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Hazard Analysis

This document is intended as a general guideline to assist Contractors with understanding and applying Safe Work Practice expectations.

Posted March 29, 2012 2012 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

Hazard Analysis

Table of Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Planning Phase Hazard Analysis ........................................................................................................ 4 Job Safety Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 4 Think Incident-Free (TIF) .................................................................................................................. 5 Performing a Hazard Analysis .......................................................................................................... 6 Identifying the Task ............................................................................................................................ 6 Forming the Analysis Team ............................................................................................................... 6 Breaking Down the Task .................................................................................................................... 6 Identifying Potential Hazards ............................................................................................................. 7 Developing Solutions/Control Measures ............................................................................................ 7 Hazard Analysis Content .................................................................................................................... 7 How Should I Document My Analysis? ............................................................................................ 9 Form Selection Matrix ...................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Life of a Hazard Analysis ................................................................................................................ 10 How Do I Ensure Competency? ...................................................................................................... 10 Personnel Competency ..................................................................................................................... 10 Field Visits and Reviews .................................................................................................................. 10 Document and Procedure Quality Review ....................................................................................... 10 Document Retention ......................................................................................................................... 11

Hazard Analysis

Introduction
This procedure follows the three phases of hazard analysis as it applies to our work. From the initial planning phase, to the work group pre-job onsite Job Safety Analysis (JSA) discussion, to the individuals ongoing effort to Think Incident Free (TIF), hazard analysis tools are critical to identifying potential hazards and developing actions and strategies to prevent incidents from occurring. Hazard analyses may also be used as a training tool for new employees, as the basis for health, environment and safety (HES) checklists, behavior based safety (BBS) observations and safety meeting topics, and to write HES procedures and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for new or modified jobs.
Planning Phase Permitting Phase Implementing Phase

Hazard Analysis

Job Safety Analysis (JSA)

Think Incident Free (TIF)

Figure 1. Phases of Hazard Analysis.

Requirements
A hazard analysis shall be conducted for work performed where the Company has operational control. For contractor activities where the Company does not have operational control, we will encourage them to use their hazard analysis tools. The following table lists the analysis methods discussed in this procedure. Planning Phase Hazard Analysis The hazard analysis performed as part of job planning provides a structured approach for identifying potential hazards and developing control measures. This should ensure that that the proper people, equipment, preparation and HES processes are identified and acted upon prior to commencing work. This also provides the opportunity to adjust the work plan to reduce risk. Job Safety Analysis The Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is a tool for analyzing a task, specifically in the area of Health, Environment and Safety. This analysis occurs at the work site prior to work beginning, and involves those individuals that may be affected by the task. The JSA should identify the hazards present at the time the work starts as well as identify specific mitigation actions necessary to prevent incidents. After the analysis is done, it may be kept as a reference for future similar operations. Since the JSA is a tool intended for individuals and teams performing the work, it should be developed in the language appropriate for the entire work crew (sometimes multiple languages and/or verbal translation may be needed).

Hazard Analysis

Think Incident-Free (TIF) Think Incident-Free should be used by everyone prior to beginning any activity. These self assessments focus on the fact that, in order to achieve incident-free operations, each worker must take responsibility for his or her own health and safety in all activities, as well as protecting the environment. Many tasks have risks associated with them that could potentially result in injuries, environmental impact, and losses. Before these risks can be eliminated or controlled, they must be identified. TIF enables employees to observe day-to-day operational and procedural systems to identify potential hazards that could threaten the health or safety of our personnel or contract workforce, company facilities, or the environment. The steps in an effective TIF assessment are:

Determining the potential hazards Determining what can be done to eliminate the hazard Take action to prevent any negative consequences

Table 1. Use of Analysis Methods Analysis Method When to use Intent

Hazard Analysis (e.g. Risk Assessment, Job Hazard Analysis, Job Safety Analysis, Safety Plan)

During the planning phase of work: pre-work

Job Safety Analysis (JSA)

During the permitting phase of work: prior to start of work

Think Incident-Free (TIF)

Anytime

To identify anticipated hazards and plan mitigations To ensure that the right number of people, skill sets, equipment and PPE are included in the plan To identify the types of permits required to do the work To identify the SWP standards and SOPs applicable to the work For use as starting point for onsite JSA To involve the work team to make sure that the people doing the work understand the tasks, hazards and mitigations To address onsite conditions on the day of the work To insure that mitigation measures are in place To verify that work team has proper skill level and tools To prompt workers to think before they act To ensure that the worker is looking for hazards while they are doing work To support Stop Work Authority and the Tenets of Operation

Hazard Analysis

Performing a Hazard Analysis


A hazard analysis involves the following activities:

Identifying the task Forming the team (for simple tasks, this may be one person) Breaking down the task into steps Identifying potential hazards Developing solutions/control measures to mitigate the identified hazards

Identifying the Task A task is a sequence of steps or activities to complete the work. Tasks are identified and evaluated to the appropriate level of detail. Drilling a well or performing a shutdown on a gas plant is too broad to be a single task, and tasks such as turning on a switch are too narrow for effective analysis. The appropriate level of detail for a task is typically the type of assignments that a supervisor would make (e.g., removing a pump for maintenance, collecting an oil sample from a vessel, or installing a blind in piping). A hazard analysis (JSA) used onsite by an individual work crew should cover a single specific task. However, in the planning phase for a large scope of work (e.g., capital project) the hazard analysis may consist of a single assessment covering many tasks. Forming the Analysis Team Person(s) performing the analysis should:

Be experienced and knowledgeable about the task and hazards Understand the hazard analysis procedure

Be an experienced facilitator, if appropriate When forming the team, consider factors such as the complexity of the task, the location of the work and the size of the work group. In addition to the person doing the job, team members should be selected as appropriate and may include other workers, supervisors and HES professionals. In some cases, it may be acceptable for an analysis to be prepared by one person. Breaking Down the Task Before the search for potential hazards begins, the task is broken down into a sequence of steps, each step describing what is being done. Begin by asking, What step starts the task? then, What is the next basic step? and so on. If too many steps result from the analysis (over 15), consider breaking that job into more than one task. When beginning to document the analysis, describe and number each step on the analysis form. Each step tells what is done, not how. The description for each step should begin with an action word such as remove, climb, open or weld. The description of the step is completed by naming the item to which the action applies, for example, remove extinguisher, or carry to fire. Check the breakdown of the steps with other team members, particularly someone who is knowledgeable about performing the task. Obtain agreement on the description of what is done and the order of the steps.

Hazard Analysis

Identifying Potential Hazards Once the basic steps have been determined, begin the search for potential and existing hazards. Look at physical conditions (chemicals, tools, work space, etc.), environmental factors (heat, cold, noise, lighting, wet conditions, etc.) and actions or behaviors (need to stand on a slippery or unstable surface, extended reach to operate a valve, lifting bulky objects). Developing Solutions/Control Measures The final step in an assessment is to develop solutions/control measures to eliminate potential hazards, or mitigate them to an acceptable level of risk. The principal solutions/control measures are:

Determine if the work is necessary. Eliminate unnecessary work that adds risk and does not contribute to achieving the desired result. Change the physical conditions that create the hazards change in tools, materials, equipment, layout or location. This is the preferred approach until there is general agreement that work conditions are as safe as reasonably practical. Change the work procedure ask, What should the employee do, or not do, to eliminate this particular hazard or prevent this potential accident? The answer might be as simple as standing to the side when opening the valve, or getting a good stance before lifting an item. Add barriers between the hazard and the receptors fire blankets, warning tape, personal protective equipment (PPE), etc.

Find a completely new way to do the job if the above steps have not yielded a safe, efficient way to perform the task, then look at the task itself. Determine the goal of the job and analyze alternative ways of reaching this goal. Solutions/control measures shall be stated so that people clearly understand what to do. There is usually not enough space on the assessment form to explain how to do it. The needed level of detail shall be included in procedures, manuals, employee training, or in some other form so that everyone understands how to do the task safely. NOTE: Identifying associated procedures (when/ where applicable) is a viable mitigation when incorporated by review and thorough understanding of individuals involved in job task planning. Hazard Analysis Content A hazard analysis is not:

A detailed work procedure (either maintenance or operating) A Permit to Work (PTW), and a PTW is not a JSA A recyclable document (it must be refreshed for each job)

Hazard Analysis

Table 2. Hazard Analysis Content Hazard Analysis JSA TIF Content

Includes a review of the use of Stop Work Authority by all employees and contractors. Discuss specific conditions associated with the task that are potential triggers for stopping work. Includes a review the Tenets of Operation. Is used as an onsite tool to engage workers involved in the work. Documents work location. Is dated (using the actual date work is performed). Is written for all designated job tasks and all new job tasks. Identifies, by documentation, workers associated with work described in the specific JSA. Identifies potential spill sources or items lost overboard, along with preventive and/or backup containment plans. Uses a hazard analysis worksheet as a checklist tool to ensure potential hazards, controls and emergency/contingency plans, and safety equipment required have been addressed. Is adaptable to changing conditions by following whats written. If not written, the task shall be stopped, discussed and changes documented accordingly. Is reviewed and signed (including permits) by personnel new to the task location upon arriving at the ongoing work location. If the supervisor or person in charge of work is replaced, the Permit Approver will be notified to ensure additional communications occur as needed. Work must also be stopped if errors are identified in SOPs or JSAs while performing the work. In these cases, the JSA or SOP must be updated to address the changes.

NOTE: It is acceptable to reference and use applicable data from an archived/library hazard analysis/JSA preparation (e.g., list task steps), but caution shall be taken to prevent complacency in evaluating the job task detail. When using a library document, it is important to ensure that additional hazards are identified, site-specific actions/protective systems are added, and the person responsible for eliminating or mitigating each hazard is designated.

Hazard Analysis

How Should I Document My Analysis?


Hazard Analysis Tool Selection Criteria (considered cumulatively) Use When Use When Use When

Complexity of Work or Task No. of Safe Work Practices engaged SimOps Severity of Consequences SOP in place Any permit required?

More Many Hazard Assessment, SOP or JSA Worksheet (Long Form) Many Major No Yes Pocket Size Checklist

Less One None Minor Yes No TIF Self Assessment

None None None Very Low Yes No

Hazard Analysis

Life of a Hazard Analysis


Determine if an existing SOP or hazard analysis for the same or similar activity is available as a starting point. Develop specific hazard analysis for work plan. Communicate identified hazards and mitigations to the person(s) developing onsite JSA. Utilize existing documents such as an SOP, hazard analysis developed as part of work plan or preexisting hazard analysis for the same activity as a starting point. Initiate the JSA immediately prior to commencing work. This JSA must be reviewed, rewritten or modified for each shift change as appropriate. The modifications must include any changes in hazards and working conditions. Utilize hazard identification techniques to appropriately identify location and task specific hazards that have the potential to affect the people performing the work. Develop appropriate mitigation steps to be taken to reduce or eliminate the potential for injury, environmental incident or property damage. Include hazard analysis documentation with PTW for approval. Develop or discuss the JSA in a common language(s) for those performing the work. Ensure the JSA is accessible and reviewed by everyone at the work location affected by this work. If changes occur after this JSA is reviewed and signed, everyone involved should re-sign and review as appropriate. When Stop Work Authority (SWA) is initiated, a JSA review by the affected work crew is required prior to resuming work. The JSA should be retained with the other MSW specific permits for later review and update per retention requirements.

How Do I Ensure Competency?


Personnel Competency Personnel performing hazard analysis should receive training and competency assessment as appropriate to their role(s). Field Visits and Reviews The Field Review is a process to ensure, throughout the year, that hazard analyses are prepared correctly, the procedure is followed, and that feedback is given to the work group so that they can improve their adherence to the procedure. This field review should be initiated and completed as defined in the verification matrix. Field reviews must be documented and submitted to the designated location, for review by the Process Sponsor and Advisor. Document and Procedure Quality Review Document and Procedure Quality Reviews will be used periodically by Supervisors and the MSW Process Sponsor/Advisor to provide evidence of consistency and effectiveness of hazard analyses. Results of the Document and Procedure Quality Reviews should be communicated to the workforce.

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Hazard Analysis

Document Retention
In order to facilitate the review process and improve the quality of assessments, hazard analyses shall be retained at a Designated location. SEMS rule effective 11/15/2011: 30 CFR Part 250 Section 1928 Paragraph (b) (b) For JSAs, the person in charge of the activity must document the results of the JSA in writing and must ensure that records are kept onsite for 30 days. You must retain these records for 2 years and make them available to BOEMRE upon request. 30CFR 250.1911(b)(3) (3) The supervisor of the person in charge of the task must approve the JSA prior to the commencement of the work. Examples: For permitted work the Permit to Work (PTW) covers the Supervisor signature requirement. For non-permitted work involving one or more persons using a (Green or Crane Card) the senior or more qualified person would become the approver and sign on the PLW line for that job task. Field record retention is one year at nearest field headquarters location (for OE audit purposes) and additional year on a location TBD.

2012 Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

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