Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 45

NACA TM 426

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUMS NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

No. 426

SEAPLANE FLOATS A.ND HULLS


By H. Herrmann

PART I

From "Berichte und Abhandlungen d e r Wissenschaften


Gesellschaft f u r Luftfahrt" December, 1926

Washington August, 1927

12
Italy

84

24
176

12

132 176 180

Russia
America

30

30
66

120
264

135

264

4 6 1

There a r e two methods f o r a government t o develop good se


planes:

I n the first i n s t a n c e , by placing a~ order o r caJ.1

ed f o r t h e same take-off
by changing t h e take-off

speed,

The same r e

speed o s both t h e load


The

off speed simultaneously, which i s u s u s a l l y t h e case. n i t u d e of t h e v a r i a t i o n i s shown i n Figs. 3-5. r e f e r t o a p a i r of twin f l o a t s , i n g bo at s


The

Conditions a r e

The procedures o u t l i n e d above a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r corn

p a r i n g two p a i r s of f l o a t s o r two f l y i n g boats.

I n t h i s con-

s a r e p l o t t e d as

t h e t o t a l f l o a t capacity. t h e capacity i s usually

As

far

i t s seaworthiness i s con

1.8-2.2

times t h e displacement at

The water r e s i s t a n c e of ttvin-floats of 2 t o n s t o t


shown i n Fig. 1 .

The shape of t h e f l o a t i s shorn i n Fi

YJithout changing i t s submerged p o r t i o n , a f l y i n g boat may


be provided with a cabin h u l l o r w i t h a rnilit'vy h u l l ,

The t o -

measurement accuracy. Water r e s i s t a n c e depends l a r g e l y on flow under h u l l , which changes slowly with i n c r e a s i n g speed.
(2)

There i s no a c c e l e r a t i o When t h e r e i s a c c e l e r a t i o t h e h u l l always t r a v e l s w i t h a flow d i a g sponding t o a l o V a r i a t i o n of w a t t a n c e i s w i t h i n range o f m e atjur eraent accuracy Owing t o f r i c t i o n , water res i s t a n c e measurements of model are t o o high and must be corrected,
A t low speeds t h e model i s

P a r t of water r e s i s t a n c e i s due t o f r i c t i o n subject t o t h e Reynolds l a w .

(3)

Controls a r e i n e f f e c t i v e at

(4)
.

L
T

Z
t

m
S

x
7

k
vol

kg

K=kK

D i s p l ac ement
Mass
Speed

Vol

m3

L3

Vol=vol h3

~ = Km 7 2
h
v

V
B

m/s

h
7

h v=v T B=b h 72
K

Acceleration

h K

A=ah

t o t a l weight.

Consequently, t h e water r e s i s t a n c e of modern boats The seaplane

i s approximately t e n times t h e air r e s i s t a n c c .

t a k e s o f f when t h e p r o p e l l e r thrust exceeds t h e combined water and air r e s i s t a n c e .


A r e s u l t of t h e e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n of t h e p r o p e l l e r , with

r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y and e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e waterl i n e , i s nose-heaviness, which depresses t h e bow. C e r t a i n bow

shapes produce s u c t i o n e f f e c t s , &de t o t h e increased r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y of t h e water flow. The r e s u l t i s t h a t many seaplanes

nose dovn while t a k i n g o f f , b e f o r e t h e c r i t i c a l speed i s reached.


This e f f e c t i s counterbalanced by holding t h e e l e v a t o r c o n t r o l

Normally a seaplane t a k e s off an


and waves, Very seldom, and only when t h e r e a r e w

t h u s avoiding t h e i r blows. d i t i o n s are reversed.

When t h e seaplane a l i g h t s , t h e con-

The seaplane g l i d e s on t h e , s u r f ace. of


Then

t h e water u n t i i i t s speed d e c r e a s e s t o t h e c r i t i c a l speed. t h e h u l l submerges and t h e seaplane soon comes t o r e s t . The

mass m u l t i p l i e d by t h e r e t a r d a t i o n i s always equa3 t o t h e comb i n e d water and air r e s i s t a n c e .


I n Fig. 9 , t h e water r e s i s t a n c e i s seen i n c r e a s i n g t o a

m a x i m u m value and t h e n d e c r e a s i n g again.

Above is p l o t t e d the

p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t , from which t h e air r e s i s t a n c e h a s a l r e a d y been deduced. The take-off time w i l l now be determined.
Graph-

i c a l means a r e used, s i n c e t h e water r e s i s t a n c e can h a r d l y be c a l c u l a t e d by analyticaJ. methods,


An isosceles t r i a n g l e i s

t h e speed of 9.81 m / s (32.2 f t , / s e c . )

being i t s base and

s u b j e c t thus be obtained.
Summary o f Information Obtained

ed and no s u c t i o n e x e r t e d on t h e r e a r p o r t i o n of t h e hull.

If

no step i s provided, a s t r o n g s u c t i o n e f f e c t i s c r e a t e d at t h e
s t e r n and t h e r e i s no, o r a v e r y small, decresse o f r e s i s t a n c e

aboze t h e c r i t i c a l speed,

Consequently, t h e water r e s i s t a n c e

can be overcome by h u l l s without steps only when t h e y are very l i g h t l y loaded. It i s f a r more d i f f i c u l t t o overcorne t h e high-

water aornents a c t i n g on a stepless h u l l w i t h ordinary horizon-

h i s r e s i s t a n c e a c t s at a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from t h e f i n e o

ust of th.e p r o p e l l e r and develops a nose-heavy moment

s t a n c e and take-off

time b e i n g i n c r e a s e d correspond
and

I n Fig. 16 t h e s t e p i s l o c a t e d far behind t h e c.g,,

t h e seaplane nose-heavy:

one by w a t

N.A,C,A,

Technical Memorandum No, 626

16

be d e f l e c t e d enough f u r t h e r t o i n
A h u l l with a t o o e f f i c i e n t bottom i

t h e water before t h e take-off

speed i s r e

l i f t i s not reached at t h a t moment, t h e seaplane f back on t h e water. The s e a p l a n e may also

just when, owing t o t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s t e p , t h e e l e v a t o r i s


a l r e a d y f u l l y d e f l e c t e d and a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t , such as sides l i p p i n g , may t h e n result. a r e e x e r t e d on t h e h u l l . determined by t a n k t e s t s . By such l e a p s considerable s t r e s s e s The speed at which they begin can be
F o r well-designed seaplanes, they do

not occur b e f o r e 90$ of t h e take-off speed i s reached. f l y i n g b o a t s jumped even at 508 of t h e take-off speed.

English The

English Felixstowe trFurytt (Fig. 25) w i t h f i v e 250 HP. RollsRoyce engines, w a s completely destroyed by such l e a p s . In this

c a s e , tank t e s t s should have been made b e f o r e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n

of t h e seaplane and not a f t e r t h e crash.

This tendency can ofo r by an


If

t e n be avoided by a s l i g h t displacement of t h e c.g.

additional. moment sometimes forward and sometimes backwad. no improvement i s t h u s o b t a i n e a , the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e bottom

must be reduced by lowering t h e s t e p o r s h i f t i n g i t forward, o r


by of t h e c.g.

its means a r e d u c t i o n of t h e e f f i c i e n t p a r t of t h e bot-

waves axe more e a s i l y overcome by p u l l i n g t h e e l e v a t o r c o n t r o l back i n advance. To produce t h e d e s i r e d e f f e c t , t h e second s t


If i t i s too ne

mus% be some d i s t a n c e behind t h e f i r s t step.

t h e f i r s t s t e p , no s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t i s produce

a r e subject t o various valuations,

Therefore, t h e r e a r e s t i l l

many c o n t r a d i c t o r y opinions regarding t h e r e a r s t e p , Conditions a r e d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a t h i r d s t e

i n s u r e a smooth s e p a r a

exceeding 10 m e t r i c tons i n weight, s i n c e t h e i r take-off


i s small i n comparison w i t h t h e i r s i z e .

speed

I n t h i s c a s e , t h e re-

s e r v e power i s l a r g e enough t o overcome high water r e s i s t a n c e . Consequently, f o r such b o a t s , preference i s given t o a sharp bottom i n o r d e r t o reduce t h e impact on t h e water.
V-

The c o n t r a r y

method i s a p p l i e d t o l i g h t f l y i n g b o a t s , i n order t o i n s u r e ope r a t i o n with a s r m l l excess of power. I n t h i s case, a stronger

impact on t h e water i s t a k e n i n t o t h e bargain. Every V-bottom produces spray. more t h e spray, The sharper t h e
V,

the

A sheet of water r i s e s on each s i d e and wets

N.A.C.A.

Technical Meriorandum No. 426

20

t h e wings, t h e h u l l and t h e p r o p e l l e r .

The spray i s reduced by

bending t h e upper p a r t down, as i s done on t h e Linton-Hope h u l l s (Figs. 34, 36, 40, 42, 50 and 65), by f i t t i n g a s t r i p beneath t h e o u t e r edge o f t h e chine, t h u s reducing t h e depth of immers i o n , and by i n c r e a s i n g t h e angle of a t t a c k of t h e h u l l and by g i v i n g a s u i t a b l e shape t o t h e bow. The c r o s s s e c t i o n should be

hollow and V-shaped w i t h a f l a t , wide ground p l a n and approximately h o r i z o n t a l l a t e r a l and %ottom surfaces t o r i d e t h e water. The chines, o r t h e more o r l e s s h o r i z o n t a l bottom s u r f a c e s , must

be g r a d u a l l y r a i s e d t o w a r d t h e f r o n t .

L i t t l e o r no r e d u c t i o n

of spray i s produced by l o n g i t u d i n a l beams beneath t h e bottom.


The b e s t shape of hulls, and f l o a t s can be developed by tank t e s t s o r by b u i l d i n g a s u f f i c i e n t number of models. The same

r e s u l t s a r e obtained by both methods.


expensive and considerably slower.

The second method i s more

Regardless of t h e danger in-

volved, t h i s method was worked out during t h e war at Felixstowe, E n g l a d , by Colonel J. C. P o r t e , o f f i c e r of t h e B g i t i s h naval

a i r s e r v i c e , who had no engineering t r a i n i n g .

The r e s u l t i n g

s a c r i f i c e s of human l i f e could have been avoided by t a n k tests. These experiments were subsequently d e s c r i b e d by Rennie i n an a p o l o g e t i c note.* *Rennie, J. D. - Some Notes on t h e Design, Construction and Ope r a t i o n of Flying Boats. '!The Journal of t h e Royal. Aeronautical S o c i e t y , " 1923, p. 123.

load.

Thus the

of developing hydroplaning e99 iciency; such q u e s t i o n s


l a n d i n g , seaworthiness, s t a b i l i t y , e t c . ,

were more o r 1

l e c t e d u n t i l more powerful engines became a v a i l a b l e .

The f i r s

hull. t e s t e d was a modified Curtiss lf&ericatl f l y i n g boat ( F i g

17): weight, l i g h t , 3100 lb.;


power, 160;

f u l l y loaded, 4500 l b , ;

horse

l e n g t h of hull, 30 f t . ;

single step, p r o j e c t i n g

f i n %osw,rd, ending at s t b p , which was undes thhe c o g ,

Fore and

aft angle between t h e underside of t h e t a i l and p l a n i n g surfac


of t h e s h i p was 10 degrees,

ould be h e l d up during t h e accele

t s obtained with t h e ffAmeSica!f h u l l s ,

Particulars:

sult.

Fig. 25 shows p r o f i l e , plan, and body s e c t i o n s i n d e t a i l .

It was o r i g i n a l l y designed f o r 24,000 l b . t o t a l weight, and t o


be f i t t e d w i t h t h r e e 600 HP. Rolls-Royce Condor engines.
As

t h e s e engines d i d not become a v a i l a b l e , f i v e Eagle VIII1s had

t o be used, which l e d t o a decided drop i n air performance.

From every p o i n t of view, t h e boat was t h e best design


t u r n e d out at Felixstowe.

It was found t h a t t h e normal load

i o u s F-boats.

Loading t e s t s were continued up t o

i-ments i s t h a t t h e l i n e s md dimensions ( F i g . c e s s f u l f l y i n g boat h u l l f o r a given displacement evolved,


It now remains t o show how t h e v a r i o u s f e a t

d e s i g n c o n t r i b u t e toward t h e f u l f i l l r r e n t of t h e r e
l a i d down above, and t o i n d i c a t e where, i f at all, t h e

f r o m what might be deduced f r o m tank t e s t s .


The experience gained required s e v e r z l months' TFrork,

as t h e sane r e s u l t s would have been o b t a i n e d i n a f e v weeks by

with i t ,

Tlie l i n e s of t h e N . 4 T i t a n i a and t h e N . 4 Atalanta f l y i n g boat h u l l s are shown i n F i g s . 29-31.*


Tank t e s t s were made

on-

l y a f t e r t h e Titania was a l r e a d y under construction.

It was

f i r s t intended t o omit the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of t h e s t e p and


only t h e l a t e r a l portions. Owing t o e x c e s s i v e water r e s i s % a n c e ,

t h e s t e p W a s subsequently extended over t h e whole width and even e l a t e r a l p o r t i o n s were e n l a r g e d ( F i g . 32). When t h e s t e p i s

small, t h e r e s i s t a n c e i s t y p i c a l l y sirnilas t o t h e case


e i s no s t e p a t a;ll.
It does not decrease s u f f i c i e n t

v/v

start

3200
3000

2800

2600
2490

a 2200 c3

2 2000
+>

;;f 16CO
1400 1200

6 18GO 0

loco
800

600 400

200

Fig.7

k 0

X.A.C.A.

Figa. 1 2 , 1 3

. P

A B C

0 1

Fig.13

LO 20 30 $ Overload Ii>flucilce of ov,grload o n take-off t i n e at d i f f e r e n t tcke-off Epceds.


0

Lines of t h e F e l i x s t o n e nFuryn. Better 1 : have been obtained w i t h 3 , a'nzrper V - b O t t O i 2 born. Inclined t o leap b e f o r e reaching taka-off speed, oving t o very l a r g e and e f f i c i e n t b o t t o n . Trimed aft leaped :.iith i n s u f f i c i e x t lift, being subsequently crushed.
g.25