS COULD BE IMPLEMENT IN OUR VECHICAL ESPICHIALLY IN HEAVY CHEMIRCAL VECHIAL (TRUCK AND BUSES)

USES
IT PROVIDE LIGHT TO THE VECHIAL IN SHORT TURNNING AND PROTECT FROM ACCIDENT

COMPONENTS USED
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. STEERING TIE RODE TYRES LIGHT TWO MOTOR FOR MOVEMENT OF LIGHT MODEL FRAME SOME ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AS PER REQUIRMENT RELAY IR INTREPUTER SENSOR MICROCHIP (AT89S52) TRANSISTOR CAPISITOR RESISTANCE DIODE TRANSFORMER

COMPONENT DETAIL 1.STEERING AND SUSPENSION

1. Tie Rod - Right 2. Tie Rod Socket - Right 3. Knuckle and Arm - Right 4. Steering Bell Crank 5. Steering Connecting Rod 6. Steering Gear Arm 7. Steering Gear Arm Assembly 8. Knuckle and Arm - Left 9. Tie Rod Socket - Left

10.Tie Rod - Left 11.Socket Assembly 12.Steering Bell Crank Pin 13.Steering Bell Crank Cotter Pin 14.Steering Bell Crank Shaft

STEERING SYSTEM
The Steering System is illustrated in Fig. 30. It requires little attention other than proper lubrication and maintaining correct alignment. Alignment may be thrown out by striking curbs or other obstructions. Looseness in the steering system will also affect alignment. It is impossible to satisfactorily align front wheel without first adjusting the various connections, including the front wheel bearings. The correct toe-in of the front wheels is 3/64 3/32 which must be accurately measured for satisfactory front tire wear and steering. The best method of checking wheel alignment is by the use of the wheel alignment device, which is available in most every well equipped shop.

Periodic inspection and tightening of the steering parts will aid greatly in maintaining alignment. Keep the steering connection rod and tie rod ball joints snug; they must operate freely without lost motion. Keep the steering gear arm No. 6 tight on the lever shaft and the steering housing bracket tight on the frame. For adjustment of the front wheel bearings see the next section, Front Wheel Bearings
1.

Housing Oil Seal 2. Lever Shaft Assembly 3. Housing Oil Filler Plug 4. Steering Column Clamp Assembly 5. Cam & Wheel Tube Assembly 6. Steering Column Oil Hole Cover 7. Horn Wire Contact Brush Assembly 8. Steering Wheel 9. Steering Column Bearing Spring 10. Steering Column Bearing Spring Set 11. Steering Column Bearing Assembly

2.

12. Steering Column & Bearing Assembly 13. Steering Wheel & Horn Button Nut 14. Horn Button 15. Horn Button Spring 16. Horn Button Spring Cup 17. Side Adjusting Screw 18. Housing Assembly 19. Cam Bearing Balls 20. Steering Gear Arm 21. Housing Bushing - Inner 22. Housing Bushing - Outer The bell crank No. 4 is mounted on the frame front cross tube and swivels on two needle bearings. The mounting shaft is removable from the frame bracket by driving out a tapered locking pin. The bell crank tie-rod ball is replaceable. Should the bell crank become bent or damaged, install a new part. Do not tighten the steering gear to dampen out steering trouble. Should trouble develop, consult your Willys-Overland Dealer, as he has a definite procedure for the inspection

and adjustment of the steering system.

FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS


The front wheels are mounted on two opposed tapered roll bearings. These bearings are adjustable for wear and their satisfactory operation and long life depends upon periodic attention and correct lubrication. Loose front wheel bearings may cause excessive wear and will affect front wheel alignment. If the bearing adjustment is too tight, the rollers may break or become overheated. To check the adjustment, first raise the front of the vehicle so that the tires clear the floor. Check the brakes to be sure they are free and fully released. With the hands, check sidewise shake of the wheel. If the bearings are

correctly adjusted, shake of the wheel will be just perceptible and the wheel will turn freely with no drag. Should the test indicate that adjustment is necessary, remove the hub cap axle shaft nut, washer, driving flange and shims. See Fig. 25. Wheel bearing adjustment will then be accessible. Bend the lip of the nut locking washer so that the adjustment lock nut and washer can be removed. Rotate the wheel and tighten the adjusting nut until the wheel binds slightly. Then back off the nut 1/6 turn, or more if necessary, making sure the wheel turns freely without sidewise shake. Replace the locking washer and lock nut and bend over the locking washer lip. Check the adjustment and reassemble the driving flange, nut and hub cap, being sure to replace the shims.

REAR WHEEL BEARINGS


Each rear wheel is carried on a single tapered roller bearing which is adjusted by shims placed between the brake backing plate and the axle flange. Check wheel bearing adjustment in the same manner as the front wheel. Should the check determine that adjustment is required, remove the hub cap; remove the cotter pin, the axle shaft nut and use a wheel puller to remove the wheel hub. Remove the bolts holding the brake dust shield, the grease and bearing retainer and the brake assembly. Remove or install shims, Fig. 32, No. 2 to adjust the bearing with .001" to .003" end float which will be just perceptible when tested by hand. The shims available for this adjustment are .003" - .005" and .030" thick. Examine the grease retainer to be sure it is serviceable -- replace it if in doubt, and reassemble.

MAINTENANCE OF WHEEL BEARINGS


When the vehicle is used for road work, lubricate and adjust the front wheel bearings once each year; if used in dusty field work, twice each year. The bearings should be given more than casual cleaning. Use a clean stiff brush and suitable grease solvent to remove all particles of old lubricant from the bearings and hubs. After the bearings are

thoroughly cleaned, inspect them for pitted races and rollers and check the hub oil seals. Repack the bearing cones and rollers and reassemble in the reverse order of dismantling. Adjust them as directed in the preceding paragraphs. Lubricate the rear wheel bearings sparingly. Oil forced from the oil relief hole No. 1, Fig. 32, indicates when the bearing is amply lubricated. Should it be necessary to adjust the bearings, clean them thoroughly and repack them with the recommended lubricant.

MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING WHEELS


The wheel mounting nuts and studs on both left wheels have left hand threads to prevent them from being loosened by wheel action. The studs are identified by an "L" stamped on the end. The left hand threaded nuts are identified by a groove cut around the hexagonal faces. To remove the left wheels, the nuts must be turned RIGHT, and to remove the right wheels, turned to the LEFT.

TIRES
The recommended tire pressures are as follows:
6:00 x 16 Tires 7:00 x 15 Tires 28-30 lbs. 20-21 lbs.

The importance of correct tire inflation cannot be overemphasized. To secure the maximum tire life and most efficient vehicle operation, it is imperative that these pressures be maintained for all normal vehicle operations. Then the vehicle is used with driver only doing agricultural work on very sandy or muddy soil, increased flotation and wheel traction may be secured by decreasing the pressure of the 6:00 x 16 tire to 18 to 20 lbs., and the 7:00

x 15 tire to 14 lbs. Should unusual operating conditions require this reduction in pressure, use care that the tires are inflated to the recommended pressure immediately when normal operation is resumed. To secure maximum tire wear, the wheels should be switched at least twice each year. The rear wheels should be moved to the opposite front positions and the right front wheel moved straight back to the right rear position. Place the spare on the left rear and use the left front as a spare. To remove a tire from a drop centre rim, first deflate completely and then force the tire away from the rim throughout the entire circumference until the bead falls into the centre of the wheel rim, then with a heavy screw driver or tire removing tool, used opposite the valve, remove one side of the tire at a time and remove the inner tube. Installation of a tire is made in the same manner by first dropping one side of the tire into the centre of the rim and with a tire tool, spring the bead over the wheel rim, using care not to damage the inner tube. When mounting the wheel, alternately tighten opposite stud nuts to prevent wheel wobble. After nuts have been tightened with the wheel jacked up, lower the jack so wheel rests on the floor and retighten the nuts.

SPRINGS AND SHACKLES


The springs should be periodically examined for broken or shifted leaves, loose or missing rebound clips, angle of the spring shackles and the position of the springs on the axle saddles. Springs with shifted leaves to not have their normal strength. Missing rebound clips may permit the leaves to fan out or break on rebound. Broken leaves may make the vehicle hard to handle or permit the axle to shift out of line. Weakened springs may break causing difficulty steering. The front springs are interchangeable, as are the two rear. The front ends of the front springs and the rear ends of the rear springs are shackled, using "U" type shackles with threaded bushings. The rear ends of the front springs and the front ends of the rear springs are bronze bushed and pivoted on bolts in the shackles mounted on the frame. The spring shackle threaded bushings use right and left hand threads, depending upon where they are to be used. Six bushings are used with right

hand threads and two with left hand threads. For identification the right hand threaded type have plain hexagonal heads. The left hand have a groove cut around the heads. The two left hand threaded shackles can be identified by a small forged boss on the lower shank of the shackle. They are used at the left front and the right rear springs with the left hand threaded end down at the spring eyes. The bushings are anchored solidly in the frame brackets and spring eyes and the oscillation taken between the threads of the "U" shackle and the inner threads of the bushings. The lubrication of the shackle bushings is very important and should not be neglected, or excessive wear of the bushings and "U" shackles will occur. When making installation of a new "U" shackle or bushing, follow the procedure below: The shackles are installed with the bushing hexagon heads to the outside of the frame. Install the shackle grease seal and retainer over the threaded end of the shackle up to the shoulder. Insert the new shackle through the frame bracket and the eye of the spring. Hold the "U" shackle tightly against the frame bracket and start the upper bushing on the shackle, care being taken when it enters the thread in the frame, that it is not cross-threaded. Screw the bushings on the shackle about halfway, and then start the lower bushing, hold the shackle tightly against the spring eye and thread this bushing about halfway, then alternating from top bushing to lower bushing, turn them in until the head of the bushing is snug against the frame bracket and the bushing in the spring eye is 1/32" away from the spring measured from the inside of the hexagon head to the spring. Lubricate the bushings with high pressure lubricant and then try the flex of the shackle, which should be free. If the shackle is tight, it will cause spring breakage and it will be necessary to rethread the bushings on the shackle.

SHOCK ABSORBERS
The shock absorbers are of the direct action type giving two-way control, however they are not adjustable. They dampen spring action, as the vehicle passes over irregularities in the road. The shock absorbers are mounted on rubber bushings at both top and bottom. Should squeaks occur in the

bushings, add a flat washer on the mounting pins to place the bushings under greater pressure and prevent movement between the rubber and metal parts.

2. IR INTREPUTER SENSOR
PCB or Chassis Mount Photo Interrupter This device enables you to turn off a circuit on and off optically. It consists of an IR LED facing a phototransistor across and air gap. Any object in the gap will interrupt the IR beam and consequently switch the phototransistor on and off. The device is very fast and ideal for counting, timing or sensing Block Measures 25Lx5Wx13H Gap measure 3mm Mounting Holes 3.2mm Dia

Dc motor

DC GEAR MOTOR Brand HOSIDEN motors (Japan) R.P.M: 75-100 VOLT: 12-18V. DC

Dc motor
Most electric motors work by electromagnetism, but motors based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as electrostatic forces and the piezoelectric effect, also exist. The fundamental principle upon which electromagnetic motors are based is that there is a mechanical force on any current-carrying wire contained within a magnetic field. The force is described by the Lorentz force law and is perpendicular to both the wire and the magnetic field. Most magnetic motors are rotary, but linear motors also exist. In a rotary motor, the rotating part (usually on the inside) is called the rotor, and the stationary part is called the stator. The rotor rotates because the wires and magnetic field are arranged so that a torque is developed about the rotor's axis. The motor contains electromagnets that are wound on a frame. Though this frame is often called the armature, that term is often erroneously applied. Correctly, the armature is that part of the motor across which the

input voltage is supplied. Depending upon the design of the machine, either the rotor or the stator can serve as the armature.

One of the first electromagnetic rotary motors was invented by Michael Faraday in 1821 and consisted of a free-hanging wire dipping into a pool of mercury. A permanent magnet was placed in the middle of the pool of mercury. When a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in school physics classes, but brine(salt water) is sometimes used in place of the toxic mercury. This is the simplest form of a class of electric motors called homopolar motors. A later refinement is the Barlow's Wheel. Another early electric motor design used a reciprocating plunger inside a switched solenoid; conceptually it could be viewed as an electromagnetic version of a two stroke internal combustion engine. The modern DC motor was invented by accident in 1873, when Znobe Gramme connected a spinning dynamo to a second similar unit, driving it as a motor. The classic DC motor has a rotating armature in the form of an electromagnet. A rotary switch called a commutator reverses the direction of the electric current twice every cycle, to flow through the armature so that the poles of the electromagnet push and pull against the permanent magnets on the outside of the motor. As the poles of the armature electromagnet pass the poles of the permanent magnets, the commutator reverses the polarity of the armature electromagnet. During that instant of switching polarity, inertia keeps the classical motor going in the proper direction. (See the diagrams below.)

A simple DC electric motor. When the coil is powered, a magnetic field is generated around the armature. The left side of the armature is pushed away from the left magnet and drawn toward the right, causing rotation. The armature continues to rotate. When the armature becomes horizontally aligned, the commutator reverses the direction of current through the coil, reversing the magnetic field. The process then repeats.

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS DETAIL MICROCHIP - CONTROLLING IC AT89S52 INTRODUCTION


Security is the main problem of the homes, buildings, offices and industry now days. Hence we develop here an intelligent building system that monitor continuously the parameters in different rooms in a building or different apartment in industry and also control the problems arises in different places. The parameters the voltage and current signals by produced by sensors. The signals are generated by temp. and light .controlling the devices if any one the conditions of analog parameter exceed the limit.

BRIEF IDEA OF THE WORKING:


When there is dark in room 1 the lights will switched on. And if the light intensity in the room crosses the higher limit then the lights switched of accordingly. When the temp. of the room is less then 30c then the 1st AC will switched on and if the temp. does not goes down Then the second AC will also switch on but if the temp. goes down and becomes less then 20c then the AC will off. The status of the temp. and lights are monitor continuously and the switching of the AC and lights are

according to it. The same function is applied on the second room. The temp. of both rooms are displayed on the seven segment displays.

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

This project can be the beneficial factor in the development of the buildings. This application gives the basic idea in the architecture of the buildings like what features should be their in a building for the safety of human life, saving the energy and money. As its name shows the can be used in the following: Houses Companies Factories Schools and Colleges

PREVIOUS WORK
The following steps I have taken to complete the project:. 1. Complete study of the c 8051 and understand the programming based on it. 2. Prepare the block diagram and the ckt. Diagram of the project and clear up the working of the project . 3. Collect all the component and made-up the hardware model of it. 4. Write the software of it. 5. Test the hardware and software in different modes.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER


Microcontrollers, as the name suggests, are small controllers. They are like single chip computers that are often embedded into other systems to function as processing/controlling unit. For example, the remote control you are using probably has microcontrollers inside that do decoding and other controlling functions. They are also used in automobiles, washing machines, microwave ovens, toys ... etc, where automation is needed.

KEY FEATURES OF MICROCONTROLLERS:


HIGH INTEGRATION OF FUNCTIONALITY

Microcontrollers sometimes are called single-chip computers because they have on-chip memory and I/O circuitry and other circuitries that enable them to function as small standalone computers without other supporting circuitry. FIELD PROGRAMMABILITY, FLEXIBILITY

Microcontrollers often use EEPROM or EPROM as their storage device to allow field programmability so they are flexible to use. Once the program is tested to be correct then large quantities of microcontrollers can be programmed to be used in embedded systems.

EASY TO USE

Assembly language is often used in microcontrollers and since they usually follow RISC architecture, the instruction set is small. The development package of microcontrollers often includes an assembler, a simulator, a programmer to "burn" the chip and a demonstration board. Some packages include a high-level language compiler such as a C compiler and more sophisticated libraries.

MICROCONTROLLER (AT89C51)
8051 microcontroller has 128 bytes of RAM, 4K bytes of on-chip ROM, two timers, one serial port, and four ports (each 8-bits wide) all on a single chip. The 8051 is an 8-bit processor i.e. the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, and number of I/O ports in microcontroller makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical. The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

FEATURES:
Compatible with MCS-51 Products 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-bit Timer/Counters

Six Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

E O Int On T nerr C C. ch up P chi ip t Bu p U Se 4 R co R ri I/ s O ntr co O A al M ol ntr Po M p fo ol rts or


Timer 0 Timer 1 Osc P0 P1 P2 P3 TXD ADDRESS/DATA

External Interrupt s

Counter Inputs

RXD

PIN CONFIGURATION:

P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 RST (RXD) P3.0 (TXD) P3.1 (INT0) P3.2 (INT1) P3.3 (T0) P3.4 (T1) P3.5 (WR) P3.6 (RD) P3.7 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND

pr og ra m co de
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28

Vcc P0.0 (AD0) P0.1 (AD1) P0.2 (AD2) P0.3 (AD3) P0.4 (AD4) P0.5 (AD5) P0.6 (AD6) P0.7 (AD7) EA/VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.7 (A15) P2.6 (A14) P2.5 (A13) P2.4 (A12) P2.3 (A11) P2.2 (A10) P2.1 (A9) P2.0 (A8)

PIN DESCRIPTION:

27 26 25 24 23 22 21

PIN DESCRIPSION:
VCC - Supply voltage. GND - Ground. Port 0 - Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 - Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2 - Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.

Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 - Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: RST - Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. ALE/PROG - Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming.

PORT PIN P3.0 P3.1 P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7

ALTERNATE FUNCTIONS RXD (serial input port) TXD (serial output port) INT0 (external interrupt 0) INT1 (external interrupt 1) T0 (timer 0 external input) T1 (timer 1 external input) WR (external data memory write strobe) RD (external data memory read strobe)

In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory.

If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALEdisable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN - Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP - External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP. XTAL1 - Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 - Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

OSCILLATOR CHARACTERISTICS:
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier, which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven. Figure 1. Oscillator Connections
XTAL1 C1

XTAL2 C2

GND

Note: C1, C2 = 30 pF +/- 10 pF for Crystals = 40 pF +/- 10 pF for Ceramic Resonators There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

THE 8051 REGISTERS:


The most widely used registers of the 8051 are A (accumulator), B, R0, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, DPTR (data pointer), and PC (program counter). All of the above registers are 8-bits, except DPTR and the program counter. The 8 bots of a register are shown below from the MSB (most significant bit) D7 to the LSB (least significant bit) D0. D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

PROGRAM COUNTER: The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. As the CPU fetches the opcode from the program ROM, the program counter is incremented to point to the next instruction. The PC is 16 bits wide i.e. it can access program addresses 0000 to FFFFH, a total of 64K bytes of code. PSW (PROGRAM STATUS WORD) REGISTER The PSW contains status bits that reflect the current state of the CPU and is also called flag register. The PSW contains the Carry bit, the Auxiliary Carry bit, the two register bank select bits, the overflow flag bit, a parity bit, and two user definable status flags. CY CY AC --RS1 RS0 OV --P AC F0 PSW.7 PSW.6 PSW.5 PSW.4 PSW.3 PSW.2 PSW.1 PSW.0 RS1 RS0 OV --P Carry flag. Auxiliary carry flag. Available to the user for general purpose. Register Bank selector bit 1. Register Bank selector bit 0. Overflow flag. User definable bit. Parity flag.

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

RS1 RS0 REGISTER BANK 0 00H 07H 1 08H 0FH 2 10H 17H 3 18H 1FH CY, THE CARRY FLAG

ADDRESS

This flag is set whenever there is a carry out from the D7 bit. This flag bit is affected after an 8-bit addition or subtraction. It can also be set to 1 or 0 directly by an instruction such as SETB C and CLR C where SETB C stands for set bit carry and CLR C for clear carry.

AC, THE AUXILIARY CARRY FLAG If there is a carry from D3 to D4 during an ADD or SUB operation, this bit is set; otherwise, it is cleared. This flag is used by instructions that perform BCD (binary coded decimal) arithmetic. P, THE PARITY FLAG The parity flag reflects the number of 1s in the A (accumulator) register only. If the A register contains an odd number of 1s, then P=1. Therefore, P=0 if A has an even number of 1s. OV, THE OVERFLOW FLAG This flag is set whenever the result of a signed number operation is too large, causing the high-order bit to overflow into the sign bit. RAM MEMORY SPACE ALLOCATION IN THE 8051 There are 128 bytes of RAM in the 8051, which are assigned addresses 00 to 7FH. These 128 bytes are divided into three different groups:

1. A total of 32 bytes from locations 00 to 1H hex are set aside for register banks and the stack. 2. A total of 16 bytes from locations 20H to 2FH are set aside for bitaddressable read/write memory. 3. A total of 80 bytes from locations 30H to 7FH are used for read and write storage, or what is normally called a scratch pad. These 80 locations of RAM are widely used for the purpose of storing data and parameters by 8051 programmers.

7F Scratch pad RAM 30 2F Bit-Addressable RAM 20 1F 18 17 10 0FRegister Bank 1 (stack) 08 07 Register Bank 0 00 REGISTER BANKS IN THE 8051 The 32 bytes of RAM which is set aside for the register banks and stack is divided into 4 banks of registers in which each bank has 8 registers, R0 R7. RAM locations from 0 to 7 are set aside for bank 0 of R0 R7 Register Bank 3 Register Bank 2

where R0 is RAM location 0, R1 is RAM location 1, R2 is location 2, and so on, until memory location 7 which belongs to R7 of bank 0. The second bank of registers R0 R7 starts at RAM location 08 and goes to location 0FH. The third bank of R0 R7 starts at memory location 10H and goes to location 17H; and finally RAM locations 18H to 1FH are set aside for the fourth bank of R0 R7. The following tables shows how the 32 bytes are allocated into 4 banks:

Bank 0 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Bank 1 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R12 R0 7 6 5 4 3 1 0

Bank 2 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Bank 3 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

STACK IN THE 8051 The stack is a section of RAM used by the CPU to store information temporarily. This information could be data or an address. The CPU needs this storage area since there are only a limited number of registers. The register used to access the stack is called the SP (stack pointer) register. The

stack pointer in the 8051 is only 8 bits wide i.e. it can take values of 00 to FFH. When the 8051 is powered up, the SP register contains value 07 which implies that RAM location 08 is the first location being used for the stack by the 8051. The storing of a CPU register in the stack is called a PUSH, and loading the contents of the stack back into a CPU register is called a POP. In other words, a register is pushed onto the stack to save it and popped off the stack to retrieve it. PUSHING ONTO THE STACK: In the 8051 the stack pointer (SP) is pointing to the last used location of the stack. As data is pushed onto the stack, the stack pointer (SP) is incremented by one and the contents of the register are saved on the stack. To push the registers onto the stack, RAM addresses are used. POPPING FROM THE STACK: Popping the contents of the stack back into a given register is the opposite process of pushing. With every pop, the top byte of the stack is copied to the register specified by the instruction and the stack pointer is decremented once.

ADDRESSING MODES:
The addressing modes in the microcontroller instruction set are as follows: 1. DIRECT ADDRESSING In direct addressing, the operand is specified by an 8-bit address field in the instruction. Only internal RAM and SFRs cab be directly accessed. 2. INDIRECT ADDRESSING In indirect addressing, the instruction specifies a register that specifies a register that contains the address of the operand. Both internal and external RAM can be indirectly accessed.

The address register for 8-bit addresses can be either the stack pointer or R0 or R1 of the selected register bank. The address register for 16-bit addresses can be only the 16-bit data pointer register, DPTR. 3. REGISTER INSTRUCTIONS The register banks, which contain registers R0 through R7, can be accessed by instructions whose opcodes carry a 3-bit register specification. Instructions that access the registers this way make efficient use of code, since this mode eliminates an address byte. When the instruction is executed, one of the eight registers in the selected bank is accessed. One of four banks is selected at execution time by the two bank select bits in the PSW. 4. REGISTER-SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS Some instructions are specific to a certain register. For example, some instructions always operate on the Accumulator, so no address byte is needed to point to it. In these cases, the opcode itself points to the correct register. 5. IMMEDIATE CONSTANTS The value of a constant can follow the opcode in program memory. For example, MOV A, #100 Loads the Accumulator with the decimal number 100. The same number could be specified in hex digits as 64H. 6. INDEXED ADDRESSING Program memory can only be accessed via indexed addressing. This addressing mode is intended for reading look-up labels in program memory. A 16-bit base register (either DPTR or the Program Counter) points to the base of the table, and the accumulator is set up with the table entry number.

The address of the table entry in program memory is formed by adding the accumulator data to the base pointer. 8051 INSTRUCTION SET MNEMONIC: The MNEMONIC column contains the 8051 Instruction Set Mnemonic and a brief description of the instruction's operation. OPERATION: The OPERATION column describes the 8051 Instruction Set in unambiguous symbology. Following are the definitions of the symbols used in this column. <n:m> + / X ~ ^ v v > <> = -> Bits of a register inclusive. For example, PC<10:0> means bits 0 through 10 inclusive of the PC. Bit 0 is always the least significant bit. Binary addition Binary 2s complement subtraction Unsigned integer division Unsigned integer multiplication Binary complement (1s complement) Logical And Inclusive Or Exclusive Or Greater than Not equal to Equals Is written into. For example, A + SOper -> A means the result of the binary addition between A and the Source Operand is written into A.

A The 8-bit Accumulator Register. AC The Auxiliary Carry Flag in the Program Status Word CF The Carry Flag in the Program Status Word DoperThe Destination Operand used in the instruction.

DPTR

16-bit Data Pointer Internal Flag that holds off interrupts until

Interrupt Active Flag the Flag is cleared.

Jump Relative to PC A Jump that can range between -128 bytes and +127 bytes from the PC value of the next instruction. Paddr PC A 16-bit Program Memory address The 8051 Program Counter. This 16-bit register points to the byte in the Program Memory space that is fetched as part of the instruction stream. Byte in Program Memory space pointed to by addr. Integer remainder of unsigned integer division The Source Operand used in the instruction. 8-bit Stack Pointer The Last In First Out data structure that is controlled by the 8-bit Stack Pointer (SP). Sixteen bit quantities are pushed on the stack low byte first.

PM (addr) Remainder Soper SP STACK

HEX OPCODE:

This column gives the machine language hexadecimal opcode for each 8051 instruction. BYTE: This column gives the number of bytes in each 8051 instruction. CYC: This column gives the number of cycles of each 8051 instruction. The time value of a cycle is defined as 12 divided by the oscillator frequency. For example, if running an 8051 family component at 12 MHz, each cycle takes 1 microsecond.

POWER SUPPLY
Most of the digital circuits operate on 5 volt DC supply which is obtained by the following circuit. The power supply circuit consists of a step down transformer, bridge rectifier and 7805 voltage regulator IC.

A D1 AC Supply 3

1 D3
1000 F

7805

+ -

+ -

5V DC

D4 B 2

D2

BRIDGE RECTIFIERS
Bridge rectifier circuit consists of four diodes arranged in the form of a bridge as shown in figure. OPERATION:

During the positive half cycle of the input supply, the upper end A of the transformer secondary becomes positive with respect to its lower point B. This makes Point1 of bridge positive with respect to point2. the diode D1 & D2 become forward biased & D3 & D4 become reverse biased. As a result a current starts flowing from point1, through D1 the load & D2 to the negative end. During negative half cycle, the point2 becomes positive with respect to point1. Diode D1 & D2 now become reverse biased. Thus a current flow from point 2 to point1.
A D1 AC Supply 3 + D4 B 2 1 D3

Load

4 D2

TRANSFORMER: Transformers are a major class of coils having two or more windings usually wrapped around a common core made from laminated iron sheets. It has two coils named primary & secondary. If the current flowing through primary is fluctuating, then a current will be induced into the secondary winding. A steady current will not be transferred from one coil to other coil. Transformers are of two types: 1. Step up transformer 2. Step down transformer

In power supply we use step down transformer. We apply 220V AC on the primary of step down transformer. This transformer steps down this voltage to 9V AC. We give this 9 V AC to rectifier circuit, which convert it to 5V DC.

REGULATOR: 7805 IC is used as regulator in 5V power supply.


7805 1 - IN 2 - OUT 3 - GND

IN 7805 pin no.1 is input pin through which non-regulated signal is applied. Pin no.3 is grounded & the regulated output is taken from pin no.2.

RELAYS
It is often desirable or essential to isolate one circuit electrically from another, while still allowing the first circuit to control the second. For example, if you wanted to control a high-voltage circuit from your computer, you would probably not want to connect it directly to the a lowvoltage port on the back of your computer in case something went wrong and the mains electricity ended up destroying the expensive parts inside your computer. One simple method of providing electrical isolation between two circuits is to place a relay between them, as shown in the circuit diagram of figure 1. A relay consists of a coil that may be energized by the low-voltage circuit and one or more sets of switch contacts, which may be connected to the highvoltage circuit.

How Relays Work In figure 2a the relay is off. The metal arm is at its rest position and so there is contact between the Normally Closed (N.C.) switch contact and the 'common' switch contact.

If a current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts the metal arm and there is now contact between the Normally Open (N.O.) switch contact and the common switch contact, as shown in figure 2b.

Advantages of Relays
The complete electrical isolation improves safety by ensuring that high voltages and currents cannot appear where they should not be. Relays come in all shapes and sizes for different applications and they have various switch contact configurations. Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT) relays are common and even 4-pole types are available. You can therefore control several circuits with one relay or use one relay to control the direction of a motor. It is easy to tell when a relay is operating - you can hear a click as the relay switches on and off and you can sometimes see the contacts moving.

Disadvantages of Relays
Being mechanical though, relays do have some disadvantages over other methods of electrical isolation: Their parts can wear out as the switch contacts become dirty - high voltages and currents cause sparks between the contacts. They cannot be switched on and off at high speeds because they have a slow response and the switch contacts will rapidly wear out due to the sparking.

Their coils need a fairly high current to energise, which means some micro-electronic circuits can't drive them directly without additional circuitry. The back-emf created when the relay coil switches off can damage the components that are driving the coil. To avoid this, a diode can be placed across the relay coil, as will be seen in any Electronics in Meccano circuits that use relays with sensitive components.

Choosing a Relay
When choosing a relay to use in a circuit, you need to bear in mind properties of both the coil and the switch contacts. Firstly, you will need to find a relay that has the required number of switch poles for your application. You then need to make sure that the switch contacts can cope with the voltage and current you intend to use - for example, if you were using the relay to switch a 60W mains lamp on and off, the switch contacts would need to be rated for at least 250mA at 240V AC (or whatever the mains voltage is in your country). Also of importance is the material that the switch contacts are made of - gold is good for low-voltages, whereas tungsten is suitable for switching high voltages and currents. Finally, you need to choose a relay that has a coil that can be energised by your low-voltage control circuit. Relay coils are generally rated by their voltage and resistance, so you can work out their current consumption using Ohm's Law. You will need to make sure that the circuit powering the coil can supply enough current, otherwise the relay will not operate properly. The Latching Relay Circuit If a relay is connected as shown in figure 3, it will become 'latched' on when the coil is energised by pressing the Trigger button. The only way to turn the relay off will then be to cut the power supply by pressing the Reset button (which must be a push-to-break type).

The technical name for this type of behaviour is 'bistable', since the circuit has two stable states for its output - on and off. Bistable circuits can also be constructed using many other components, including the 555 timer IC and transistors.

What's the point of this circuit? The Normally Open switch contact of the relay could also be connected to a device such as a motor, as shown by the dotted connections in figure 3. The device will then run indefinitely until some event (maybe triggered by the device) momentarily presses the Reset button, thereby turning off the coil ready for the Trigger button to be pressed again. This system could be used in a model which needs a 'Push to Operate' button. A motor and gearing system in the model can be used to press the Reset button to cut the power to the relay coil after the model has been running for a certain amount of time, or until a certain event has occurred. Of course, you would have to be sure that there was enough momentum in the mechanism that the button is released ready for the next cycle.

CAPACITORS

It is an electronic component whose function is to accumulate charges and then release it. To understand the concept of capacitance, consider a pair of metal plates which all are placed near to each other without touching. If a battery is connected to these plates the positive pole to one and the negative pole to the other, electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate connected to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one plate will be left with an excess of electrons, the other with a shortage, and a potential or voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as capacitors. Capacitors are of two types: - (1) fixed type like ceramic, polyester, electrolytic capacitors-these names refer to the material they are made of aluminium foil. (2) Variable type like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors, it has two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three leads. Unit of measurement of a capacitor is farad denoted by the symbol F. It is a very big unit of capacitance. Small unit capacitor are pico-farad denoted by pf (Ipf=1/1000,000,000,000 f) Above all, in case of electrolytic capacitors, it's two terminal are marked as (-) and (+) so check it while using capacitors in the circuit in right direction. Mistake can destroy the capacitor or entire circuit in operational.

DIODE

The simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of Ptype semi conducting material, with contacts provided to connect the pand n-type layers to an external circuit. This is a junction Diode. If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type material (cathode) and the negative terminal to the N-type material (Anode), a large current will flow. This is called forward current or forward biased. If the connections are reversed, a very little current will flow. This is because under this condition, the p-type material will accept the electrons from the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type material will give up its free electrons to the battery, resulting in the state of electrical equilibrium since the N-type material has no more electrons. Thus there will be a small current to flow and the diode is called Reverse biased. Thus the Diode allows direct current to pass only in one direction while blocking it in the other direction. Power diodes are used in concerting AC into DC. In this, current will flow freely during the first half cycle (forward biased) and practically not at all during the other half cycle (reverse biased). This makes the diode an effective rectifier, which convert ac into pulsating dc. Signal diodes are used in radio circuits for detection. Zener diodes are used in the circuit to control the voltage.

Some common diodes are:1. Zener diode. 2. Photo diode. 3. Light Emitting diode.

1.

ZENER DIODE:-

A zener diode is specially designed junction diode, which can operate continuously without being damaged in the region of reverse break down voltage. One of the most important applications of zener diode is the design of constant voltage power supply. The zener diode is joined in reverse bias to d.c. through a resistance R of suitable value.

2.

PHOTO DIODE:-

A photo diode is a junction diode made from photo- sensitive semiconductor or material. In such a diode, there is a provision to allow the light of suitable frequency to fall on the p-n junction. It is reverse biased, but the voltage applied is less than the break down voltage. As the intensity of incident light is increased, current goes on increasing till it becomes maximum. The maximum current is called saturation current.

3.

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED):-

When a junction diode is forward biased, energy is released at the junction diode is forward biased, energy is released at the junction due to recombination of electrons and holes. In case of silicon and germanium diodes, the energy released is in infrared region. In the junction diode made of gallium arsenate or indium phosphide, the energy is released in visible region. Such a junction diode is called a light emitting diode or LED.

RESISTANCE
Resistance is the opposition of a material to the current. It is measured in Ohms (). All conductors represent a certain amount of resistance, since no conductor is 100% efficient. To control the electron flow (current) in a predictable manner, we use resistors. Electronic circuits use calibrated lumped resistance to control the flow of current. Broadly speaking, resistor

can be divided into two groups viz. fixed & adjustable (variable) resistors. In fixed resistors, the value is fixed & cannot be varied. In variable resistors, the resistance value can be varied by an adjuster knob. It can be divided into (a) Carbon composition (b) Wire wound (c) Special type. The most common type of resistors used in our projects is carbon type. The resistance value is normally indicated by colour bands. Each resistance has four colours, one of the band on either side will be gold or silver, this is called fourth band and indicates the tolerance, others three band will give the value of resistance (see table). For example if a resistor has the following marking on it say red, violet, gold. Comparing these coloured rings with the colour code, its value is 27000 ohms or 27 kilo ohms and its tolerance is 5%. Resistor comes in various sizes (Power rating). The bigger, the size, the more power rating of 1/4 watts. The four colour rings on its body tells us the value of resistor value as given below. COLOURS CODE Black--------------------------------------------0 Brown-------------------------------------------1 Red----------------------------------------------2 Orange------------------------------------------3 Yellow------------------------------------------4 Green--------------------------------------------5 Blue----------------------------------------------6 Violet--------------------------------------------7 Grey---------------------------------------------8 White--------------------------------------------9

The first rings give the first digit. The second ring gives the second digit. The third ring indicates the number of zeroes to be placed after the digits. The fourth ring gives tolerance (gold 5%, silver 10%, No colour 20%).

In variable resistors, we have the dial type of resistance boxes. There is a knob with a metal pointer. This presses over brass pieces placed along a circle with some space b/w each of them. Resistance coils of different values are connected b/w the gaps. When the knob is rotated, the pointer also moves over the brass pieces. If a gap is skipped over, its resistance is included in the circuit. If two gaps are skipped over, the resistances of both together are included in the circuit and so on. A dial type of resistance box contains many dials depending upon the range, which it has to cover. If a resistance box has to read upto 10,000, it will have three dials each having ten gaps i.e. ten resistance coils each of resistance 10. The third dial will have ten resistances each of 100. The dial type of resistance boxes is better because the contact resistance in this case is small & constant.

TRANSISTOR
The name is transistor derived from transfer resistors indicating a solid state Semiconductor device. In addition to conductor and insulators, there is a third class of material that exhibits proportion of both. Under some conditions, it acts as an insulator, and under other conditions its a conductor. This phenomenon is called Semi-conducting and allows a variable control over electron flow. So, the transistor is semi conductor device used in electronics for amplitude. Transistor has three terminals, one is the collector, one is the base and other is the emitter, (each lead must be connected in the circuit correctly and only then the transistor will function). Electrons are emitted via one terminal and collected on another terminal, while the third terminal acts as a control element. Each transistor has a number marked on its body. Every number has its own specifications. There are mainly two types of transistor (i) NPN & (ii) PNP NPN Transistors:

When a positive voltage is applied to the base, the transistor begins to conduct by allowing current to flow through the collector to emitter circuit. The relatively small current flowing through the base circuit causes a much greater current to pass through the emitter / collector circuit. The phenomenon is called current gain and it is measure in beta. PNP Transistor: It also does exactly same thing as above except that it has a negative voltage on its collector and a positive voltage on its emitter.

Transistor is a combination of semi-conductor elements allowing a controlled current flow. Germanium and Silicon is the two semi-conductor elements used for making it. There are two types of transistors such as POINT CONTACT and JUNCTION TRANSISTORS. Point contact construction is defective so is now out of use. Junction triode transistors are in many respects analogous to triode electron tube. A junction transistor can function as an amplifier or oscillator as can a triode tube, but has the additional advantage of long life, small size, ruggedness and absence of cathode heating power. Junction transistors are of two types which can be obtained while manufacturing.

The two types are: 1) PNP TYPE: This is formed by joining a layer of P type of germanium to an N-P Junction

NP

2) NPN TYPE:This is formed by joining a layer of N type germanium to a P-N Junction.

Both types are shown in figure, with their symbols for representation. The centre section is called the base, one of the outside sections-the emitter and the other outside section-the collector. The direction of the arrowhead gives the direction of the conventional current with the forward bias on the emitter. The conventional flow is opposite in direction to the electron flow.

OPERATION OF PNP TRANSISTOR:A PNP transistor is made by sand witching two PN germanium or silicon diodes, placed back to back. The centre of N-type portion is extremely thin in comparison to P region. The P region of the left is connected to the positive terminal and N-region to the negative terminal i.e. PN is biased in the forward direction while P region of right is biased negatively i.e. in the reverse direction as shown in Fig. The P region in the forward biased circuit is called the emitter and P region on the right, biased negatively is called collector. The centre is called base.

The majority carriers (holes) of P region (known as emitter) move to N region as they are repelled by the positive terminal of battery while the electrons of N region are attracted by the positive terminal. The holes overcome the barrier and cross the emitter junction into N region. As the width of base region is extremely thin, two to five percent of holes recombine with the free electrons of N- region which result in a small base current while the remaining holes (95% to 98%) reach the collector junction. The collector is biased negatively and the negative collector voltage aids in sweeping the hole into collector region.
As the P region at the right is biased negatively, a very small current should flow but the following facts are observed:-

1)

A substantial current flows through it when the emitter junction is biased in a forward direction.
2) The current flowing across the collector is slightly less than that of the emitter, and

3)

The collector current is a function of emitter current i.e. with the decrease or increase in the emitter current a corresponding change in the collector current is observed.

The facts can be explained as follows:1. As already discussed that 2 to 5% of the holes are lost in recombination with the electron n base region, which result in a small base current and hence the collector current is slightly less than the emitter current.

2. 3.

The collector current increases as the holes reaching the collector junction are attracted by negative potential applied to the collector. When the emitter current increases, most holes are injected into the base region, which is attracted by the negative potential of the collector and hence results in increasing the collector current. In this way emitter is analogous to the control of plate current by small grid voltage in a vacuum triode.

Hence we can say that when the emitter is forward biased and collector is negatively biased, a substantial current flows in both the circuits. Since a small emitter voltage of about 0.1 to 0.5 volts permits the flow of an appreciable emitter current the input power is very small. The collector voltage can be as high as 45 volts.