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FEYOU DE HAPPY III ***

PANORKROSS
THE CHRONOLOGY African Diaspora & Motherland From Prehistory To Present
***
Copyright Alexis Maxime Feyou de Happy 1987- 2013 Illustrations: Egypt calligraphies by Gaudin, public domain Photographs and artist works by AM Feyou de Happy, 2007-2009

*** Alexis Maxime Feyou de Happy ***

Warning:
In
2005-2007, my computer was hacked and some of my files corrupted. Working at the time on many documents both in French and English (over ten fictions and non fictions books some of which are now published) it was only in 2010 that I became aware of the extend of this invasion of my privacy. Due to

time and financial constraint, this book is here presented in ULDBeta (Unedited Literary & Non-fiction work digital publication).

With your support another volume fully edited will be published perhaps with the contribution of other scholars. Thank you for your support Alexis Maxime Feyou de Happy ***

PANORKROSS1
(People crossing)

THE CHRONOLOGY
Vol I of 10 WHERE WE CAME FROM HOW WE GOT THERE AND 1 PanoRKross
pa'nor, African (Bamileke) for: people. And kross, instead of cross to illustrate the criss-crossing nature of genetic and memetic (cultural) connections. Culture expands from one generation to another from one group of people to another. Thus Kross stands for gene's and meme's regardless of skin color. exchange

WHAT HAPPENED NEXT *** FROM THE AWAKENING OF INTELLIGENCE TO THE CONQUEST OF PLANET EARTH! *** Simple curiosity inspired this work. We wanted to know "what was what" in the past. So we went after the facts. To retrace the path of our ancestors from the origin to present. The work has no other ambition. We kept our focus on the African diaspora because in late 1980's there were few

works on the subject. *****


African Saint, Kimpa Vita aka Donna Beatrice of Kongo The African woman that stood against the practice of slavery in Africa in 16th/17th century. She paid her audacity with her life. In Brazil she was celebrated for centuries by African slaves who venerated her as Saint. In Congo there were great ladies and royals that also fought against slavery. The other great woman perhaps more successful than Kimpa, was Queen of Matamba Nzinga Kuwu, who vanquished Europeans armies (Portugal) and their African allies in regular battles. She was a renegade princess of ancient Kongo. Upset by the desecration of African religious monuments and paraphernalia as well as the selling of people she took arm and formed her own army. She eventually created her own free kingdom remembered as the kingdom of Matamba, thus her name.

It should be noted that slavery was forbidden in many African kingdoms (already in 16th-19th centuries). In some kingdoms, monarchs were judged and executed by the Kamvu Congress/supreme court (Bamileke for example) when they were convicted of such major crime as slavery.
***

FOREWORD: From prehistory to history there was an amazing movement of people criss-crossing the continents. The lack of informations on this great human odyssey was disconcerting. It was ignoring the reality of African exploratory initiative that in prehistory took our foremost ancestors all over the world. It is long after their great plural journey that the term, perhaps the concept subsaharan was invented. The concept effectively imposed a balkanizing vue on the continent. It erects a barricade of the mind. One that separated us from our forefathers. This became clear to us ten years on the scholarly journey that unraveled this chronology. During those early years, there were great

epiphanies: the realization that ancient Egypt never had an issue with color. On their beautiful murals, you see people from the four cardinals that are proudly Egyptians. To this day in the African continent color is not important when it comes to people. Our brothers and sisters regardless of the variation of their skin are just that: brothers and sisters! Unfortunately, many people still look at Africans from a bias prospective. Our common ancestors must be turning in their graves! To anyone that understands our common humanity it makes little sense writing the chronology of one group alone. Alas! I had already written over 500 pages of manuscript with a focus on the black presence in ancient history. What was I going to do now? I stopped the research work. What was the point? There was no black history! There was only human history! The correct thing to do now was to write a universal chronology. However, I had no means to engage in such an enormous task alone. Nevertheless many years later various encounters made me realized that what was obvious to us was still news to many. So it appeared that the work although

limited, was still relevant. There were

compelling

encounters that stressed the need to make this work public. People wanted to know. I obliged Where there is an evident absence of informations it behooves to the scholar to fill the gaps. Fortunately I had already gone through amazing findings. Enough to present this modest first volume. The story of the African Diaspora is a human story. It stems from the roots of everything human. It stands at the core of our existence. We all share a great deal from prehistory. The tree from which all branches blossom. Descendants of people described here are found all over the world today and in all continents, skin colors and shapes. *** THE DIASPORA & MOTHERLAND (Azanians/Asanians) Thousand years ago Humans sprawled from the Great Lakes of Africa to the four cardinals. All over the world they went. These were our ancestors: Blacks, White, Yellow and all. They all shared the same hearth that made the world as we know it today. To reach said conclusions back in the 80's, long

before Y-chromosome findings, we had to foray deep into the past. The result was thousands of pages of manuscript. Compilation of events, people, places. Wild bush of data, powerful discoveries. Enough to create cognitive

revolutions of the kind that enlighten the mind and soothe the heart. Information rush into the brain. There they progressively organized to reveal events of the past. Unavoidable facts that piled up into written data. In the process they revealed the plain reality of the past. Events all connected beyond elementary appearances. Hand written documents were divided in five parts: history, religion, sciences, sport and Art. We followed the origin of Modern Man. From Africa to the rest of the world. We proceeded in the same manner with every section of what was latter called Super Chronology. After following the path of our ancestors from prehistory to modern time, the picture of social evolution imposed itself with such force that we had to analyze its many ramifications. Here, I must give credit to Japanese researcher Manao Fujiwara. In the interviewed of 1998 he encouraged me to explore the roots of human social evolution. The result was the philosophical treatise on

social evolution now titled Kosmicks (originally cosmic symmetry or chasyncrism). The work in social evolution demonstrated without a shadow of a doubt that we were all linked to the same original roots and that the trend, though intermittent, never stopped (now confirmed by Y chromosome findings and Mitochondrial DNA). There remained a need. To understand the African experience. If we were all connected to the same original roots how is it that we knew so little about the African link perhaps the most important in the understanding of the Human experience? Thus this book maybe called the Recovered Missing Link of Human Civilization. Why? There was indeed a gap in the knowledge of African past. Human division however is not sustainable. Thus far it has impoverished the gene pool. It is now threatening the future of humanity. Science and modern technology are incessantly bringing us back together even though remnants of prejudices still creeps here and there. It is only a question of time before we realize the importance to connect cultural missing links. There is an imperious necessity to reconnect. There is no forward without a

present, no present without a past. In other words: No past, no future. To know where we came from, each and everyone of us is to glimpse into a better future. A better understanding of African past and chronology can only be helpful. The idea that people that left Africa never came back is erroneous and misleading. World's population at any time in history clearly shows the pattern of connective links. From one part of the globe to another people meet people. Even in the case of islands like Australia sea crossing was possible long before the great sea trades of the Middle Ages. There were sea crossings between Africa and the Americas centuries before Columbus arrival. There were sea crossing between Europe and Africa (Red Sea) at all time in the past. The Sea crossing went both ways. There was a time in history when it was more profitable to go to Africa. We thus reiterate as evidenced in this work that the absolute certainty of human brotherhood is not theoretical. Be it in one part of prehistory, in early history or in recent history. The dynamic of multiculturalism and genetic melting pot: lives on. And that is good for humanity for that is what made us what we are today. Both

technologically and biologically. Civilization is the sum of the human experience. ****** The Chronology barely stands, as the tree of life. All along the way there are cultural and genetical branches going in all directions. The blood that flows in those branches is the same blood. The connection as

demonstrated by modern biology (Mitochondrial DNA & Y Chromosome) is very young, that is a 200,000 years span according to the molecular History Research Center (from 300,000 years as it was believed in the early stages of this work). It is relatively young compared to the hominid lineage that extended to millions of years. We show this in the prehistoric portion of this book. Recent fossils evidence found in the Arabian peninsula now confirm that our ancestors made it there by 120,000 years ago according to an article from Scientific America by Katherine Harmon, Jan. 27, 2011 (digital edition). While we have used color to identify certain cultures, it was done as a matter of historical rectitude as imperfect as that maybe. Color it is clear does not equate

with gene identity. Thus people from all over the globe should feel very comfortable with this connotation. Many of us have ancestors that do not look like us. They are our ancestors nevertheless and we should be very proud of them. A great African-American scholar with whom we had the honor to share the stage in Harlem State building, once said: To understand African history, you must study European history. The name of this scholar was celebrated historian Henry Clark. This Super Chronology (SuperKross), is the evidence of worlds common heritage as it relates to Africa. ** THE CHRONOLOGY (How it all began) 1987, New Orleans, Louisiana, 7pm. A lovely Bread & Breakfast mezzanine in the heart of the city. Sitting around a local cocktail four people are engaged in a heated debate. One of them is the beautiful owner of the edifice. The other were: a young Frenchman, a young American woman and I.

The subject of the debate turned around the condition of people in America from inception to modern times. The ladies knew something about Black history. The young man did not. I recalled an incident in France in my college years when a rich classmate just back from New York tried to convince us that Blacks did nothing in America because they did not had the acumen to do so. To the credit of my classmates at Lycee Claude Monet (1978-1979), 95% of the class reacted positively. That is they rejected the racist assumption. After New Orleans, the need to investigate the achievement of people of African ancestry from slavery to modern time was uncontainable. It then occurred to me that the best way to investigate the past was to follow step by step not only major events in history but the daily life of people. Began a research work that extended to decades. It was clear at the outset that a chronology based on slavery was incomplete. So I pushed further in time. I soon found myself face to face with the grand history of the world. The intellectual journey that ensued took me from the origin of Modern Man to the explosion of culture. At the end I was left with a dazzling realization that changed forever my understanding of people and culture.

The ultimate propensity of this work turned out to highlight through chronology a genetic flow from

prehistory to history. In the process it exposed brotherhood where adversity was once emphasized. I wondered why it took me this trajectory to understand the past. Fact is a linear approach to history dominated academic world. Such approach considered civilizations as hermetic blocks of people moving from one continent to another and remaining the same. In such views Greeks went from Europe to Africa and Asia yet remained unchanged in features and culture. Romans came to Africa and lived there for centuries but did not change an iota as if we had here different races totally impervious to one another. Quite obviously this was not the case. There is a large amount of data (historical, archeological and anthropological showing African presence in Rome and Roman presence in Africa). There was no racism in Rome! To say it in modern terms: Black or White if you served the Roman Empire you was welcome as a citizen of Rome. Hence Africans were found at all levels of the Romans hierarchy, from centurions to Caesars. African son Septimus Severus even rose to the rank of Caesar. Though in general,

works of this type focus on leaders and military events essentially, The Chronology takes a different approach: we pay close attention to people. When we find remnants bones, we ask ourselves: how did they get there? In order to properly answer this question we must know where they came from. Then we may answer the next question: what does this tell us about them if not about us and who were they anyway? To answer these questions we followed the trail of paleontology. Forensic investigators of history we explored step by step how humans populated the world. In the scholarly journey we found an infinite and complex wave of people rising from pre-history to history. The fascinating experience placed siblings separated by

enormous distances to the same paleontological trail in space and time. This revealed a human channel (ancestors and their off-springs) tied together in magic corridors that lead them from one stage of evolution to another and from one country to another. ad infinitum. It became clear that the concept of cultures was barely a smoke screen to the reality of our common humanity. And we suspected that

this was how the magnificent display of human diversity enriched the world to create a kaleidoscopic like features of modern era. While the understanding of worlds chronology and its constant link to Africa suggested twenty years ago how we were all connected', biology eventually confirmed our common origin. Mitochondrial DNA linked us to the same original mother. She lived about 300, 000 years ago (now estimated to 30,000 years) in East Africa. Although it is widely accepted that Africa is the threshold of humanity there was always an implication that those who stayed behind remained 'primitives'. It is not so. All over the world until recent times there were islands of people that presented the characteristic feature of a primitive life. In the case of Africa from slavery to colonialism, great empires were destroyed and their history forgotten, leaving the desolate panorama of a dislocated continent where culture is hidden and poverty emphasized. Once again this is now our past. Its knowledge serves us best as we look forward not as a group of people but as people of the human family. An objective analysis of Modern Man footsteps

demonstrated a constant flow of people going from one continent to another both in prehistory and in history. This phenomenon allowed a shuffling of genes and cultures from one part of the world to another (this revelation became evident during the study of human social evolution). Thus as it was demonstrated the secret ingredient of civilization may very well be: diversity. The recipe includes cross-cultural wind-flow, genes-

interchanges and meme-complexities. Civilization here means the sum of humans cultures. In this context there I a progressive development in human social evolution who goal is to produce not only the best genes possible both the best thing that can come out of the human experience. This process is an ever evolving process and it can be define as the making of Human Civilization. This is achieved by the continuous and evolving contribution of one culture or another irrespective of race and other denomination. Just like nature evolution does not care about those things. It cares about what works and that is why any scholar of history observed rise and falls of empire. The reality is that for each empire that fall, the next one that rise carries within its genes the gain acquired by the previous

dominance. At the end it is humanity as a whole that wins. This very intricate and extremely complex phenomenon is painstakingly explained in The origin of Racism or Cosmic Symmetry, our work on social evolution. The rise of Hominids has been estimated to 7.5 million years ago. In various branches we evolved from Hominids to Homosapiens (that is what we are today) or perhaps Sapiens es Sapiens (Super brainy or Post-Modern Man) as we would like ourselves to be known. Call it a Super Intelligent Being since sapiens stands for intelligence. Our most famous ancestor in the latter branch of Hominids (the only surviving branch) is an enigmatic woman in East Africa called Lucy or Mitochondrial Eve (c. 300 000 BP). She is the common ancestor to Blacks, Whites, Yellows and Reds. Though controversy has since surrounded

mitochondrial DNA findings, most scientists agree that we are indeed related and place the birth place of that enigmatic ancestor of ours in Africa. It is interesting to observe that ancient Egyptians already placed the Aaru (Holly referring in ancient Egypt designation of Eden) fields latter called Elysians fields by

Greeks and Romans in Eastern Africa around the Lakes areas. This is known to us through the Bible as the Garden of Eden. The Bible was written about two thousand years after cardinal inscriptions found on the walls of ancient Egypt. Some of these inscriptions as we show in the course of this chronology very likely inspired es verbatim (literally word for word) major tenets of the Bible. Notably such major biblical statements as the Ten Commandments. Let us state that here this is barely the expression of a scholarly discovery. Such text are found in academic works from European scholars made in ancient Egypt and describing elements of that culture at one period of history. *** POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO CULTURAL

MISUNDERSTANDING With slavery and colonialism Africa became a tool in the hands of those that benefitted from the trade. To the scholar of history this maybe the greatest failure of the Akhenaten doctrine that proposed that humanity evolves faster and better without the exploitation of man by man.

The reality of such exploitations as slavery dictates that it is always to work a small number of people In Africa it was the old ammonite power structure. In Summeria it was the old nobility of the time, so it was all over the word until the French revolution. Proponents of such exploitation as it is seen in the Americas engineered the enslavement of Africans after that of Native Americans in conjunction with that of poor Europeans. In Middle Age Europe the Vile trade (or slavery) was already a thriving institution subjugated poor people to the benefit of the few. This stopped with the French revolution (1789). In the early days of North America European slaves were called indentured servants (XVI to XVII century), they worked for free for an extended and determined number of years. If semantic would like us to call them indentured servants, we must remember that those that died would like history to honor their pain by recognizing what they endured for what it was. We cannot avoid the reality that people that worked without rightful compensation for their work and died without having had the opportunity to recover their freedom had been reduced to a defacto state of slavery. They are as victims as anybody

else in the same predicament. They deserves the rectitude of history. It is remarkable that at that period of history there was great solidarity between Europeans and Africans in the Americas. They understood then that they were both victims of the same yoke. The exploitation was marked by violence. In general Africans, Europeans and Native

Americans in the same predicament made no mistake about their condition. They often allied with each others to fight for their freedom. They knew that they shared the same cause until racism began digging a breach among them. Eventually Africans in the Americas and Europe found themselves abandoned in the realm of social castration. Began the demonizing process (a process by which a group of people are stigmatized into social oblivion). The road was paved for cultural alienation. According to Leo Africanus ...The countries of the Negroes are all inhabited by men who lived like beasts, without a king, without a ruler...They are dressed in sheep skin and the Edict of 1455 to conclude that Pagans should be perpetual slavery. reduced to

Leo Africanus statement was erroneous and the Edict of 1455 a tragic mistake. Africa at all time could be called the continent with the most rulers and kings. Slavery and colonialism cumulatively created the most horrible

genocidal spree in humans history. Physical tortures were numerous and took all forms. There was also a consistent psychological onslaught that extended to centuries. As a matter of historical accuracy it is worthy to mention that Africa or ancient Egypt knew a great moment of cultural, artistic and technological expansion thousands of years before the birth of Christ. It then fell into decline until the tenth century. There was a minor revival during the Ambiguous period : XIII, XIV, XV & XVI centuries. At the same time, Europe took off for a magnificent expansion. Thus Europe progressively entered the hall of civilization. The apparent dichotomy North/South was and remains an illusion created by slavery, colonialism and neo-

colonialism. The difference between colonialism and neocolonialism is very simple. Colonialism was a direct

domination that was both military and economic. Neocolonialism is an indirect domination that is political via control of head of states cum power structures within

subjected nations and economic through the control of financial institutions. There is an ongoing covert war that is subsidized: Africans fight each others for the interests of foreign entities. The bounties are the resources:diamond, oil and other rare and precious stones. In the early years of colonialism, the bounty was coffee & cocoa. In all it is a very complex structure encompassing human social evolutional patterns. We have explored this phenomenon in our treatise on social evolution. This said all dominations are temporal. Their aim serves to impart cultural memes and dynamical phenotypes from one culture to another. It is a very complicated process that is dramatic at many levels and often tragic. We believe that it has an end as humanity evolves towards higher spheres. The entire process and complexities are explored in Kosmicks. There we delineates the pitfalls and dangers as well as the greatest possibilities. There is a caution for our species is now in danger. The history of the world is one of groups of people called humans involved in a multi millennial process with cycles of cross pollination that are both genetic and cultural. The History of northern and southern hemisphere was marked by a succession of break up in the human family.

These

break

up

were

never

definitive,

they

were

intermittent and served a purpose. In time there were reconnections via conquests, migrations, alliances and expansions. In this Chronology we followed the advancement of people (in history, science and religion) from Egypt to Greece, from Africa to Asia and Europe. It is an inspiring journey. It brightens the understanding of our commonality. We find for example that the relation of Europeans and Africans were not always blurred by racial considerations. In Antiquity Europeans saw Africans as their brethren and teachers. For a long time the nobility of Europe respected Africans. In 1249, the companion of Louis IX a.k.a. St. Louis, during the crusade, was an African man of European nobility named Jean. He was the son of Prince Robert dEppes whose father was King William II. Indeed, Prince dEppes married an African woman from Sudan named Ismeria, a woman of great talent who demonstrated her strength when she opposed the killing of Christians in Africa. At her death Princess Ismeira was venerated as a black Madonna. This was done to celebrate her life

achievement. She is remembered as Notre dame de Liesse (Our lady of Liesse). Her son was described in a chart in 1236, as the son of the Black woman. In the thirteenth century, it was an honor to be the son of a Black woman (the term nigger which is simply classic Latin for the color black did not have the negative connotation that it latter acquired). In the 14th century ravages of slavery had not yet alienated the understanding of history. And the memory of holly men from Africa (then referred to as Ethiopia or India due to ignorance of geography) was still fresh in many Europeans minds. Renowned personalities to visit the African princess memorial includes: Jeanne dArc of France, kings Louis XI and Francis I. Ismeira was such an iconic figure that her sanctity was required before going to the Crusade. To understand how Africa fell from grace is essential for humanity because it teaches us lessons about the past. Sometime people wonder how it is possible that a great nation can fall into indigence. So many have asked how is it that Black people declined if indeed Egypt was Black? Notwithstanding the equivocal nature of that term, let us say here that it is quite possible for a great nation to fall into

indigence as it happens all the time to people from the upper class or wealth that lost their suddenly fortune and found themselves having to strive back from the lower ends of society. After Greek invasion and domination Azanian (Black or mix Egypt) was subsequently conquered by Romans. That is the history of the rise and fall of great empires. As for Africa or more precisely for ancient Egypt (remember that in ancient time it stood for Aethiopia or Africa as well as North Africa for that matter), it knew its great decline. It was a noted European writer who the first came up with an appropriate answer to this question. According to Juvenal: the lost of national sovereignty and that of historical conscience following a prolonged foreign occupation engenders stagnation, or even sometime regression, disintegration, and the partial return to barbarism. A close study of African history shows well how this applied to the great continent. Juvenal in his observation was referring to ancient Egypt. In Africa, Greek domination was followed by Roman domination. The destruction of Carthage by Romans

announced the tragic faith of a continent. A great Roman senator was famous to call for the annihilation of Carthage. He finished all his speech with the phrase delante carthagium (Carthage must be destroyed)! So the

destruction of Carthage was not an accident of history. After Carthage the population was dispersed in four cardinals. Running for their life they went South to subSahara Africa, East to Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia and further East to Asia and yes some went north to Europe as well while other went west toward Senegal. Romans ran after them all the way to Lake Chad and beyond. Romans coins found in western Cameroon (archeological finding) tend to confirm this deep penetration. Roman invasion of Africa was followed by Muslims and Europeans. Then there was Arab domination and slavery. The latter lead to the African holocaust (millions killed and thousands burned at stake). Distraught people lost their civilization and fell into pseudo barbarism. With Greek invasion Egyptian intelligentsia migrated mostly to the Eagan and to Asia where their forefather had established strongholds from the controversial Sesostris invasion to that of latter years. It is not surprising therefore

that with the decline of Egypt around 500 BC, began an emergence of genius in Asia and the Aegean (Greek world). For centuries Africans traveled on these roads and dominated these territories. Like rich Americans finding heavens of peace from Uncle Sams heavy taxes in Jamaican islands instead of Europe. Egyptian nobility choose to retreat in India, Iran, Europe or even China instead of Nubia or further South. In their case they were not looking for tax heaven. They were looking for safe heaven. When war came rumbling over their walls (Greek & Romans) the destination of flight was no longer a matter of choice but that of survival. Each man went where he could. The retreat to Nubia and to the rest of Africa was on its way. It was only the beginning. After Greek and Romans came the Muslims. The first dispersal was perhaps the first refugee catastrophe in humans history. It left little evidence because the concept did not existed. People abandoned all their possessions to save their life. They did not leave an imprint of their travail for archeological findings to behold. How does one knows thousands years later that remains dating from the fifth century AD found in the heart of Africa actually came from a Black refugee from Carthage?

Touaregs and Gypsies have been called Egyptians. There is a reason to that. It is because in history there was ground for them to be called that way even though subsequent prejudices cluttered this reality. They were not the only one. They were merely the most visible in Europe and Africa. Those North African and Egyptians that were less conspicuous integrated local populations in subsaharan or Upper-great-lakes Africa. Fact is the fall of Egypt created various groups of migration. This was possible because Egypt at the time of Roman invasion (perhaps more dramatic than the preceding Greek domination) was a cosmopolitan center and was multi racial. If in Europe gypsies were eventually isolated, in Africa Fulani and Touaregs were also isolated. They had in common their complexion and perhaps culture. In Europe Nomads were considered a little too dark, in Africa Nomads were considered a little too white. Both groups remained nomads to the twenty first century. Like Jewish people who survived the genocidal spree of early Christianity what binds Nomads together was not their complexion, but their culture. In this respect Jewish were more successful than Gypsies and African Nomads. This is

because

Jewish

had

developed

strong

religious

foundation before the fall of ancient Egypt. These groups it must be stressed are only the more visible descendants of Carthage, Fezzan, Phoenicia and ancient Egypt. Why they were so isolated is still open to debate. Other possible reasons includes: class, cultural differences, religion and ultimately race, although the latter was a consequence of the former. Races are born out of cultural isolation. There were those Egyptians that for various reasons were accepted and integrated into local population not only in Africa, but in Europe and Asia. We have just delineated in few words a complex history that took about a thousand years to unfold. But we can already see how disorganized migrations out of despair caused the lost of identity. The modalities of this lost have yet to be studied. Little works has been done on the subject because of the refusal to confront an African origin of Egyptian civilization. Talking about Gandhara (in India) in the first century AD, Francis Hudson spoke of its position in the web of caravan routes between Asia and the Mediterranean. That is EgyptCarthage-and Phoenicia. Already in the time of pharaohs this route existed. Egyptians however were not the first to

create a route between Africa and Asia or Europe. Before them Hominids found their way from Africa to Eurasia. Hominids were pre-humans. If they could cross the continents one million years ago why is it so hard to accept that the great civilization that was Egypt reached China? The Americas were not out of reach as we have been taught to believe. Vikings reached the Americas in the ninth century AD. Well before that time, in BC era Pharaohs ordered a transatlantic invasion of which evidences have remained. Scholars now link South America to Africa. Professor Van Sertima, a renowned archeologist who did great work on this subject observed We have also found zea mays in pre-Columbian Africa. American zea mays! Professor M.D.W. Jeffreys of Witwaterstrand University, a brilliant South African linguist, showed how American maize had traveled to Africa. It is distinct from African sorghum. It had moved across the African continent and he traced it down meticulously through linguistic footprints. And the Russian pick it up as it moved from Africa into Asia. Botanists Kuleshov and Vavilov identified it. They showed that American maize may have entered Asia before the time of Columbus voyages. Archeology confirms this

fact.

There

are countless an heart African of

evidences of trail from the Africa Europe. research in to

Asia and to More such continuously compelling

direction will unveil evidences

corroborating these theses. Thus reconciling the brothers enemies. ***

UNDERSTANDING COLONIAL (KEHMET)

THE

LINK

BETWEEN ANCIENT

PREEGYPT

AFRICA

AND

Ancient Egyptians called themselves K'mt or Kehmet. This is generally translated as people from the Black land, an allusion to the Nile river. Nile's alluvium were very fertile thus considered source of life since it nurture the soil

that nourished the nation. Another interpretation would be People with Black skin. This latter version saw here reference to skin color since in those days (c. 10,000 BCE/4,000 BCE) ancient Egypt which extended from the source of the Nile (deep in the heart of Africa) to the delta (further North into the red Sea) was inhabited by people in really black skin. As Greek scholar observed in their time. It is possible that the name kehmet may refer to either of these interpretations or rather to a third one that would be: descendants of the Black. In this latter meaning the color was associated to the beginning of time. Black was associated the origin of life before the first chaos and subsequent birth of energy. In this latter understanding the color black, thus had very powerful spiritual meaning. Whatever the meaning one choose to adopt what is undeniable and agreed by all scholars is that the ancient term was indeed Kehmet. So we have retained this word to designate ancient Egypt. It is indeed proper for people to be called in the manner that they themselves chose. Hence we shall call ancient Egypt: Kehmet! In Kehmet there was no such thing as sub-Saharan Africa. This concept was created with colonialism. Proto-

Africans or pygmies, an enterprising group that were the first Homosapiens to disperse all over the globe were the prominent inhabitants beyond the boerders of ancient Khemet. There were possibly scattered tribes as well. They populated the part of Africa now called sub-Saharan or Upper-great lakes. The bulk of present day Africans were in the Nile valley, in South Africa, in East Africa and in North Africa. They migrated in the inner continent following Greek and Roman invasions. An Egyptian expedition in Cameroon (Chad area) notice pygmies as sole inhabitant of these regions (Pharaoh's Pepi era). Africans oral history counted the migration of leaders (ancestors) between c. 3,000 BP and 1500 AD. (Otherwise from the period of Tutankhamen to the sixteenth century). There reside the key to the mystery. The link between Uppergreat-lakes Africa and ancient Egypt is very obvious indeed. Already the fossil trails clearly goes from East to South and from East to North. While ancient Egypt previous to Greek and Roman invasion was essentially Azanic (black or mix), there were Europeans and Asians that lived in ancient Egypt. The society was fully integrated. All these informations are

found in the Chronology: the people involved, when it happened, what happened, how it happened and why it happened. ****** HOMOSAPIENS CONQUER THE WORLD (North, East and South) Pre-Kehmetian period 1/ Prehistory From Africa took place the first Hominid Great Walk. From this sacred dawn a magnificent journey spread the genes of Modern Man all over the globe. The next important wave out of Africa was that of small men or Negritos who implanted themselves in Europe and Asia. They also began their exploratory forays into North America through the Bering straits. They were the foremost ancestors of present day Native Americans as they were of people all over planet earth. They eventually disappeared as new migrants took over their land. They survived in mythology. There was interbreeding as well in all continents. In the Americas an Asian migration followed. The suplantation of Negritos

was finalized by a powerful and consistent Asian migration. In Africa they survived in pygmies population by isolating themselves. I visited pygmies in early sixties in Cameroon. My father then prefect of Sanaga maritime had administrative control over their territories. When I asked him to bring them into the modern world, his response was simple: I have tried. They dont want our modern way. My mother and I paid them private visits. My mother, a fine seamstress who studied with Christian Dior in Paris was also a connoisseur of natural medicine. She knew that pygmies had a deep knowledge of plants and other remedies. She was right. And I was impressed by their kindness and most of all by their deep sense of self. I was also fascinated by their strange songs and music.

*** 2/KEHMETIAN & NUBIAN PERIOD A prominent event between Asia and Africa in history was more likely the era of Sesostris the Great (Sesostris I). *** KEHMETIAN PERIOD

It is no surprise that the Kehmetian (Egyptian) period would be the more contested period in human history. It was the most important to date. It extended to c. 2800 years for Manetho, Egyptian scribe or scholar and first historian in human history. It extends to 2500 years for conservative Modern historians, to 5000 years for early historians like Champollion and to about 10,000 years for others, notably

Modern scholars that used base their accounting on the pyramids and the Sphinx. They also use astronomical data. This later theory propose the thesis that the pyramid were build in accordance to the constellations. The constellation upon which they were built were seen in the heaven around 10,000 years before present era (BP). Those who agree with this thesis, also basing their conclusions on scientific data, proposed that the Sphinx was built before the flood. Arguing that erosions evidences found on the sphinx were fluvial (made by water during the flood). Studied have shown that there were great floods around 14,000 BC which would extends ancient Egypt era to that period. Those that disagree with said thesis usually cited Manetho dynasty that extends the reign of dynasties under 3000 years. Manetho account is important because it is the earliest written document on the chronology of kings. This document however is often misquoted. First of all it is a second hand account since the original was lost. The most notable historian to have kept the long lasting account of this document was Josephus. All controversies aside (notably a few years here and there) we shall focus on the unspoken period that is the reign that preceded that of

kings called the reign of gods. This portion is rejected by historian that labeled it mythological because Manetho called it the reign of divinities. What is interesting is that archeological data do confirm these reigns to be the reign of real kings. To Rosalie Davis, cited in Ancient Egypt, Manetho and the mother chronology: it has been possible ... from excavations and other historical texts to confirm or refute Manethos

statements.the most obvious example concerns the predynastic period, the era prior to c. 3100 BC, when Manetho listed the gods and semi-gods as the rulers of Egypt before human kings came to powerthe excavations of Flinders Petrie and otters have shown that predynastic cultures (c.5000-31BC) did actually exist It is clear that the ideas of kings as Gods persisted long after the fall of ancient Egypt. They simply had greater impact in the beginning and were probably referred to Manethos with a level of certainty that influenced his convictions that there was a period of mythology. That is a period where accounts were not yet written and one had to rely on oral data. We know from African post-Egyptian era tat Oral data

can be very valid. Arguably the controversy on ancient Egypt actual age will go on. What we should remember is that: The age of the Egyptian period was largely based on the works of Manhetto who coined the term dynasty. His celebrated account of ancient Egypt succession of kings still has resonance to this day. He gave the first total account of these kings including detail informations Osiris I, was one of these early kings whose accounts predated that of the known world. His ventures included Europe and Asia. In all accounts he was a great king whose stories latter inspired Alexander of Macedonia. Osiris was rejected by historians in particular post 19th centuries. They relegated his reign to mythology. However if Osiris was no mythology but a real king, that will confirm thesis that saw the building of the first pyramid and that of the Sphinx to have occurred before the age of Manethos dynasties. Thus Osiris journey across the world would be vindicated and the age of ancient Egypt extended beyond 3000 years BC. We would also have evidence of African monarch in China. Vindicating the

Chinese account of rulers with oily black skin. This would give credence to the theory advanced by noted archeologist professor Van Sertima that saw in the kings with oily Blacks skin described in the Chinese record as Shangs. They would be the descendants if not actual officers of Emperor Osiris I. Indeed Chinese ancient writings described them as people with oily black skin. It is also possible that some of these African Lords went across the Sea of Japan to Japan proper. Indeed Japan mythology and ancient history mentioned a great Lord that was of black skin. This chronology places these events in time and followed what happened latter. Though it keeps a focus on the Azanic connection (in which color matters less to the benefit of the human story). The accent on color here helps only to have a better grasp of the African past since that is the missing link of world history. I cannot stress enough in this work that color specifications are really secondary. We look forward to a time when they will not matter at all. That said we still have to use reference patterns that helps us better understand the

past. Another important moment of Asian-African relations in the beginning of history is indubitably the notable Hyksos invasion. Hyksos have been accurately called Asians and subsequently likened to White men from the Sea. There are strong evidences however suggesting an Asian (not Middle East) presence in ancient Egypt. Archeological evidences from Tutankhamen tombs shows clearly Asian features in Egyptians artifacts, notably a staff with Negroid and Asiatic features and depicting slaves in ancient Egypt (post-Hyksos era). Black slaves in ancient Egypt are over emphasized in literature. Egyptians did not discriminate. All conquered people regardless of skin pigmentation were slaves. That was the ancient world. This was true in Egypt, it was true in China, in was true in Rome. It is unfortunate that most books and exhibits of ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, choose to hide Black men and women in the upper hierarchy, showing mostly Black captives. This is even more troubling when in a panel with Black and Whites slaves; one part of the panel is obliterated. The ancient did not have such problems. Hyksos rule over

ancient Egypt lasted close to one hundred years. It was followed by an African revival.

Middle East pre-dynastic period was essentially Azanic (Black, Semitic or Mix) thus it would have been redundant to speak of an African-Middle East. This part of the world was a meeting point for people going back and forth from Africa to Asia/Europe and vice versa. Ancient Egypt Empire extends well beyond Red Sea. Eventually Egypt and the Euphrates became polarizing points in civilization. A crosscultural phenomenon created in this part of the world the blossoming of a new population. This phenomenon was not privy to this part of the world. In the course of history whenever great civilizations pollinate genetic and cultural mixing occurred. We find this Indus valley (BC era), in Middle East proper (BC-early AD) in South America (BCAD era) and in present day. because of the revolution Indeed, in modern times of transportation the

phenomenon expended. Thus the new pollinating matrix maybe seen between Europe and North America. In ancient Egypt if one was to compare Africans with those in Nubia, the main centers of African concentration at this period of history, one would have noticed that those in

Lower Egypt and Middle East were strongly mix with Asian and European. However they remained essentially Africans. This was going to change drastically following Greek and Roman's invasions. We shall note here that there was a Nubian period that may have preceded the era of pharaohs as archeological records seems to infer. This period however is still not well known.

3/ GRECO-ROMAN PERIOD With Alexander (circa 500 BC) began the fall of African rule over the world. Within a millennium Egypt the light of the world, was invaded and lost forever its grip over history. African leadership was supplanted by Greek and Romans.

We should note here that among Greeks and Roman were also Africans (or Blacks) as evidenced by the archeological record. The Greco-Roman period is the most important period to the understanding of present day Africa and world recent history. For it was indeed during Roman invasion that the dispersion of Africans out of Egypt took a definitive turn. They went to all cardinals that is: Europe, Asia and Africa proper. It was the silent exodus. Silent because it remained muted in history books. This scattering had a precedent. Before the crucial nexus of Romans invasion there was the biblical Exodus. People who were enslaved as a result of Egyptian colonialism left in droves. These people contrary to what is believed were not necessarily Europeans. They did not fit any racial denomination because they were a mix population. They came from all countries subjected to ancient Egypt. Slaves were prisoners of war. In ancient Egypt they were Blacks, Whites and Asians. To understand who were these people caught into slavery one has to consider where they came from. They came from conquered territories (Nubia,

Assyria and beyond, Greece and beyond). The Chronology clearly shows these countries and pinpoint in time and space their relation to ancient Egypt. Furthermore, Exodus brothers came from all strata of Egyptian social structure (Akhenaten effect). The idea that people that left Egypt were only slaves may not be accurate. Historical and archeological findings tends to demonstrated the contrary. The Exodus it appeared was directly related to Akhenaton. The enlighten pharaoh of ancient Egypt, the true father of monotheism at least if we should rely on historical and archeological records. Akhenaton is a giant that has been often misunderstood. The idea that he was somehow crazy is controversial enough. Fact is he was the leader and founder of an important movement. One of the most important movements in human history. Indeed Akhenatism not only proclaimed the

existence of one and only one God, it declared for the first time in human history that this God was good and loving. It proposed a new vision of the world based on human and esthetic values. Ancient Egypt did not just built pyramids it was a great center of study that attracted scholars from all over the world. Certainly there was an important

priesthood but most of all there was a true matrix of thinking. Akhenaton did not get his inspiration out of the blue. There was a strong body of intellectuals for lack of a most appropriate world that scrutinized the heavens, interpreted physical laws to developed mathematical principles. A famous invention of that time reaches us under the name of the Greek mathematician that introduces it to Europe. And that is Pythagoras. Today most Egyptologists recognize that this theorem was used to build the pyramids at least a thousand years before Pythagoras was born. Mathematic in ancient Egypt was well developed as evidenced by the papyrus of Moscow made famous by professor Diop (see The Chronology). Herodotus however stated that Pythagoras brought the famous theorem from ancient Egypt. Thus Akhenatism as a philosophical and social movement was a fertile ground for growth: it changed the world. It made followers in the upper hierarchy of society. The idea of a loving god or that of a better world where people could live in peace was intellectually approachable by a well educated class of men and women from the upper class. Those from the working class and slaves saw an obvious interest in espousing such

theories. However there was a strong and powerful class of noble that violently disagreed with such anathema. It threatened their world. It assaulted their belief. So when the time came to annihilate the memory of the enlightened king, a power struggle erupted. Because it was ultimately a struggle at the apex of all social strata a compromise ensued. That compromise was a voluntary departure. The followers of Akhenaton left ancient Egypt. This was the exodus! We understand therefore that the exodus was made of learned men, working class, nobility and slaves. The great struggle that survived in the Bible in fantastic metaphors denoted a real struggle that was indeed biblical. We must remember that ancient Egyptian kings were considered gods. The great rupture at the upper hierarchy of Egyptian nobility that lead to the exodus was indeed a war of gods. We can only imagine how traumatic and catastrophic it must have been to those that lived them. We just have to realize its far reaching consequences to understand that Akhenaton created a movement that effectively changed the world. It was the birth of monotheism. It was the beginning of artistic and social revolution. It was the first conception of a social idea that

eventually triumphed as democracy. And to this day we are still affected by what happened then.

In Israel Akhenaton followers under the leadership of Moses originated Judaism and history latter forged the idea that we eventually acquired of Jewish Diaspora. In essence the first Jewish people were a quintessence of humanity. Among them were members of Egyptian aristocracies

ostracized after the fall of Akhenatism as well as slaves and working class. They came from ancient Egypt proper and from all countries dominated by ancient Egypt. Akhenaton was also a humanist and a philanthropist as well as an artist perhaps an esthete. That is one dedicated to the expression of beauty in whatever medium he chooses to master. Akhenatons revolution was multi faceted: it was political, social, artistic and religious, perhaps philosophical as well. He aimed to destroy the Amon fellowship that existed in ancient Egypt for many centuries. He had against him a well rooted social hierarchy. In order to nurture his uncanny revelation, that of monotheism he created a secret society. Only a few converts were invited. This was the covenant. This secret society of gods was made of nine or seven members. The structure survived to this day in Africa with Bamileke of western Cameroon. They call it Kamvu (kam vuh). Akhenaten secret organization was probably the model at the origin of most secret societies. As members of the first covenant, they brought knowledge and order to the world. We must remember that these were learned men. They however introduced a concept that eventually destroyed the millennial old social structures of ancient

Egypt. Great religious and political leaders of his time understood that at the outset and fought the Akhenaten doctrine with all their might. Akhenatons legacy was even annihilated after his death by existing power structures. They did everything. There were persecutions. Followers of Amon did what they could to save their privileges. To keep the ancient structures that served them well. Akhenaten temple and mementos were destroyed all to no avail. This despite the fact that his followers were as stated persecuted and forced into exile or to abandon their faith.

Monotheisms survived If humans see themselves as physical entities, they often forget that they are spirits first and foremost. An idea that is good for all will live on. Within 90 years after this great upheaval, just like the phoenix, monotheism rose from its ashes to conquer the world to this day. It is worthy to state here that religious crisis that divided ancient Egypt were serious. We must remember that until then Egyptians kings or pharaohs were literally believed to be gods. Let restate this: they were not considered gods: They were gods! The crisis that ensued effectively traumatized not only a population but the world. There is not surprise therefore if to this day we

are still caught in a dilemma that has not been fully addressed by humanity. There were extraordinary

consequences: change of religion, reevaluation of political structures, reconsideration of certain forms of government such as the establishment of slavery, reconsideration of the value of war, redevelopment of art, first freedom of expression. It is no accident if great thinkers centuries after centuries are brought back to that era and reevaluate its impacts to the world to this day. Thus Freud was not so misdirected in assessing the impact of mythology on the human psyche. Mythology it urns out was an extrapolation of reality. Ancient Egypt, Summer and Greece and Rome have acquired over centuries and millenniums of

mythological standing and when we think of many those heroes they are almost unreal.

In this chronology we have examined succinctly we must say, the life of the great man that was Akhenaten. We have endeavor to describe the best we could in such restrictive a model as a chronology what happened in his time and how his apostles managed to give a new life to his vision. So came the exodus!

The main destination of people emigrating from Africa was North through the Suez Straight (the canal did not existed. It was recovered from a dig in the nineteenth century by French engineer Ferdinand de Lessepz). About it, it is likely that there was also an emigration southward, less organized than the emigration Northward that had the particularity of regrouping people of the same families (whether cultural or ethnic without consideration of skin pigmentation). Other members of Middle and Upper class remained in Egypt until Romans onslaught.

4/PROTO-AFRICA (Carthagino-Egyptian) Africa got its name from the Roman era. Proto-Africa maybe called the Egyptian period. Before Greek domination of Egypt there were

notable contacts between Africa and Asia. Such contacts took place with Sesostris the Great and with Hyksos. In prehistoric period, there were African incursions into Asia. World populations were greatly affected by these

incursions. They took place in many waves consistently all along prehistory and history. The most important

incursions post-hominid era was that of Negritos or little black people that push into North America. Migrants out of Africa dominated the planet. Indeed the world was populated by people coming from Africa into Europe and Asia. With the rise of civilization and the needs that it created there were further incursions. Sesostris I or The Great forays into Asia remains controversial, so are his incursions into Europe. The presence of Azanians in Asia and Europe however has been corroborated by archeological findings. Some of these findings exist to this day in major museums and rare books. Broader understanding of our commonality is essential. The future of humanity is shaped by people and events. The better we understand each other beyond racial lines, the better chance we have to build a most functional universe. In our treatise on social evolution

(Kosmicks) we demonstrates that the future of humanity resides in the conquest of the Milky way and beyond. In this conquest numbers matters. In this regards Malthus was wrong. There is no problem of over population for the man of the twenty first century. The greatest danger to the planet is Man. Thankfully he is also its greatest savior. As the chronology demonstrates we are branches of the same tree. This empowering knowledge can save us from ourselves. In volume II we explore the rise of humanity from the the the musky waters of prehistory. Onward to the rise of civilization.

A PRECURSOR TO MODERN TIMES African emigration out of Egypt, following multiple invasions (Hyksos, Assyryan, Greek and Roman) went East toward India, possibly China, South toward Africa, West to: Libya, Tunisia, Morocco and South-East to Nubia, Ethiopia, Tanzania. Disparate waves push further to the Congo and South Africa. These latter waves were the forgotten link to Egypt that formed the main connection with the continent. They have been thus far ignored because it was until a certain time, difficult to see any connections between

central Africa and ancient Egypt. But these connections are unavoidable (they have survived as iconograpic evidence in classic African art from the empires of Kongo, via Bamileke kingdoms, Akan civilization and others. Like an Atlantic wave over the shore of knowledge, they keep up coming, battling our consciousness until they are fully accepted. For centuries they rushed into the mind of scholars asking them to reconsider their data. They are embedded as dynamic elements in our culture. They are hidden in civilization's connectivitys, to safeguard humanity from itself. Waiting for their time to arise and once more enlighten the world with the might of our ancestors. To celebrate the human family and to reconnect the thousand and one arms that once linked us to Mitochondrial Eve. These imprints of human history are found in art, science and culture. African migration into Asia did not come only from Egypt. There were maritime trade between South-East Africa and China (AD era). And we should not forget Madagascar. This was a meeting point for Africans and Asians all along history.

The African migration to Asia is more interesting because it involves an important class of Egyptians, the nobility and the working class.

The declining of African secular liturgy starting with the Akhenaten revolution onward to Roman invasion left no alternative to Egyptian priesthood, upper and middle class but to seek refuge in foreign lands. Those who for various reasons did not emigrate south and who went to Asia had few possibilities. Their best chance for survival was to find a sponsor among local Lords or to open their own school. Some became wandering sages or monks other became soldiers or engaged into whatever activities secured them living wages. It is a reasonable inference to suggest that the famous wandering monks in Asian mythology were related to these new migrants from a dying civilization. They were very likely members of the defunct Egyptian priesthood. There is thus strong correlation between worlds cultures and ancient Egypt. Evidences exist to corroborate these facts (see chronology c. 700BC to AD)...

*** 5/ CULTURAL NEXUS: AFRICA AND EUROPE The African presence in Europe is part of the Egyptian period. While prehistory is often studied as a global phenomenon, we should remember that this phenomenon was divided in continents and followed a chronological cycle. Previous to African migrations in early prehistory, Europe, Asia and the Americas were not inhabited. The phenomenon continued on and has not stopped. From prehistory to history Modern Man, the wanderer one might say continued from one generation to another his multiwave migrations across the globe. This phenomenon was essential for the pollination of memes and genes that optimally allowed the rise of civilization. With the fantastic revolution in communication in post modern era, the new phenomenon of a virtual and digitally connected world will comfort what our ancestor began. To consolidate a global civilization. ***

Intercontinental criss-crossing of population has

been for time immemorial a vital element to the world. While there was a long period of isolation during the ice age, once the climate got better our foremost ancestors began moving and their journey was indeed legendary. Modern humanity is its legacy

A-

PROTO AFRICAN ERA (continued)

We have come to forget that before Romans domination the continent was not called Africa. Africans were called Aethiopos. It is therefore accurate to distinguish a time when the continent was not known in the established lingua as protoAfrica. In proto-Africa, there was no political or ideological division of the continent, people were free to o where they wanted as they pleased2. This is not to say that there were no African native in Europe and Asia. There were. They simply were not called Africans. In fact in prehistory there was a notable African 2 Africans in some countries could not travel abroad without an official authorization in the early days of neocolonialism (c. 1950s-70s).

presence in Europe, near-East and parts of Asia. The most important was that of Sesostris the Great who went as far as England. Other accomplishments of this remarkable leader involved Greece, Anatolia, and Crete as well as forays into Asia. The African presence left an indelible mark on language, mythology and culture.

B-POST GREEK AND ROMAN PERIOD The History of Africa and Europe following Greek and Romans invasion has been well covered in most accounts. It involves the birth of Christianity, the transformation of the Catholic Church; the domination of Spain (usually called Moorish or Muslim domination). Important moments include the famous conquest and fall of Hannibal, the martyrdom of African Christians in North Africa and the great suppression of African writings during inquisition, which was preceded by iconoclasm. The latter beyond its theological discourse was an attempt to eradicate images. Europeans kings that converted to Christianity realized that God their purported father did not exactly looked like them. The change was cultural, perhaps political. Not racial. We know that there were great resistance at the early years of monotheistic adoption and transformation. Formidable times that extended to the Middle ages. It was the beginning of a new religion. The emperor was considered divine. There religious movements still faithful to the African monotheistic religion. The need

to impose a new concept demanded in the views of early rulers that the process of identity be as complete as possible. This was readily an attempt to quench rebellion and establish belief and sovereignty. Iconoclasm to this day is known as a religious schism. There was a little more than that going on in those days. But again it was not racial in the modern understanding of the term. Black Virgins survived. They are still venerated to this day.

4/ Conclusion This has been an attempt to outline our misunderstanding of what happened following the fall of Egypt and why it was difficult to understand Africa of the Great Lakes link to ancient Egypt. The most important evidence of these links is not only African mythology, but African Art of the classic period (c. 12th - 19th. c) as well African enduring civilization (culture and philosophy). The understanding of African ancestral principle and its symbolism. A comparative study of such symbolism with Egypt religious practices and mythology will show similarities of striking concordance. Such symbolism has been preserved in African Art. There is

thus iconographic evidence. Recent discoveries are reenforcing this reality. Beyond Greco-Egyptian link there is more to discover in Africa ancient history.

The Nok period in Northern Nigeria which of course was not called Nigeria in BC era changed our understanding of central Africa old history. Professor Diop made an interesting linguistic study of North Cameroon language (Kare) and ancient Egypt. The study of Bamileke origin, culture, social organization and ancestorship, including burial rites showing compelling similarities with ancient Egypt largely corroborate these theses. There were studied made y Douala and Akan also suggesting evidences of their link to ancient Egypt. Concurrent appearance of thinkers (and events of notable similarity) at the same period of history and following the final fall of ancient Egypt was observed by historians. While some attempted a link other preferred to see simple coincidences with no other correlation. But even to the latter, it is impossible to ignore correlation of events and time. According to Thames and

Hudson: The procession of world-teachers through these centuries can be followed from Laotzu and Confucius in China through the Hebrews prophets to the Greek philosophical schools of Pythagoras and of Socrates Essentials tenets of Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Confucianism, martial arts (found in ancient Egypt archeology) and Greek philosophical movements are to be traced back to old civilization. After all it was the only place in ancient where existed a well structured and totally dedicated class of scientist, thinkers and researchers. They were the priesthood and their most essential job was to understand the universe. Many of their research work were lost with the burning of the library of Alexandria in ancient times Indeed, besides monotheism inspired by Pharaoh Akhenaton ancient Egypt priesthood engaged in what can be understood today as a scientific enterprise with the aim to better understand humanity and its relation to the universe. While refusing to connect these movements in African secret societies scholars did not hesitate to find

similarities with Europeans counterparts. To Watson, The Mahayana form in which Buddhism, at the beginning of the Christian era, made its way through central Asia into China was influenced by the other faiths with which it was in contact. This other faith is essentially ancient Egypt teachings and possibly Indians religious movements.

What really matters in the understanding of the march of

history is not necessarily who so and so was, but how so and so got influenced. Of course it is good to know when possible the nationality and ethnicity of men involved in a philosophical or historical movement though it is

somewhat secondary. As people of this earth we are all involve in the same endeavor. The search for the truth in history is redeeming. To recapitulate Greek and Roman invasions created an intellectual vacuum in North East Africa. The lords and priests of Egypt retreated in the territories that they previously dominated (Sesostris I, was the first Egyptian monarch to conquer lands all the way to the Caucasus and Asiaincluding India--), while those who were stranded in Egypt moved back where they came from. In the lands of the South. And latter further south into west Africa (post Roman era). Resistant to Romans were followed by Romans soldiers all the way to Lake Chad and possibly as far as western Cameroon.

In ancient Egypt Pharaoh Akhenaton was the first king ever to impose a monotheist religion over his entire empire. He was also the first leader to inspire the idea of a Good God and to laid down premises for social liberty, including the liberalization of art. In this respect what has

been called the laxism of Akhenaton was really the application of a philosophy based upon non-violence. His refusal to intervene in the Egyptians colonies in the Middle East (then called Eastern territories of Egypt) was the direct application of such philosophy. With Akhenaton (see the four hundred years following the death of Akhenaton in

this

Chrono-history),

began

religious

and

social

revolution that was going to expand with the first exodus and to continue with latter waves out of Egypt. A phenomenon that lead to the birth of Judaism, Buddhism, Confucianism, democracy and Christianity3. Conversely, Ancient Egyptians were not only great innovators of religious precepts and fascinating

architectural accomplishments, they were also the first powers to develop slavery. Conquest is not an egg walk. Their military legacy announced the likes of Cesars and Napoleon. Certainly there were great kingdoms in the Euphrates and the Indus valleys but they had less influenced in worlds development. The lost of total power is an important cause for traumatism. This is true for people, this is true for nations. When Egypt fell it was like the end of the world. It is in this context that we understand the impression of doom that transpired in some ancient writings. When the gods fell it certainly must have felt like doom. The so3 It is clear that this is an historical appreciation of events and not a religious one.

called curse of Ham was definitely related to the fall of Egypt. As we have said in another work: a man can live a wealthy and powerful life, yet if he falls abruptly let say by murder and particularly if the killing is gruesome, there would be a tendency to wonder whether such terrible death is not the result of some curse or whether in the case of a difficult life, of some bad karma. Indeed all those concepts were borne out of the experience of people all over history. According to Professor Ben Jochannan There is no doubt that since we (the Jews) were enslaved by our fellows Nubians, Ethiopians and Egyptians of other religions we placed curses on them As a direct consequence of our frustration, anger and spirit of revenge, coming from not only the enslavement but also the invasions That is one way to look at it. But curse could also be the interpretation of an event that reason alone does not satisfactorily clarifies. Any event that is beyond our understanding can be interpreted as supernatural. This was often the case in antiquity when people did not understood complexities of the human mind and emotion as we do today. We now know that civilization like people evolve in cycle of chaos and synchronicity that have nothing to do with mysticism.

When a criminal attack you and steal your property there is no two ways about it. The criminal is the bad guy (not karma, neither voodu or bad luck and certainly not the victim). It has been demonstrated with modern sciences that a rapist is a rapist regardless of circumstances. Rape being considered a crime of violence. Rape of culture, IQ or territory is rape. *** GENIUS IN ANCIENT AFRICA Professor Van Sertima in a public address to the American Smithsonian Institution in November 1991 proposed that Peter Schmidt and Donald Avery of Brown University in Rhode Island found African smelting steel that was 1500 years old. The finds were located along the lakes of Tanzania and Uganda and consisted of machines that achieved temperatures 200 degrees higher than any machines in Europe until the late nineteenth century. These African machines blast furnaces produced steel in a single stage process; that is superior to the technique developed in the late nineteenth century by German scientist George Wilhelm Siemens whose machine for

manufacturing steel did the same thing in two crude processes, noted Dr. Van Sertima. This tells us that existed in Africa a long time ago a highly developed civilization capable of building such a refine and highly efficient furnace. Other discoveries were done in Africa showing developed civilizations tat have disappeared since. We have described in details some of these inventions in Science & Religion of this Chrono-History4. That admitted, it is only logical that proto-African would have preceded all other cultures on the path of mathematical, astronomical, philosophical and technical innovations. After all it was only the first human stepping stone into history. By recognizing it for what it was we would have developed a homogenous consciousness and would not have wandered in the eerie waters of discrimination that creates a confusion in the reading of history and our common identity as a human specie. The fact that civilization started in the continent now called Africa has no intrinsic significance. In all events 4 Unfortunately as we edited this book we still have not been ale to locate our lost manuscripts that were lost or stolen. We still hope to find at least the early generations in floppy disc.

ancient Sumerians and ancient Egyptians according to modern scholars were from the African continent. The controversy in the origin of civilizations an oxymoron. We are all people. Our complexes and reservation s when it come to Africa is usually tainted by ethnic considerations born out of slavery. Advances in genetics coupled with the discovery of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome brought an end to the debate in humans common origin. At such time the research work on this Chronology was basically finished. Essential elements of our past were delineated. It was refreshing to have our work vindicated. Indeed the most fascinating discovery in our research was the undeniable brotherhood of man not only in prehistory, but in history. This Chronology could have been called a chromonome. We ultimately called it Panorkross because it was more important to emphasize that history is made of people (panor5) that meet and exchange ideas, genes and culture (Kross or cross). Prejudices and greed divided us. Let us hope that knowledge and progress will unite us. 5

Bamileke word for people

***

Chapter I: PHYSICAL AFRICA 3.5 billion years ago - Appearance of life in embryonic form. *** PREHISTORY GREAT PANGEA Great Pangaea was the amalgam of worlds continents. It is latter on that the continent separated. The derive of continents refer to this prehistoric period. Imagine the worlds continents as a large puzzle. South America was once connected by land to West Africa, so were Europe and Asia. *** 1- PRE CAMBRIAN . 3000 Millions years BC to -580 million years. Including the geological periods called Pan-African (beginning around 1000 BC) and comprising the Damaran-Katangan. At this period of Prehistory there is no international subdivision.

All the continents are still linked together in the Great Pangaea land mass. -580 000 000 to -3 000 000 . Still Pre-Cambrian period *** 2- PHANEROZOIC . The Phanerozoic period began 580 million years before the birth of Christ (BC). It comprised: The Paleozoic, the Cambrian, the Ordovician, the Silurian, the Devonian, Permian, and Mesozoic (Triassic, Jurassic, And Cretaceous), Cenozoic (Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene) and the Quaternary which included the Pleistocene. A- The Paleozoic It extended from 580 to 255 million years ago and was made of the two major geologic episodes called: The

Metamorphic episode in North West Africa, North East Africa and Upper-great-lakes Africa. There was another geological period called the Cape deposition in the Paleozoic.

a-The Cambrian: It began in 580 and lasted until 520 millions years ago

b- The Ordovician Goes from 520 to 460 million years ago. 430 000 000 FP

430 000 000 FP . Ordovician: First mass extinction, with an enormous collapse of Earth species. c- Silurian Extending from -460 to -360. It marked the beginning of the cape deposition. d- Devonian End of the Cape deposition. This period began in 415 and lasted to 360 millions years ago. 350 000 000FP = Devonian: Second mass extinctions, with a catastrophic collapse of living species on Earth. e- Carboniferous Period From 360 to 280, saw the first formation of the Nubian Sandstone. Began the Karoo deposition, which lasted until

the Jurassic period. f- Permian From 280 to 255 million years ago. Second formation of Nubian sandstone. 225 000 000 FP = Permian: Third collapse of living species.

B- Mesozoic A geological period that extended from 255 to 65 millions years. It comprised: The Triassic, the Jurassic and the Cretaceous. a- Triassic Extended from 255 to 210 million years ago. Third Nubian sandstone formation and continental intercalaire. 200 000 000FP = Triassic: Fourth extinction of living species. 200 million years ago What the world was 200 millions years ago has been the subject of serious studies. The search continues relentlessly and new discoveries in science are very helpful in elucidating the mystery. It is any one guess whether we shall ever be able to say with absolute certainty, what was

the reality in those remote ages of prehistory. However, according to some theories, 200 millions years ago, all the continents on earth were conglomerated in a huge surface named Pangaea. A splitting, called the drifting of the continents started in the Mesozoic (a period in Prehistory which lasted from 255 to 65 million years ago). Then continents drifted to become what they are today.

65 000 000 . Cretaceous: Fourth catastrophic collapse of the number of living species on Earth. The total of these mass extinctions (Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous) are called: The Big Five by Paleontologists.

ANIMALS & PLANTS IN PREHISTORY

Bones found in Egypt, in Niger and other places in the continent by modern researchers shows that in Africa lived various species of plants and animals. There were great dinosaurs. And in the Sahara desert there was lush vegetation.

1 Animals The Allosaurus was a carnivore contemporaneous to the Spinausaurus; also a carnivore dinosaur which bones found in Egypt by Germans expeditions ascertains their presence in Africa. There were other carnivores such as the Alaphrosaurus. In West Africa, precisely in Gadoufaoua area in Niger, French researchers isolated bones from a plant eating

dinosaur called the Ouranisaurus. The Africans dinosaurs were of various forms and some of them compare to animals living today in the continent. The Brachiosaurus is one of those examples. This dinosaur had a long neck reminiscent of a giraffe. In Tanzania, bones of the Titanausorids estimated to live about 66 millions years ago were found in Tendaguru. Other dinosaurs included the Barosaurus, the Diplodocus, the Dryosaurus, and the Kentrosaurus (displayed at the Museum of Naturkunde in East -- Berlin, with the Elaphrosauru, the Dryosaurus, and the Dicraesaurus). Lungs fishes were among the species of fish that were also contemporaneous to the Dinosaurs. Evidence of Africans Dinosaurs was discovered in Cameroon, at the Koum basin, in Malawi and Niger.

2 Plants Giants forests and flowering plants covered the Earth in prehistoric Africa. Amongst them were the giants ferns

called Cycads found in the Mesozoic forest, Horsetails, Conifers low growing relatives of Pines, Angiosperms and others.

66 million years ago Last Dinosaurs traced in Kenya.

About 55 million years ago

AFRICA: Cradle of Humankind

Chapter II: A MATTER OF ORIGIN

Hominid lineage stands in the center of the Darwinian concept. Life evolved from one specie to another in a logical cycle usually described as the tree of evolution. To understand this principle we have to consider the importance of genetics. Through a complicated process called adaptation, species evolved through space and time. Genes are organic data bank of dynamic information. They

are dynamic because they actually determined the modalities of adaptation by designing features and playing an essential role not only in fine tuning the immune system from one generation to another (immunology) but also by interfering in various aspects of human physiology. The skin as the first barrier for the human body plays an important role in the protection of the organism. It is the first bastion of our immune system. All organs are active in the physiological mechanism that fend off diseases and reinforce our defense system. Leucocytes and other cells finally contribute to our survival in concert with our genetic makeup. Genes however do evolve and that maybe their greatest secret to date. It is this final understanding that explains why Mother Nature created diversity. It was the only manner to insure that in the long and tedious process of speciation the best combination possible existed in the diversity of earth fauna, plants, weather, geography and extraordinary multitude of life forms that were found in the pathway of the existential trajectory of Man. Can the genotype be considered the center of transformations from one specie to another? Possibly.

The nature of our humanity one hundred years after Darwin is still a subject of debate. Are Hominids the true ancestors of Homo sapiens? Sometime in the past a break occurred and homosapiens broke away from hominids pongid characteristics by walking upright in the posture that has been since then our landmark in the cycle of evolution. Some believe that brain size plaid a role in this revolution. Anthropology have suggested beside

bipetallism, the use of tools as the direct result of brain expansion. So is the consumption of meat that

complemented the enormous demand of protein from an active brain (Leakey fils). Om the evolution of specie, Darwin in his famous book made a demonstration of his theory using the example of plants. He also postulated the transmission of physical traits by inheritance in particular with birds and mammals. From three existing genera (animals or plants with similar characters and belonging to the same family), was formed a small family which in turn formed allied or closed family, as they extend in different branches. They would remain connected by their genus of origin. The three different branches exploded in other branches A, B, C and sub-A,

Sub-B, sub-C in a continuum as complex as the human genome. While descendants of each group can be totally different from their originators, the possibility remains that a given group might maintain its initial characteristic. All depending of the environment of evolution and the principle of natural selection. In the process of evolution some forms vanished while other prospers. Natural selection through divergence of character and extinction went on with speciation. Descendants of one specie through intercrossing survived as they adapt to environment. So from the common ancestor, taken in abstract, a given Y generation of grand children of the third son would go extinct for various reasons including external and genetic, while those of the first son survived and live on to develop a branch of evolution. And all inhabitants of the world today, from Africa to Europe to Asia and America descent from the same primeval mother knew today as

Mitochondrial Eve. The oldest remain of Hominids bones have been so far discovered in Tanzania, placing the factual origin of Humankind in that part of Africa. Interestingly ancient Egyptians placed Aaru fields (garden of eden) later called

Elyseum by Greek and Romans in East Africa.

THE HOMINID TRAIL Here begins the odyssey of mankind. 5.6 millions years ago . Possible Hominids lived in Africa (Jaw fragment discovered at Lothagam in 1967, South East of Lake Turkana, Kenya).

5 500 000 to 2 000 000 . Australopithecus gracile and robustus.

5.5 millions years ago Diverse varieties of Australopithecus. Five millions years ago In Africa lived Australopithecus Africanus. This specie is believed to hold an important place at the beginning of humans evolution. Australopithecus Africanus was able to stand and walk upright. Scientists are not certain of the exact dates of appearance. Some proposed 2 millions years

to 3 millions years ago. Australopithecus Africanus is a good candidate for the transitional link between Apes and Man in the principle of Evolution. Recent discoveries demonstrate that Australopithecus stood on his two feets and had broad use of his hands. He was able to handle tools. However specialists observed that human brain

evolved from birth to adulthood in a totally different manner from that of Apes. Whereas Apes and

Australopithecine were more alike, barring little similarities with human brain development. (See also Homo and the beginning of humankind, about two and a half millions years ago). Hominids fossils also found in Lake Baringo, Kenya attest a presence there of early Hominids around four and a half millions years ago.

4.5 millions years ago . In Africa lived Ardipithecus ramidusi. Fossils found in 1993 in Aramis, Ethiopia. In total more than 40 fragments revealing a primitive individual with both human and apelike features. Hominid lineage. A famous Ardipidecus ramidus fossil, has been that of Lucy. This fossil had a

mandible, a handfull of skul fragments, bits of ribs and a few vertebrae as well as parts of most major bones of the arm and legs. 4.1-Million-years ago Kanopoi Hominid: Hominids in East Africa, (attested with the discovery in Kanopoi, of a mandible dated 4.1 millions years old. The discovery was made by Meave Leakey and Kamoya Kimeu). 3.6 millions years Australopithecus Afarensis -Laetoli-(mandible discovered at Laetoli in Tanzania, by Mary Leakey).Hominid lineage. These hominids were walking upright already. . African Hominids A. Afarensis break the stepping stone in human evolution by inventing the process of eating meat with tools6. The concept of knife created, here sharp stones artificially made. This implied tat this early in time Hominids used meat in their diet as wel as fruits.

Kate Wong, Scientific American, October 2010, p.21

3.2 millions years ago Australopithecus ( also called Southern Ape) Afarensis -Hadar- (Discovered in Ethiopia). Hominid lineage. 3 millions years ago . In Africa, ancestors of modern humans invented tools. Over two thousands of those tools were discovered in 1996. 2.7millions years ago . In Africa, began Homo lineage. For the first time men as we know them morphologically appeared and

progressively evolved to modern humanbeing. It is believed that this specy spoke a language of its own already. . Evidence of Homo industry in Ethiopia (between 1996 and 1997, thousands of stones tools were discovered in Ethiopia.) . African Homo habilis. . Hominids in Makapansgat in South Africa.

PLEISTOCENE - 2 000 000 to -10 000 years ago (Pleistocene)

BRIEF REVIEW OF THIS PERIOD

Humans ancestors were established in proto-Africa. They were called Homo habilis. They are believed to have been the first humans in the Darwinian cycle of evolution (and may actually have originated 2.5 millions years ago according to Leakey son . What differentiated them from the previous inhabitants of the planet in the tree of human evolution was their cranial structure. Their skull was similar to that of Homo-Sapiens. Australopithecus for example had a skull structure more elongated and a small cranium with a small brain. In the tree of evolution, the latter was situated between Ape and Human. Then something happened that separated our foremost ancestors from other hominids. What was it? Athmospherical conditions changed. There was a periodical melting of widespread glaciers that causes the seas to rise and fall modifying the lands. It is believe that such conditions lead the inhabitants to migrate either in search for food or for better climatic conditions. Indeed the harsh

condition causes certain plants to perish. Survival had its exigencies. Apparently our foremost ancestors adapted. In Pleistocene there was also an abundant variety of small mammals. Towards the end of Pleistocene, a fairly moist climate in Egypt was favorable to culture. This attracted people from all cardinals. Experiences acquired in different

environments could be shared. The first inhabitant of this region developed an industry called late Levaloisian confirmed with finds in Asyt, in well bedded deposits of flint and limestone gravels. This new industry from Upper Acheulean to Levalloiso-Khargan (later Pleistocene) was found in the higher beaches of the Faiym lake. The lake at the time communicated with the Nile through the Hawra channel. Evidences of Late Levaloisian were also found at Wdis (south of Asyt) in well-bedded deposits of flint stones and limestone gravel. People living in the Pleistocene period of Prehistory endured various climates. The weather alternated from glaciation to cooler times. About 70 000 years ago the last inter glacial period which lasted 30 000 years

approximately ended. It was followed by warm conditions reportedly moisten than present time. It is likely that the first great migration from Africa occurred about this time. Betwen 70 000 and 28 000 BP, there was a glacial interlude of major significance called Wrm. It was colder, with development of continental glaciers over Scandinavia and Canada. Perhaps for the first time in its magnificent odyssey Modern man was separated in such a way that members of the family caught in one geographical area versus another lost their sense of commonality. From 28 000 to present the world experienced a cool , temperate interval, with temporary recession of word glaciers, followed by another glacial period. It was generally cold with glaciers advances followed by

intermittent retreat to the last glacial relapse around 9 000 BC

1.8 . Homo erectus in Lake Turkana in Kenya

VOL 2

AFRICAN RISE OF CIVILISATION Chapter III

FIRST MAJOR CONQUEST OF THE WORLD

Migratory

waves

were

phenomenon's

of

extreme

importance. It is the principle of population criss-crossing. Its secondary happenstance allowed the magnificent rise of Modern Man. Its distribution all over the planet. This did not take place over night nor did it occurred in isolation. We are now going to follow step by step the evolution of Modern Man in his journey across the world. Continuing with the previous model off place and time we shall give a date or period (time) and sate from various records what happened then and there (event). BP = Before present.

1.7 BP . Homo erectus arrived in Sangiran, Java, Indonesia. It was the first arrival in Asia of this world traveler of prehistoric time that engaged in a world territorial conquest. His birth place was Africa. 1.6 BP

. Homo Erectus in Nariokotome, Morocco (North Africa), Koobi Fora, Kenya (East Africa) and possibly in Georgia, Russia and reaching the Caspian Sea, in Dmanisi where findings corroborat its presence there.

1,5 millions BP Acheulean industry in Africa.

c. 1.4 BP . Homo Erectus in Africa leads a normal life for prehistoric times. He is already a traveler going North to Israel. Remains found at Olduvai Gorge (c. 1.25) and Ubeidiya, Israel. This is the opportunity to note that this continental crossing land has been through out human prehistory and history an essential meeting point. In prehistory our ancestors traveled by foot. It is hard to imagine that they covered such amazing distances. It took them a long time. Most certainly they did not know where they were going. They did not have maps and fine instruments to tell them where to go. Remains found in all continents testify to the

journey. This was only the toddler age of this extraordinary phenomenon.

EXPLORATION OUT OF AFRICA IN PREHISTORIC TIME.

1 000 000 BC . Homo Erectus engaged in exploratory journey around the world. Whether his departs from Africa was caused by conflict or in search of food remains a mystery. Homo erectus was the first human specie to engage in an exploratory journey around the world. It was a migration. Followed the conquest of an untamed nature that lead Homo Erectus to Europe and Asia (Modjokerto, Indonesia c. 1.2). He also pushed further south within the continent (remains found in southern Africa (Swartkrans). Homo Erectus in his world journey arrived in Sangiran and Trinil, in Indonesia. And also in Georgia around the Caspian Sea, in Swartkrans (South Africa) and in Lantian (China). We must remember that the span of time here is estimated in thousand of years and these are generation of

people. In other words a journey from Africa to Lantian China will be calculated in n generation. . Around 1000 000 BP In Kanapoi and in Allia Bay in Kenya lived Australopithecus, a contemporary of Homo Erectus. 800,000 BP . Homo Antecessor from Africa arrived in Atapuerca, Spain and Ceprano, Italy. 700 000 . Homo sapiens in Ternifine, Algeria.

500 000 BP . Possible arrival of n Generation Homo erectus in India and China (Peking man in Zhoukoudian) coming from Africa.

460 000 . In its great conquest trek around the world, African Homo erectus arrived in Zhoukoudian, China. -400 000 . N Generation Homo erectus from Africa, conquered Germany (fossils found in Bilzingsleben)

. Homo Erectus in Asia (Peking Man) 300 000 BP . Homo sapiens in Awash, Ethiopia. . Mitochondrial Eve in Africa: followed an emigration of members of her group or of her descendants who became ancestors of all racial palette in the modern world. Mitochondrial Eve was the matrix of N Generation conquest of the world including his expansion all over the continent of Africa. 250 000 . Early Modern Humans in Jebel Ighoud, in Morocco (Africa). Another wave in the conquest of Europe. . Around 250 000 BP early modern humans in Baringo, Kenya already made tools. Examples of such include thin blades struck from a pre-shaped core.

200 000 BP . In Africa specialized tools kits were used by Modern Humans. Among these tools were: grindstone for the preparation of plant-foods. Note the functionality of sea

shell used for domestic needs (carrying things). Use of bone points, hafting of projectiles points like spear, etc. REVISED DATE OF AFRICAN MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC AGE (c.150 000 to c40 000 BP) According to a group of archeologists led by Desmond Clark from the University of California, Berkeley, African Middle Paleolithic age should be situated between 150 000 BP to 40 000 BP..

-150 000 to 130 000 Appearance of proto-African man: first human like . In Africa: Homo erectus and (Negroid) . Homo Sapiens in the Omo valleys (Omo I and Omo II) and Kanjera. The fossils discovered were buried under layers of African middle Pleistocene age in a region undisturbed by tectonic movements. The Kanjera man was discovered by Leakey in 1930. Homo Sapiens stages

LITTLE MEN ACROSS THE WORLD

Negritos populated America (-138 000 to 26 000 BP) . In America, began a progressive implantation of first humans, later called proto-Negroids. They are also known as: Aeta (Philippines), Black Dwarfs, Negritos (Andamou Islands), Grimaldi (Ice Age in Europe), Sekai, Semang, twa, Khoi-khoi, Hottentots, San, Bushmen (Southern Africa), ! Kung, Seed people, Little Black men (Taiwan) and little Red men, Pygmies (in Central Africa) an San (in Southern Africa), Sekai or Ornag Ali or Senou (in Malaysia), etc. -130 000 to -35 000 . Modern Man in Omo, East Africa. 125,000 BP Modern Man in Arabian Peninsula 120 000 . Homo sapiens in Lake Laetoli.

115 000 . Homo sapiens lived in Border Cave, South Africa. -110 000

. In Africa, Broken Hill Man (Zambia), also known as Rhodesian or Zimbabwean man. His fossils demonstrated that they were Neanderthalians and in some ways underlined Diop, more primitive that is older than the European skull of La Chapelle-aux-Saints. This raised the possibility that Neanthertal man came from Africa (the oldest Europeans Neanderthaliens dating from Wrm I and II that is about 80,000 years ago).

CHAPTER IV: THE AWAKENING OF INTELLIGENCE APPEARANCE OF FIRST INDUSTRIOUS MAN

-100 000 to -50 000

. In South Africa: lived Negroid Homo Sapiens Sapiens (Modern Man). Their most interesting legacies are the mines of Swazilands. this makes them the world first miners. They represented some of the largest skulls

discovered. The voluminous skulls measuring an average 1,500cm. Their fossils are represented by large Boskop skulls made of incomplete Florisbad head and bony cape Flats head. The reproductions of their cranial volume gave respectively: 1830 cm (Haughton), 1950 cm (Broom) and 1717cm (Pycraft) . They were found in Border Cave and Klasies River Mouth in South Africa. They were Homo sapiens in constitution. -92 000 . Arrival of Africans Homo sapiens in Qafzeh, Israel. -90,000 . In Africa, notably in Katanda, actual Zaire, Africans built their abode in stone and carved artistic tools. Evidences came from the discoveries of John Yellen and Alison Brooks. Among tools carved by these builders were: bone harpoons implying that they were also fishing

systematically. They also had delicately carved knives, showing a refine notion in living. They had also developed an artistic mind. These evidence of a burgeoning civilization are the first in humans history. Thousand years latter the same technique were observed in Europe. Thus a

direct connection can be made between Africa and Europe. Since the Out of Africa theory the gap of civilization that once divided humanity is finally closed. -50 000 to -30 000

. In Papua New Guinea, humans arrived from South Asia. We must considered also that early navigation dated to Upper Paleolithique (c.20 000 to 30 000 years ago) which lead to the speculation of an African origin for the inhabitants of Australia. In this later theory migrants came straight to Papua New Guinea via Australia by boats. But even in the South East Asian theory (in this case the Aurignacians of Asia), one would observe that Black people of this area could have very well migrated in an early time. According to anthropoly it was a land migration. Migrants then interbred with Asians. (See Hominid trail for a better understanding of this process). Fossils were found in Huon Peninsula, New Guinea.

A: THE INDUSTRIOUS GENE: COLOR VARIATION ENRICHED HUMANITY ANNOUNCING THE

PERPETUATION OF PANOR-KROSSING

Introduction This was another turning point in Modern Man history: melanin variation (levels of black pigmentation), receded in Europe during Wrm period (glaciation). It was an advantageous adpatatoin for tat environment just like the enrichment of melanin jad been a successful one in Afrc. From that point on melanin variation would be regulated by panorkrossing or cross-breeding as humans go back and from from one environment to another. Melanine variation (enrichment) was acquired in Africa to protect our ancestors from the solar rays. It was the first major turning point in the Homind tract. By losing

the furs that had been necessary at an early stage of evolution our ancestors were entering the Halls of Modern Man Upon crossing the Mediterranean Sea they were caught in the Ice age for a while. They ad to adapt to survive. This is was the occasion of the second Melanin variation occurrence. It was the second major stage in the making of Modern Man. Mutation was necessary to protect the specy7. This major event according to professor Diop was the result of longs and terrible glaciations that forced the body to adapt. Melanin Variations are natural and physiological strategies . In Europe and Africa it took different means. The Ice Age diversified the human family (see 40,000 BC). These two majors distinctions spurred variation in pigments as our forbearers conquered the entire planet facing different conditions. Because there were genetical criss-crossing all 7 To learn more on this process read and its impact on the Modern World, see Cosmic Symmetry by the same author.

along prehistory and history the initial variation muted into kaleidoscopic like renditions. This is verified today in all continents. The rare phenomenon is still misunderstood to this day. It created an illusion of difference within the human family. People forgot that they all came from the same ancestral Super Mother that we have called Mitochondrial Eve.

-40, 000 -Arrival of Grimaldian Negroid in Europe. Grimaldi Negroid were invaders. They came to Europe either through the Red sea or via Gibraltar. It is generally believed that the only route of migration out of Africa in prehistory was the land bridge of ancient Egypt that linked Africa to Europe and Asia (later separated by the de Suez Canal). To restrain our ancestors to land crossing only is to limit their abilities where archeological evidences say otherwise. People reached Australian Islands by sea. They also reach Europe crossing the red sea. Europe indeed is closer to the continent via Gibraltar than Australia is to Asia (and we know that Australia was populated about 80,000 years

ago). In Europe, Grimaldi Negroids' proved to be great creators as well. They are credited today with European Aurignacian industry. These grand fathers and grand mothers of ours were nevertheless sons and daughters of Africa as well. The human family expansion extends to Asia and the Americas. The great migrations of prehistory affected for ever our view of the world.

-40 000 to -20 000 . In Europe, racial differentiation matured in Southern France and Spain at the end of Wrm glaciation . After more than 10 000 years of ice age Grimaldi Negroids changed into Cro-Magnon, prototype of Caucasians (White pigment). This racial differentiation took place during the interval that separated the arrival in Europe via Gibraltar of a Negroid migrant called Grimaldi man. The new population was called Cro-Magnon man and dated to Solutrean period. The mutation from Negroid to CroMagnon was achieved over 15,000 years of a transition period. It was an heroic moment in worlds history. To survive the ice age was not a small achievement. It

corresponded to the appearance of numerous intermediate types between Negroid and Caucasoid. This crucial point in human history openned a process of physiological sophistication. Further migrational waves went both ways allowing a continuous exchange of features and perhaps more importantly of genes with newly acquired immune system, an essential component of human survival. -38 000 . In Australia arrived people from Africa, perhaps via Europe. Their fossils were found in Upper Swan and Lake Mungo. . In Eastern Asia arrived new people. Presumably from a long journey across Suez. It is alos possible but unlikely that hey came by Sea. . c.35 000 BP, Neanderthal man disappeared in Europe. It is possible that he was overwhelmed by conquerors from proto-Africa. It is also possible that it was simply another branch of the tree of evolution that died out (recent studies now suggest that Neanderthal and Modern Human interbred). -35, 000 to -32, 000

- Grimaldian and Orignacian culture. -33 000 . In Europe, another invasion of Grimaldi Man, from an earlier continental wave from proto-African continent). Fossils found in Mladec, Czech Republic

B: MAJOR AFRICAN WAVE INTO ASIA AND CREATIVE EXPLOSION IN AFRICA

This is the story of our common ancestors. It is here that we find the foremost link to the entire humanity. Demonstrated by Mitochondrial DNA. This genetic departure was first thought to have occurred in 300,000 BCE. (before current era)

-30 000 . In Africa, iron mines exploited in South Africa (Swaziland) for the extraction of hematite, red ocher by Homo Sapiens Sapiens. The mine contained 23,000 stone tools (a block of hematite extracted from this mine was found on a piece of charcoal dated by Yale University to 29,000 BP). . In Asia, Africans Homosapiens found refuge in Tabon caves (Philippine) and in Japan. They also reached Siberia. -25 000 . Bushman and Hottentot types spread in North Africa and Europe. . In South America, arrival of Australoids. It was a

progressive migration that extended to several millennia. They came from Asia through the Bering straight. These early inhabitants populated the Americas. They pushed into Peru around 22,000 BP. Their descendants were joined ten thousand years later by Asian (see 15 000 B.C), then by Algonquins and yet later by Eskimos. This human complex in prehistory maybe considered the constitutive body of America early inhabitants (it is this type of genetic soup that was reproduced in various combinations all over the world to produce the magnificent variety called Homo sapiens or Modern Man. Thus in Africa, in Europe, in Asia, Australia and the Americas Modern Man progressively evolved into post modern era). 20 000 . Appearance of first Cro-Magnon?

-17 000 . In Egypt, flood plain sands and silts lie as much as 65 feet above present Nile valley in the region extending to lower Nubia. These sediments diminished of about forty feet at a location called Sebil and Km Ombo. At such emplacement archeological findings indicate that in Upper and Late

Paleolithic (Sebilian) groups of humans inhabited the luxuriant neighboring vegetation along a number of high channels.

i From latin Ardipithecus, genus name that translates literally as 'ground Ape, and African Ethiopian ramidus, meaning 'root. The combination signifies the evolutionary position of this specie, situated at the roots of hominid branch and marking the ape-human split according to C. Christopher and R. Mc Kie. P.22

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FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES (lost after autoformat, but could be reconstructed if necessary) . important trade and inter-marriages from the coast of Erythrea to the Euphrates Richard Leakey, Origin reconsidered. P.29 According to ancient historian Diodoros, Sesostris I

of Egypt conquered all of Arabia, being the first to have enslaved their entire population. He also conquered Europe and Asia. Diodoros. I..53.5-58.2, trans. Oldfather

(1933,pp.187-95) Cited by Bernald.Vol.II, p.199-200. See excerpt in History- Sesostris (12th dynasty) in this volume. In Black Athena Vol. II professor Bernald makes a convincing exposition of archeological, documentary,

linguistic and other scientific elements corroborating Sesostris I invasion of Arabia. Pp.189-235. As to the skepticism surrounding this great ruler, he made the following observation in his conclusion: The tradition about Sesostris I northern campaigns were discredited from the beginning of the 19th century AD, long before there was any archeological or inscriptional evidence on the subject. They were rejected firstly because the new skepticism would not tolerate speculations about such an early period about which there was so little evidence. There were also religious objections to Egyptian history before the Hyksos, which came dangerously near to the creation. To these must be added the increasingly systematic racism which found it inconceivable that an African monarch could have made military expeditions not merely to the Levant but to Asia

Minor and Europe. Beside the fact that such skepticism purely base on race, was offending to any decent humanbeing, there are however since that time sufficient evidences, largely superior to those supported claims in Aegan or pseudo Mediterranean achievements. Africa as a continent suffered many invasions, we have divided the major invasions in different categories (five major invasions Hyksos-Persian-Greek-Roman-European--), delineated further on in this introduction. In Black Athena, Martin Bernal made a brilliant expose on the influence of Egypt in Europe and of the many movements that rose and fall in Europe, alternatively claiming or rejecting African influence in the European civilization and religion. From Germany to France and from Dupuis to Champollion, great pain was taken to clearly

demonstrate the misrepresentation of facts in order to support dubious agenda, whether based on the theme of European superiority or of Rome pretensions. At the end, the prevalence of Egypt as an African civilization was insurmountable as Champollion himself admitted at the end of his life.pp.121-255 Black Athena: The Afro-Asiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. Martin Bernal.

Although in this introduction I argue on the historical version of racism or Eurocentrism, at the roots of the purported denigration of Africa; I have since discovered that there are evidences for another argument that has nothing to do with our present understanding of races. In this argument, race would be merely a secondary effect of a larger movement. Stephen Jay Gould, The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. P.244 Cuvier claimed that: The Negro raceis marked by black complexion, crisp or wooly hair, compressed craniumthe projection of the lower part of the facethick lips, and the thick lips, evidently approximate it to the monkeu tribeCuvier The Animal kingdom-1831 Vol. P.53 (translated by M. Mac Murtrie from) Le monde animal distribu dapres son organization (1817) . quoted in Bernal Vol.1.p241. Cuvier apparently had little knowledge of Monkeys otherwise he would have notice that many of them actually have no lips unless they push it out. As for DeGobineau he claimed that The black variety is the lowest and lies at the bottom of the ladderit never lives

the most restrictive intellectual zones (J.A de Gobineau Oeuvres-1983- Vol.1pp339-40. Paris:Pliades) and other insanities. Such writers managed to inspire other

generations The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History, Stephen Jay Gould,P.28-9 Atlas of World History, Noel Grove, National Geograophic publication, pp. 18-9 In Wonderfull life, The Burgess Shale and the

Nature of History (1989) Mr Gould made an excellent repudiation of such iconography.pp.28-36 Noel Grove. P.45 From Egyptian tama meaning people, and hu, for white or light ivory.ref. African Presence in Early Europe.p12 Should that be the case, all Africans should benefitted from the same explanation. We have made a synoptic study of the phenomenon that we have called chasyncrism or chaosyncronism because of the pattern it created over centuries. From chaos to order, ethnological pockets seemed to blossom out of

conflicts. see Edit of 1455 in History-1455 AD, in this Chrono History The fact that Confucius was a descendants of the Africans Shangs those not imply that his philosophy was necessarily inspired by Africans. But it is not unreasonable to believe that migrants from Egypt arriving in China following the Exodus at the fall of Egypt, would have associated with their descendants while they arrived there, thus influencing the young Confucius. The coincidence of his appearance in correlation with the fall of Egypt as well as that of Socrates is certainly worthy of investigation. The object is not to show that philosophy is link to Africa, but to understand better our past and the movements of thought in ancient times. It is certainly enriching for humanity to know that in such early times (c.2000 BC for the Sang civilization and 500 BC for the fall of Egypt, the great distance from Africa to China was covered by men. Since we already know that our primate ancestors (hominids) did it, it should really not be surprising to any one that the Egyptians mastered it.

The Origin of Racism and the Means of its fall, a work in progress by the author. Profesor Ben Jochoanan continued: and suffered invasions twice at the hands of the Egyptians, Nubians and Ethiopians in whose homeland we once also lived for almost four hundred years (c. 1675 BC to 1236 BC). Once such invasion was by the Ethiopians and Egyptians under the rule of Pharaoh Shishak [Biblical Sheshonk according to the sacred Torah] who conquered Palestine and raided the Temple of King Solomon, taking along with him a great number of fellow Jews as captives [slaves] into Egypt, Nubia and EthiopiaThis was followed by king Zerah [another Ethiopian ruler] which a host of a thousand and three chariots according to II chronicles, chapter 14that conquered the so-called Semitic White Caucasian The author has two sisters with blue eyes (green in Africa) and white pigmentation. The first was born in Africa and the second in France. His grandfather, king Hapi III of Bana was also of light complexion and had blue or green eyes. Struve who published the papyrus of Moscow

observed that the Egyptians have posed the problem of calculating the surface of an ellipseAnd continued that the Papyrus of Moscow gives us the proof that a famous discovery by Archimedes has to be credited to the EgyptiansWe therefore no longer have any reason to reject the affirmations of the Greeks writers according to whom the Egyptians were the masters of the Greeks in Geometry. (See A.Z. 34,pp. 75-76; Struve Op. Cit.,p.180, note 1. And pp183-84), Civilization or Barbarism, An Authentic Anthropology by Cheiks Anta Diop, Laurence Hill Books, Brooklyn, New-York, an imprint of Chicago Review Press, Incorporated,. p.248 J. H. Franklin & L. Schveninger, Runaway Slaves, Rebels on the Plantation.pp.98-109 The Uhuru Art Society organization in Cameroon was in 1976-77, the only to have organized a

commemorative celebration for the tragedy of Soweto. The event was reported in second page of the National Newspaper of Cameroon (Cameroon Tribune) and the members were not credited for their initiative. A first novel titled Afro-Negro dealt with the cultural

and historical triangle of Black history that is :LiberiaAmerica-Western Africa. It was lost unpublished in Paris in 1979 in a pathetic circumstance with other works. Presented to Editions Maspero in Paris in 1978 and to Presence Africaine that same year. In my Economical Sciencescurriculum at the

University of Sorbone, Tolbiac faculty in Paris, Africa was supposed to have no history whatsoever in Economy. It was a fallacious pretense, unfortunately still held by some people today, a fact that only demonstrated the effects of many centuries of misinformations.

Blacfax Calendar, R. Edward Lee, publisher. It is indeed, appropriate to wonder whether such stultification should be attributed to intelligence. Racial behavior is more reminiscent of emotional stultification or adjunct. For the brain does grasp realities and facts; It is emotion that may blur them or reject them. Prejudice is not a rational reaction. although attempts have been made to characterize it so. Prejudice is based on absurdity, to the

least, to nonexistent facts at the best. It is often sustained by emotional stimulus (anger, jealousy, complexes..), sometime uncontrollable. It is therefore the expression of the most animalistic (litteraly) inclinations in humans. See K.R. Lepsius, Denkmler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, Eganzungsband, fig. 48. It could be argued to any one that refute the Africanity of Egypt or that of the Moors, that neider Greece, nor Rome were whites, they were a mixture of people, in particular with reguard to Greece that had black blood and African influence, not only in its population but also in its religion and culture. Of course, this is arguable and what matter at the end is that we are dealing in all context with Humankind to which we all belong! I was clearly advised by a sympathetic worker who knew what was going on, to register as a foreign student (which limited my area of expertise following graduation). And I was warned that should I register I a normal student (which I did), my chances of success were slim or inexistants.

China (1992), John King Fairbanks. P. 29 It should be remembered that at the time of the pharaos, most of so called sub-saharan Africa was not inhabited by present population. When pharaoh Pepi II sent an expedition to the land of the south, the only curiosity was that of the pygmees, not of so called sub-saharan Africans; for at such time they were not there, for the good reason that they were in Egypt or Sudan either in power or dominated by other Africans. Such is the mention of a Phaeh Djo king of war who used a Ninja type of technique, to create night at will, during the battle leading to the great migration, that took place c. 2500 BP, that is around the period of Tutankhamon, when Egypt was coming out of a civil war and the terrible repression that followed the death of Akhenaton, a notable cause of emigration. While ancient Egypt in its early years, was undeniably a black African civilization of the Upper-greatlakes type, because of its invasion and notably the fondness of its rulers for foreign women, plurigenesis (enrichment of humans gene pool through cross breeding) took on very

early and by the third dynasty the mixing of the population was notable. Then on, Egypt tendency was northward and this lead to migrations outside of Egypt all the way to India and China. As for the population of todays Egypt, they do not represent ancient Egyptian nor does most of the actual population in many parts of the world represent the indigenous population that were there two thousand years ago. Authors translation Although the presence of African or black people in South America may appear controversial, many researcher have indicate such possibility long before the modern debate on the Africanity of ancient American civilization. Indeed, already in the 1920th, a Harcard professor, Dr. Leo Wiener, obeserved in a published work that The presence of Negroes with their trading masters before Colombus is proved by the representation of Negroes in American sculpture and design; by the occurrence of a black nation at Darien in the 16th century, but more specifically by Colombus emphasic reference to negro traders from GuineaThe chief cultural reference was exerted by a

Negro colony in Mexico. Africa and the Discovery of America. Vol. III.pp. 365-369. Philadelphia 1920-2 Leo Wiener. Historian J.A Rogers who quoted Pofessor Wiener also observed that V. Riva Palacio , in Mexico a traves de los siglos, Vol. I pp 63-67, plainly admitted that It is indisputable that in very ancient times the negro race occupied our territory (Mexico) went the two continents were joined. This race brought its own religious cults and ideals. What was called force labor was nothing but slavery. People were taken from their homes and forced to work on railroad and road digging. They were beaten or executed in case of resistance. This happened all over Africa during the colonial era. In Europe for example, emperor Charlemagne in 779 A.D. gave the order that slaves should be sold in the presence of witnesses including: a Bishop, an Archdeacon and a Comt. La traite Ngriere. I.B. Kake, Ed. ABC. P.13 Professor Van Sertima made a very good observation on the inter-influence of cultures and to the inevitability of external influence in civilization. Researcher who unfold

evidences of African presence in the Americas, in Europe or Asia, are accused of trying to show that everything came from Africa. It is amazing that no one ever acused Eurocentristes of attempting to show that everything came from Europe. Yet that is exactly what has been done. It is true that they dont claim so, they affirm so and beware he that dare contradicting them. However, whast is relevant is that humans societies interelated with each other. The point of Professor Van Sertima: Alien groups, however small, migrants from outside, can impact significantly on a native civilization. This is true of all the world civilizations. Wether they be African, or Asian, or European, they are affected by other civilizations. That is the very nature of civilizations an Sertima in African Presence in Early America.p.36 The concept of Chaosynchrony was inspired by chaos theory in physics. Applied in the evolution of species, it attempts to elucidate the mysteries of wars and irrational conflicts, by seeing in them working mechanisms. It has been said that wars were also mothers of inventions. Indeed, important inventions were conceived in time of war (chariots in Egypt, V1 in Germany and atomic power

during the cold war). While V1 lead to rocket research and eventually to the landing on the moon, atomic power has been used in generating energy and would have power electricity in urban cities, if it was not for its radio-activity, thus its danger to humans life. War is chaos; science is order, yet they were both instrumentals in the conquest of space. How odd? Maybe by an independent understanding of human evolution we can have a better cognition of our place in the universe. Often biases and humans pretensions have veiled such understanding. A philosophical question would be: What is order without disorder? What does this consideration has to do with race? Was there any otherway to settle the racial dilemma without being trapped into secret agendas complexes? We proceeded by a simple observation of human evolution, underlying the chaotic episodes (separation & migration) and followed the progression and

harmonization from Ape to man (Evolution). Ethnomeiosis: Greek [ethno=people and mei= to diminish], the result of plurigenesis (enrichment of humans gene pool through cross breeding), with the appearance of

people with melanic variation. This is a continuing process, occuring at different levels of humans evolution. It is a strange phenomenon, because people with different skin coloration originated from identical ethonological roots, thus are really the same race. They simply looked different. There is also ethnomeiosis, when people who look the same, but identify with different ethnicity, intermarried. In the first case of ethnomeoisis we would have the example of India or South America, while in the second case we would have the example of Africa or Europe. In Chasyncrism (the Manifestaion of C-Sync): a synopsis to a Treatise, I have made a more detail explanation of this phenomenon, that I believe is rooted in Prehistory, with strong bearing in History. The lies in African history as in American textbooks are more and more recognised by decent histoprians. It has been so prevalent in America that in his book titled Lies My Teacher told Me, historian James W. Loewn, took on many of those lies and courageously observed that: The authors of history textbooks have taken us on a trip of their own, away from the facts of history, into the realm of myth.

They and we have been duped by an outrageous concotion of lies, half-truths, truths and omissions, that is in large traceable to the first half of the nineteenth century.p.39 One may suggest that anything invented by man, can be enhance or challenge by another man invention. Therefore, any power built on an human invention has a limited time to last. This imply that all state or empire superiority is limited in time. The only alternative to this law is Armaguedon: the end of earth, hardly something to live for! In Royal Odyssey Out of Africa de Hapi and de Happy, recount the history of a dynasty (that of the author ancestors) that rules in Cameroon from the VIIth to the XXth centuries. We have compare both royalties here, only as a metaphore of an historical duality between two continents. There is no other intent. We have total respect to the circomstances of natality and undestand that while each individual can bare the responsibilities of his particular predicaments, none is responsible to the historial

circumstances leading to ones existence. Thus the glamour

and glory of the former has no bearing to the plight of the later, and our admiration to the manner in which a Prince assume his responsibility cannot be shadowed by the weight of history. In 1983 in Paris, the autor took an American IQ test and scored 168, even though he paid little attention to the test because he did not believe in such test as an accurate manner to judge humans intelligence. He believe that he would have scored greater should he had taken it seriously. Human intelligence cannot be judge by mathematical symbols that are acquired knowledge, as well as European culture. In my case I was fortunate to have had parents that exposed me in an early age to the basic of European culture so that I had a full human spectrum type of education and was able to identified with any culture as my own. This meeting is describe in Royal Odyssey out of Africa,de happy & de Happy. The author is the grandson of king Hapi III (d.1981) of Bamileke, a direct descendant of a dynasty that ruled in Africa for over six hundred years (first king was Nzaa Tchokongwe --circa 1369/1415--) from a migration

originating in the Nile valley. See A Royal Odyssey out of Africa. FP= From Present French ( from the ancient Latin filius:son), often used to differentiate a famous parent from their child when they are famous in the same field. The practice may have started with the Dumas (the father-pere) was the famous author of the Three mousquetaires. His son was also a great writer and member of the French prestigious Academy. The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin p.149 The Gladwin thesis, identified four distincts and separated migratory waves of peoples to enter in the Americas. Other authors to have dealt with the subjects are:Chandler, Rasshidi and Cleg; African Presence in Early America,p.22-25 According to Diop, the transition would have occur in latter period between Europe and Asia: The chancelade Man, who would be the prototype of the Yellow race, appeared in the Reindeer period, about 15,000 years ago in the Magdalenian Age (p. 16 in Civilization or Barbarism)

and he asked the question whether the Yellow race would be a mongrel, born in a cold climate, from both stocksof the last Grimaldi in Europe and the New Cro-magon? It is to be noted that he had earlier identified the Cro-magnon as the ancestor of European, due to a mutation from the Grimaldi Negroid. This mutation would have occurred 20,000 years ago, following twenty years of cold climate during the last glaciation age known as the Wurm period. Astronomic datas establishing a similarirty between pyramids alignments and stars, suggest that ancient Africans (Egyptiens) had such knowledge when they built the pyramids. According to this theory in 10450 BC. The pyramids were builts on stars alignments. Robert Bauval in the Orion mystery, reveals his calculation and his findings.The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the secrets of the Pyramids. Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert.pp.189-96 Diop, p.103. The material from such sxcavations were conserved at the University of Chicago, in the Oriental Institute. The cemetery in question called L of group A and the tombs numbered: L.23 and L.24 ibid., Figure (29) on p.104

Actually, the first hieroglyph may have been invented in an early Nubian civilization. An archeological find seem to suggest that long before the pyramids were built, a Nubian civilization indeed built stone monument with bas-relief of jieroglyph like scriptures. Inscription about king Pepi II at Aswan: the

governor of Elephantine was ordered to bring a pygmie to the king from the interior of Africa ( The Egyptian Book of the dead, p. xxv) ..From the southern base of the great pyramid at Giza, a rare find came to lightThey soon exposed a row of 81 huge limstone blocks in separate sets, apparently covering twin pits Only a few feets beneaththe disassembled pieces of an entire cedar boatpart of the funeral trove of Khufu, builder of the great pyramid, who had died nearly 4500 years before. the boat was remarkably well preserveda tribute to the care the ancient Egyptians had sealed it in its pit. Archeologists were no less cautious, taking 16

years to remove and rebuild..Not wishing to press their luck, they have left a second vessel in the adjoining pit untouched.Egypt: Lanmd of the Pharaohs. (1992)P.61 tribes of West Cameroon. Bamilekes traced their origin to c.2900 BP from a long migration thought to have originated in Egypt. Bamun are converted Muslim of Bamilekes origin although they prefer tracing their ancestry to the Tikars, also thougt to be Bamileke ancestors.. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines as well as all the coastal countries from the Red Sea to the Sea of Japan, even though it tend to lighten as you go further East. The African or black peopl in those countries are the result of various waes of migrations, exploratorial enterprises or ship wrecked that occurred at different periods from prhistory to present. John King Fairbank (1992, President and Fellow of Harvard College)), China, A New History.p.37 In the tomb of this pharaoh (Amenemheh III), was design a labyrynth that served for model to the Greek labyrinth. The pharaoh tomb was built at the mouth of the

Fayyum lake as the lacation is known today. The winding wal of the hieroglyph sign that could be described as two inverted u, the first one looking up and the second one lookin down and sharing one of their arm (right arm for the first u and left for the second u. The Greek labyrinth is famous for the Minautaur mythology. According to Bernal, the Greek name for labyrinth which is Labyrinthos,

probably came from the name of another Egyptian Pharaoh known by the Greeks as Labares and Labaris. Bernald. Vol. II, p.189 In 1974, the Egyptian inspector of Antiquities, Sami Farag, instratcted the inscriptions carved on a large slab stone. These inscriptions was published in the in Revue dgypte in 1980: The text refers more frequently to the two Middle kingdom pharaohs Senwore I and his son Amenemhe II in the early 12th Dynasty between 1959 and 1882 BCIt is largely concerned with expeditions beyond Egypt by both land and sea. Some of this were to Africa but most were to Asia. Bernald. Vol. II, p.188 China maybe?

In other words some of the regions he acquireed did not received stelae. Archeologiacal evidence of fortification and military planning in Nubia now shows that 12 th dynasty armies had the capacity to undertake such major operations. Possible evidenccomes from a wave of destructions across Anatolia and finds of Egyptian objects there from what may be the apropriate period. There has also been the discovery of Anatolian objects in a treasure at Td in Southern Egypt dedicated to Mont, the god of conquest with special association with Asia. There is iconographic evidence in favour of military expeditions in Syria and Anatolia (Asia?)there are also traditions, recorded both in the locality itself and in Greece, of Memnon, a blacl prince with a large army marching through AnatoliaSenwosres son Amenemhe II(-)

reproted on the Mit Rahina inscription as having played a role in the foreign expeditions. Bernald. Vol. II, p.271- (my parenthesis) According to Bernal, Hyksos ruled in Egypt around 1730 BC

Bernald. Vol. II, pp.347-51. German archeologist Annelise Kammenhuber, has claimed that the notion of a conquest by Aryan charioteers is a myth. She argues that the Indic words in the Mitanni were relics rather than parts of the spoken languages, which was clearly Hurrian, and that the Aryan name of kings and gods were merely the result of casual contact between Hurrians and Indo-Aryans in the middle of the millenium. Quoted by Bernald who further observed that the chariots of war were in use not only in Palestine but also in Egypt by the beginning of the 16ty century. More interestingly, he mentioned the debate on the origin of the vocabulary in this semantic field, emphasizing that the word htr was clearly an adaptation for a pair, or span, of ploughing oxen. And the relation to the chariot being that the term was initially used for the new technology as pair of horses for a chariot and hence a horse itself. Other comparisons of relevancy were the term ssmt, use in the 18th dynasty. The term was linked the Akkadian ss. After other notable comparisons with Semitic languages, he finally conclude that there would seem to have been not only native Egyptian terms adapted to the new needs (chariot and horse riding), but also

Semitic and possibly Hurrian terms, and ultimately IndoAryan ones for the new species and technology. What is to be noted here is that the three prevalent groups to have originated new words for the new technologies have all strong ties with Africa and these groups are of course: the Egyptians, the Semitics and the Hurrians. Because of this those languages have been called Indo-European Languages, an erroneous appelation when it is known that ancient Greeck as well as Aryan languages were actually rooted in ancient African language, that is that of Egypt. Around 2000 BC, Aryans invaded also Iran (Aryankinsmen--), and went all the way to Ireland. It should be noted here that Irish recognized an ancient African black influence in their culture. Bernal. Vol. II. The Egyptian presence in Greece influence this culture both in its mythology and in its language. Emmanuel Velikovsky in his Oedipus and Akhenaton made a brillant demonstration of the Egyptian input into Greek mythology. Bernal who concentrate into archeological, linguistic, heuristic and written records (documented material) bring a new light to the relations

between the Aegan and the Orient. His observations on Greek language and culture demonstrate the historical link of ancient civilizations, notably with reguard to language. It is certain that Greek borrowed massively from these languages (Egypatian and semitic words) during the period of Egyptian dominance of the East Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age after 1470 BC as well as in the Geometric, Archaic and Classical periods from 950 to 300 BCthe centuries between 1730 and 1530, which are frequently seen to be the most likely periods of for the creation of Greek as a language, would seem to be ones when Greece was largely ruled by speakers of West Semitic and Egyptian. Black Athena. P.45 The black warrior and commanders were from the Sussian race. As Dieulafoy observed and Rogers concurred: The Greeks themselves seemed to have known these two Sussians races. Have not their old poets given to the direct descendants of Memnon the legendary Susian hero, who perished under the walls of Troy, a Negro father, Tithon, and a white mountain woman mother, Kissia? Do they not say that Memnon commanded an army of black and white regiments at the siege of the Troy?. LAcropole de

Suse.p.44. Rogers. 100 Amazing Facts. P.20 Finger prints of the Gods, p.344. The author mistakenly interpret the sculptures and see in Viracocha more than he was: the servant of a greater nation. He correctly assessed the absurdity of the first interpretation of the Negroid stones. The first interpretation was that of slaves! Obviously that was due to the bias mind of the researchers. Nowhere in the world are slaves deified or commemorated in gigantic proportions. However, Mr. Graham H.who accurately criticized the fallacious

interpretation, failed to recognize the nature of the stone heads as that of Gods. According to Bernald, the Sea people were made up of different linguistic groups, including both Greek and Anatolian speakers. Black Athena. V1.p.449 Egypt:Land of the Pharaoh, pp. 92,93. It is likely that the African concept of tween mother, also godly in Bamileke tradition would be traced thus far. The Agni (Ghana) twin-mother, with her children on her laps and next to her are strrikingly similar in concept to that of Akhenatons wife in surviving wall paintings.

To compare with Psalm 104: 1-24 (et passim) O Lord my God, thou are very great! who has stretched out the heavens like a tent who makest the winds thy messengers, fire and flame thy ministers. Thou didst set the earth on its foundations, So that it should never shaken. Thou makest springs gush forth in the valley; They flow between the hills, By them the birds of the air have their habitation; They sing among the branches. From thy lofty abode thou waterest the mountains; The earth issatisfied with the fruit of Thy work.

Thou dost cause the grass to grow for the cattle, And plants for man to cultivate, That he may bring forth food from the earth O Lord, how manifold are they work ks! In wisdom hast thou made them all; The earth is full of they creatures. Egypt Revisited.

P.270

The Blacks of China It should be noted that the term African, that t came from Latin wo ord fer, designated inhabitants of Carthage or of Romanss province of Africa, thus the ancient made no mistake about the identity of Cartagene that they recognized as African without reserve. These people emigrated southward. In present time, many African natives have inherited the name although their origin is often traced to a distant ancestor not necessarily from the north. Tanwe Tamani is a name found in tradirional Bamilekes in western Cameroon. Decomposed it gives: Ta=father ; Nwe, Nnee= twins and Ta= father with ma=mother and Nee=twins. Tanwe is noble form for Tani. A summary study of Egyptian comparative study in phonetic and mythology with the Bamilekes of western Cameroon was done in Royal Odyssey out of Africa by the author.

Datation in theBC period is still an unexact science. If the Egyptian penetration in deep Asia dated from the Hyksos period, this would imply that the Hyksos invasion of Lower Egypt may have occurred at an earlier time, or that the African invasion of Asia at the onset of the Shang dynasty would have happened in latest time. And of course for all this to be true, the Hyksos must have been Chinese and that has not been clarified as of yet. According to Roger On November 15, 218 B.C. Hannibal, a full-blooded Negro, marching through

conquered territory in Spain and France, performed the astounding feat of crossing the Alps. With only 26,000 of his original force of 82,000 men remaining, he defeated Rome, the mightiest military power of that age, who had a million men, in every battle for the next fifteen years. Hannibal is the father of military strategy. His tactics are still taught in the leading military academies of the United states, England, France, Germany and other lands.

Lets work! Neanderthal Enigma. Paul M. Henry in Africa Aeternum. p. 77 Concluding that: Because it has neither biological nor social justification, we should strive to see that it is eliminated from both public and private usage Black Athena Revisited. P. 162 Dr Clarke, quoting Richard B. Moore in his introduction of New Dimension of African History.p.1 Mc Felly,pp331-332, Bakhufu p.173 Cassels Latin-English Dictionary, compiled by D. P. Simpson M. A., Assistant Professor and formerly Head of Classical Department at Eton College Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. P.11 This book in concerning itself with classical Latin, as used from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 100 D.P.S. (1977). The Palace of Minos, Vol. II, pp. 45-9. African Presence in Early Europe, edited by Dr Van Sertima / Brunson. P.37

African Presence in Early Europe. Dr Van Sertima edit. P.12 Jean Laude.p.47 Les arts de lAfrique noire. Jean Laude. P.44-7 The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the secrets of the pyramids. Bauval Robert and Adrian Gilbert. P.203 The role of the African MoorishThe word Moor has its origin in 46 BC. When the Romans invaded West Africa. Thery called the black Africans they met there Maures fromt the Greek word mauros, meaning dark or black. The word indicatesd more than one ethnic groupIt is important to point out that the medieval Moors who conquered Europe should not be confused with the modern Moors. According to Chancellor Williams, the original Moors, like the original Egyptians were black Africans. As amalgamation became more ans more widespread, only the Berbers, Arabs, and coloreds in the Moroccan territories were called Moors. wrote Dr Van Sertima in his introduction to African Presence in Early Europe. African Presence in Early Europe. p.3 Diop, p. 213

Francis Hudson, in A Concise Hisoty of India, p.56 Van Sertima (1995) African Presence in Early Asia. P.34 Francis Watson (1981), Thames & Hudson. A Concise History of India. P.39 Lin Yutang, The Wisdom of Confucious. Editor and translator of the Book of Song, Spring and Autumsn, the Five Classics. Excerps from pages 76 (ref. To Phoenix, that he compared to a rare bird in his footnote, p.106 (knowledge of self) and p. 98 (admission at the end of his life that he was a descendant of Shang. Rogers, Sex and Race Vol.III. p.p.316-17. S. Freud in A General Introduction to

Psychoanalysis,p.22 John Hope Franklin & Loren Schweninger (1999), Runawy Slaves, Rebels on the Plantation.p.86 John Hope Franklin & L. Schweninger (1999).p.86 John Hope Franklin & Loren Schweninger.p.153 James W. Loewen. P.39 Blacfax: A journal of Black History. Winter-Spring

1997, Vol.VIII, Number 34.p.32 The Black Holocaust, S.E Anderson. P.84 Paul Marc Henry, Africa AeternaI,p.74 Cheikh Anta Diop, Civilisation or Barbarism, p.65 Davidson, P.26 Bernald. Black Athena Vol. II p.216 See the works of Dr. Van Sertima, Lawrence, Wiener, Covey, LumpkinAfrican Presence in Early America Les Espagnols avaient t les premiers mettre en route le mcanisme infernal de la traite transatlantique. (the Spanish were the first to start the infernal mechanism of the slave trade) in: La dislocation des grands empires by I. B. Kake, p.21 In A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. P.24 A number of books have been written on the subject, some titles are: The five Negro Presidents by Rogers,1965. The Six Black presidentsby Bakhufu,1993. Louis D. Friedman, Executive Director of The Planetary Society in a 1998 letter to earlier members of the organisation.

Carl Sagan, co-founder of the Planetary Society, in public television series and book Cosmos. Quoted in a letter to former members in February 1999. John Hope Franklin & Loren Schweninger (1999), Runaway Slaves, Rebels on the plantation.p.214. V. Brard (1894,pp7-10) cited by Dr Bernal. Black Athena.pp. 378-79-80. Richard Leakey &Roger Lewin in Origins

reconsidered, p. 354 Guy Bunnens, cited by Bernal. Black Athena.p.37677. V. Berard (1894, PP. 3-5) Richard Leakey & Roger Lewin, Origins

Reconsidered,pp.185-244 Leakey. Origins reconsidered.p.53 Boule and Valois, op. cit.,pp577-84. Diop, Civilisation or Barbarism, p.13,14 Diop.p.39 African Presence in Early America, p.24 Civilization or Barbarism. P.15 New Dimensions in African History.p.98-9

Graham Hancock, Finger Prints of the Gods. His evaluation based on astronomy is well presented, however demanded further dtudies. His interpretation of the Egyptian emissary to South America failed to identify him as the ambassador that he was and not the representant of a superior race. As Diop wrote from the time of Thutmose I to Ramses II (1500-1300)[Phoenicians] resignation [to Egyptian dominance] gave them serious advantages. Their sailors engaged in commissionned trade...abroad on behalf of Egypt... Another mistake of similar nature is made with the Tolmecs negroid heads. They are the heads of Earth Gods with earth as their body, thus in total accordance with African mythology which sugest a divine embodiement of earth from the Egyptian gods to the Ancestor god of Central Africa. In ..Odyssey out of Africa we have dealt with the mythological link between ancient Egypt and Central Africa. Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the gods,pp.27677-79-86-90,386,441 Bernald. Vol II. P.28 Cyril Alfred: Originally Menes or Narmer was

thought to be the first king or Pharaoh of Egypt. We now know that this is not the case. Besides the dynastic discoveries in Nubia at Ta-Seti, we are aware of another king who preceded Menes known as Scorpion quoted by Chandler in Egypt revisited.(1995). p.133 Diop, Civilisation or Barbarism and Marija

Gimbutas, Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe 7000-3500 B.C.: Myths, Legends and Cult Images (Berkeley University of California Press, 1982). Ben Jochoanan. P. 9 African Presence in Early Asia edited by Ivan Van Sertima. P.8 J.A. Rogers. 100 Amazing facts about the Negro. With complete proof. A short cut to the World History of the Negro. H.M.R. 1970. p.4 Diop, P. 99 In African Presence in Early Asia, different

researchers have contributed to demonstrated by various evidences the presence of African in Asians cultures from the Middle East, via India to China. Most remarkable are

the pictures of stone sculptures and ancient paintings, depicting unmistakably Negro-African features. Davidson, Africa in History (revised edition), p. 30 Diop Civilization or Barbarism: An authentic Anthropology. P.236 Diop. Civilization or Barbarism. Pp.257-60 Rogers. 100 Amazing Facts.p.20. Dieulafoy.

Lacropole de Suse.pp.27,46,102,115, Paris 1893. African Presence in Early America,p.253 The World of the Persians,p.27-28 African Presence in early America, p.25 J. F. Fairbanks (1992) China: A New History. P.35 cite in Diop., p.248/ Struve,op.cit.,pp183-84 Diop., pp.235,236 Diop. p.243 Bernald. Black Athena. V.II. p.22 Jean Laude: ..de nombreux et diffrents indices prouvent que le Sahara, au temps de lempire romain, ntait pas un dsert au sens geographique du terme et quil tait habit sur toute son tendue par de petites communauts noires. ( Technically speaking in

geographical terms-- and as proven by numerous evidences

of various sources, in the time of the Roamn empire, the Sahara was not a desert, but was inhabited all along its surface by black communities.) p.47 Diop.p. 392 Bernal. Black Athena. Vol II. P.25 Diodorus Siculus (also Diodoros Sikelos (1933-67) The Library of History, 12 vols. C. H. Oldfather, trans, (vols11 and 12, F. R. Walton and R. M. Geer, trans.), Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (Loeb). Diodoros, I.53.5-58.2, trans. Oldfather (1933, pp. 187-95). Cited by Bernld. Vol. II. P.199-200 Diop p.248 In ...Odyssey out of Africa the author has demonstrated the philosophical concept of the Bamilekes in the chapter on Ancestralism. Bernald. Vol. II, p.525 An example of Egyptian martial art can be seen on an Ancient Egyptian mural from Beni Hassan. The positions taken by the protagonists on this mural are reminiscent of Jiu-Jitsu and other similar disciplines.African Presence in Early Asia.p.140.

Gaston Mapero, Histoire ancienne des peuples dOrient, op.cit.,pp236-37-38-242 Diop, p.203 Civilization or Barbarism. p. 95 African Presence in Early America,p.253 Bernal. Vol. II.p.53 African Presence in Early America., p.102 The Lands and People of Pakistan, Mark Weston (1992) Harpers Collins. P. 46 Diop, Civilisatiion or Barbarism p90 Dr. Ben Jochanan, Egyptologist in his introduction to We the Black Jews Ben Jochanan.idem. Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples

dOrient,p.269/ Diop, Civilisation or Barbarism p.98 As C. Anta Diop observed: ...nicotine found in the stomach of Ramses II is a major discovery. For , if tobacco is indeed a plant of American origin, as postulated by R. Mauny and A. Lucien Guyot, it would mean that maritime relations existed between the Egypt of the Pharaohs and pre-Columbian America as early as the XIXth Dynasty. Davidson, P.17

Civilization or Barbarism, p. 17 Denkm ler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, Karl Richard Lepsius Bernald. Vol II.: ..It is also known that some of the Levantine cities which later made up Phoenicia also had regular grain deficiencies at this time. Both archeological and documentary evidence from Southern Greece in the same century suggest both an extremely high population density and surprisingly low grain production. This would suggest frequent famines and/or constant imports of grain. It is posible that some of these already came from the Black Sea region, which also suplied Greece in classical times, but it would seem much more likely that the bulk of it came from Egypt. Interestingly a Greek tradition refers to Egyptian relief of famine in attika well before the Trojan war. These pointers, together with plausible Egyptian etymologies for a number of Greek words referring to wheat and its baking into bread, suggest that the pattern of Egyptian wheat-exporting to Greece and the rest of Mediterranean basin that existed in classical, Hellenistic and Roman times had already been established by the Late

bronze age. .p.55 Egypt: Land of the Pharaohs, p.104 Yosef ben-Jochanan. P. lxxxiii Cited by ben-Jochanan. (1993). P.xxvi-vii Bernald. Vol.I .p.446 be-Jochannan. Vol. I & II, The Black Jews. B.C.P. ( 1983) (1993) p. 92. African Presence in Early America,p42 A Concise History of India. Francis Watson (1981), Thames and Hudson. P.34 The main vehicle for the Krishna legends, and for the epic myths of Indias beginnings, is the Mahabharta, expanded over many generations into the world longuest poem African Presence in Early America,p.10 African Presence in Early America.,p.78 African Presence in Early America.p.58 African Presence in Early America.pp.65-66 African Presence in Early America,p.60 African Presence in Early America.p.152 The Ancient History of Africa.Basil Davidson p.84 African Presence in Early America.p69

research made by Professor Lumpkin, African Presence in Early America,p.12 Bernald V.II. p.32 Africa Aeterna, p.30 Africa Aeterna. p.32 New Dimensions in Afrian History.p.19 New Dimensions in African history.p.99 Francis Watson (1974 & 1979), A Concise History of India. P.50 New Dimension in African History. Dr. B. Jochanan & Dr. J. H. Clark. P. 17 Davidson,p.55 Van Sertima, p.133 Basil Davidson, Africa in History, (revised and expanded edition), P.27 Africa in History. p.42 The Ancient History of Africa. P. 85 Ivan Van Sertima, African Presence in early America, p.33 Joseph Ki-Zerbo in Histoire generale de LAfrique. Byzantium Iconoclasm during the reign of Leo III

with particular attention to the Oriental Source. G. Stephen. P.201 P. Marc Henry, P.57 in 100 A.D. Arabs trade and intermarriages are common with African of the East coast. Ref. The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea and Great Zimbabwe. Shoff, W,a trans. (1912) Stephen Jay Gould, The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. P.244 see Edit of 1455 in History-1455 Struve who published the papyrus of Moscow observed that the Egyptians have posed the problem of calculating the surface of an ellipseAnd continued that the Papyrus of Moscow gives us the proof that a famous discovery by Archimedes has to be credited to the EgyptiansWe therefore no longer have any reason to reject the affirmations of the Greeks writers according to whom the Egyptians were the masters of the Greeks in Geometry. (See A.Z. 34,pp. 75-76; Struve Op. Cit.,p.180, note 1. And pp183-84), Civilization or Barbarism, An

Authentic Anthropology by Cheiks Anta Diop, Laurence Hill Books, Brooklyn, New-York, an imprint of Chicago Review Press, Incorporated,. p.248 The Uhuru Art Society organization in Cameroon was in 1976-77, the only to have organized a

commemorative celebration for the tragedy of Soweto. The event was reported in second page of the National Newspaper of Cameroon (Cameroon Tribune) and the members were not credited for their initiative. A first novel titled Afro-Negro dealt with the cultural and historical triangle of Black history that is :LiberiaAmerica-Western Africa. It was lost unpublished in Paris in 1979 in a pathetic circumstance with other works. Presented to Editions Maspero in Paris in 1978 and to Presence Africaine that same year. In my Economical Sciencescurriculum at the University, Africa was supposed to have no history whatsoever in Economy. It was a fallacious pretense, unfortunately still held by some people today, a fact that only demonstrated the effects of many centuries of misinformations.

Couple years later (1987), the author was arbitrarily arrested for over staying his visa. He had to pay a $5,000 bound, was incarcerated for one week and fought to the Supreme Court, to have the deportation removed. In ten year, he had been deported three times, each times was forced to start from scratch and had spent close to $10,000 in lawyers fees. In 1995 he was married to an American citizen and in April 1998, he was still awaiting for the second interview for a Green Card. All along his Passport had been illegaly retained, precluding him to make any strategic planning for an overseas trip. The author had never committed any crime in America or anywhere else in the world. His initial arrest was racially motivated and no infraction was comitted, nor was he charged of any what so ever. Since 1987 he had raised two American children despite his on going ordeal. It is indeed, appropriate to wonder whether such stultification should be attributed to intelligence. Racial behavior is more reminiscent of emotional stultification or adjunct. For the brain does grasp realities and facts; It is emotion that may blur them or reject them. Prejudice is not a rational reaction. although attempts have been made to

characterize it so. Prejudice is based on absurdity, to the least, to nonexistent facts at the best. It is often sustained by emotional stimulus (anger, jealousy, complexes..), sometime uncontrollable. It is therefore the expression of the most animalistic (litteraly) inclinations in humans. See K.R. Lepsius, Denkmler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, Eganzungsband, fig. 48. Authors translation What was called force labour was nothing but slavery. People were taken from their homes and forced to work on railraod and road digging. They were beaten or executed in case of resistance. This happened all over Africa during the colonial era. In Origin of Racism and the means of its fall (manuscript). In Europe for example, emperor Charlemagne in 779 A.D. gave the order that slaves should be sold in the presence of witnesses including: a Bishop, an Archdeacon and a Comt. La traite Ngriere. I.B. Kake, Ed. ABC. P.13 Ethnomeiosis: Greek [ethno=people and mei= to

diminish], the result of plurigenesis (enrichment of humans gene pool through cross breeding), with the appearance of people with melanic variation. This is a continuing process, occuring at different levels of humans evolution. It is a strange phenomenon, because people with different skin coloration originated from identical ethonological roots, thus are really the same race. They simply looked different. There is also ethnomeiosis, when people who look the same, but identify with different ethnicity, intermarried. In the first case of ethnomeoisis we would have the example of India or South America, while in the second case we would have the example of Africa or Europe. The term Chaosynchrony is a subject of a study by the author. It stems from chaos theory in physics. Applied in the evolution of species, it attempts to elucidate the mysteries of wars and irrational conflicts, by seeing in them working mechanisms. It has been said that wars were also mothers of inventions. Indeed, important inventions were conceived in time of war (chariots in Egypt, V1 in Germany and atomic power during the cold war). While V1 lead to rocket research and eventually to the landing on the moon, atomic power has been used in generating

energy and would have powered electricity in urban cities, if it was not for its radio-activity, thus its danger in humans life. War is chaos, science is order, yet they were both instrumentals in the conquest of space. How odd? Maybe by an independent understanding of human evolution we can have a better cognition of our place in the universe. Often biases and humans pretensions have veiled such understanding. A philosophical question would be: What is order without disorder? Scientifically we proceeded by a simple observation of human evolution, underlying the chaotic episodes and followed the progression and harmonization from Ape to man. From Hominids to Homosapiens one could speak of a certain synchrony, leading to : Modernians and post-modernians! Excerpt from The Origin of racism and the means of its fall (manuscript) A. Maxime Feyou de Happy (1997) Reason is Helene (Hellenistic) Emotion, Negre (Negro) Reason is humane Emotion, sovereign Neanderthal Enigma.

Mc Felly,pp331-332, Bakhufu p.173 The Palace of Minos, Vol. II, pp. 45-9. African Presence in Early Europe, edited by Dr Van Sertima / Brunson. P.37 S. Freud in A General Introduction to

Psychoanalysis,p.22 The Black Holocaust, S.E Anderson. P.84 Paul Marc Henry, Africa AeternaI,p.74 Cheikh Anta Diop, Civilisation or Barbarism, p.65 Davidson, P.26 Les Espagnols avaient t les premiers mettre en route le mcanisme infernal de la traite translantique. La dislocation des grands empires par I. B. Kake, p.21 In A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. P.24 Black Athena Revisited.p.154 Louis D. Friedman, Executive Director of The Planetary Society in a 1998 letter to earlier members of the organisation. The human skull was found at a location in the state of Minas Gerais, called Lapa Vermelha. The skull is thast of a young woman and has been reconstructed English

specialists as a Negroid person, confirming Dr Walter Neves suspiction. Dr Neves is an anthropologist at he auniversity of Sao Paulo. Science Times (October 26, 1999)

Biblio. Race and Human Evolution, Westview Press (1987), Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari

BIOGRAPHY

Alexis Maxime Feyou de Happy, studied in Cameroon and France. He was home taught while going to school at the same time. From 1960's to late 70's he had private professors. For two hours every day including hollidays he was taught in elementary mathematics, French grammar, philosophies, including elementary Bamileke as well as world history, geography and phsyics. This allowed him to evolved in two differents spheres of education that eventually crashed in the 80's when he realized in Paris that he was getting bored rather than learning. He then decided to enter the work force and his first job was as executive in a French private company. His first incline however was to go to South America. There he planned to study Mayan Culture. That was his passion at the time. However things did not turned out that way. As a kid spent a great deal of time studying nature. He observed inscets, birds and vegetation, trying to pierce the secret of nature. He also studied the moon whichin Cameronn can be seen very clearly in dark nights. In those years I did not really thought about those activities as a study per se. It was only what I did. I cannot

say that it was fun neither because fun to me was to play with my friends. In kribi for example we had great beaches and we invented all kinds of games. My favorite was to drive a make believe Jeep that we built like a sand catsle. However our Jeep had everything a th erealone had. Our friends sat in the back seat and we took turn driving the sand While a high school student, he created the Uhuru Art Society in Yaound, with Dave Moktoi, Martin Kume Tale and others. The Uhuru Art Society introduced American Blues to Cameroons audiences and was the only organization to commemorate Soweto in 1996. Alexis wrote his early fairy tales in Cameroon in the seventies and many poems, including Consciousness Exposed (1974). He went back to Paris in 1978 for his baccalaureate in Letters & Philosophy. He graduated in 1979 with the highest grade in philosophy ex aequo at Lycee Claude Monet, Paris. He then briefly studied the sciences of economy and archeology cumulatively at the Louvres and Tolbiac (Pantheon-Sorbonne). He co-created APFI94 (Val-de-Marne Association for communication between French and Immigrants), a short lived organization created with French university

officers devoted to assist immigrants in France. During the same period he met Cameroons author Paul Dakeyo that introduced him to African Intellectuals. He assisted to the first meeting to create the organization that will later be known as SOS Racism. He later was hired as Press attach for a French company. This was his first opportunity to come to America. In 1983 in Washington DC he deposited at Crystal city his first invention Suspensor system under an application for Disclosure or provisional patent. In the document he had a sketch for computer printing as well as an helicopter device to save people from burning buildings. In 1984 he went to Cameroon and enters into a private partnership with his uncle Hapi Tina Gabriel, former head of Protocol of Cameroun. This was his second exposure to African Art, one that will change the course of his life as he dwindled into African Art trading for decades. He returned into writing and inventions few years later. After a difficult encounter, he lost a collection of one hundred inventions, possibly stolen. He is the author of many books and other inventions in progress. As an African art dealer, he is proud to have presented

the first African art exhibition at the Southside community center in Chicago in 1987. His last French novel LOmbre de Meridor ou La Septieme Colonne, was recently published in New York.

Books by this author

Conscience Ouverte, 1974, Cameroun, Poem Afro-Negro (French novel) 1976, lost in paris in 1981 Collected poetry (lost in Paris 1981 La Demoiselle du Chateau (1976, fairy tale, lost) Les yeux de maris Ange (short story lost in Paris 1983) Ahmal, French play (manuscript- Paris 1983) Ahmal-Alevie or Fatal Mistress (english translation of Ahmal Canada 1999) Dithy (French play, Claps, 2002) Mabu (English play, 1989-2012, manuscrit) Bamileke history, Chariot of God, 1986, (manuscrit) Fairy Tales from propagamar, 2006, Booksurge

La septieme Colonne, create space 2010 Vol. I Les mezzotiniales, 2011, Booksurge L'Ombre de Meridor, 2011, Booksurge Essence of Law, translation of L'esprit des Lois by J. feyou de Happy 1999-2011 Kosmicks, manuscript L'adieux aux anges, short historical story, 2012 La Benediction de l'afrique (poem,2012) The Chronology, history (Vol. 1-12) 1987-2012 manuscript Kosmicks (Vol 1-3) philosophy 1996-2012 manuscript La fontaine enchantee, French Play (2009-12) Renaissance (20012, Book I of Mezzotiniales) L'Espoir (Books II of Mezzotiniales, 2011) Book III of Mezzotiniales, (2011) Les chevalieretes du Crepuscule (French novel about the amazones). Historical novel, manuscript (2007-2012) Bodanou le Petit Oiseau Rouge, French tale about a little bird (Booksurge 2011) La Septieme Colonne Vol. II (2012, French novel. Manuscript) Eden Ecarlate, French novel, fantastic, 207-2012) L'Idylle Quantique, (French novel 2009-2012) Feux croises et Ricochets, (French play lost in Queens 2006-7) Play on the death of Che-Guevara (missing or stolen by hacker in NY 2007-9) Purple Rosetta, Forensic study of an ivory piece from Kongo (2012) Victus Libri/Classic African Art (2011) nDNA (scientific thesis on Intellectual DNA), 2011

KOBLC, 1983-84, financial & economic study for the creation of a an import-export USA-Africa lumber company.