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08Y506 - CORROSION ENGINEERING

Lecture 1 Basics: Introduction Definition and cost of corrosion

History A Roman philosopher, Pliny (AD 23-79) wrote about the destruction of iron in his essay 'Ferrum Corrumpitar Pliny the elder (AD 23-79) wrote about spoiled iron. Herodotus (fifth century BC) suggested the use of tin for protection of iron. Lomonosov (1743-1756). Austin (1788) noticed that neutral water becomes alkaline when it acts on iron. Thenard (1819) suggested that corrosion is an electrochemical phenomenon. Hall (1829) established that iron does not rust in the absence of oxygen. Davy (1824) proposed a method for sacrificial protection of iron by zinc. De la Rive (1830) suggested the existence of microcells on the surface of zinc. Name or the terminology Corrosion is known commonly as rust Cost of corrosion Direct Costs Infrastructure $22.6 billion Utilities $47.9 billion Transportation $29.7 billion Production and Manufacturing $17.6 billion Government $20.1 billion Total: $137.9 BILLION The indirect cost of corrosion was conservatively estimated to be equal to the direct cost (i.e., total direct cost plus indirect cost is six percent of the GDP). Evidence of the large indirect corrosion costs are lost time, and thus lost productivity because of outages, delays, failures, and litigation. Indirect Costs Cost of labor attributed to corrosion management activities Cost of the equipment required because of corrosion-related activities Loss of revenue due to disruption in supply of product Cost of loss of reliability Grand Total: $275.5 BILLION

Esakkiraja N PSG College of Technology Coimbatore - 4

08Y506 - CORROSION ENGINEERING


Lecture 1 Basics: Introduction Definition and cost of corrosion

Dec 5, 2012 THE TIMES OF INDIA International Conference- Corrosion in Infrastructure and Chemical Industries CICI-2012 Predicted as Rs 2 lakh crore loss a year Apr 24, 2011 Rs 2 lakh crore loss a year Oct 2, 2007 Rs 1.25L cr a year

Nov 16, 2004 Rs 36,000 cr For the period 19601961 Rajagopalan estimated the cost of corrosion to India was 1.54 billion rupees, which is Rs 154 crore

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Fig.1.1. Cost of corrosion Definition Corrosion is deterioration or destruction of materials due to its reaction with its environment Corrosion Engineering Mars. G. Fontana Corrosion is the destructive attack of a material by reaction with its environment Handbook of corrosion Engineering Pierre.R.Roberge Corrosion is the destructive attack of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment - Uhlig Corrosion is an aspect of the decay of materials by chemical or biological agents As per IUPAC,

Esakkiraja N PSG College of Technology Coimbatore - 4

08Y506 - CORROSION ENGINEERING


Lecture 1 Basics: Introduction Definition and cost of corrosion

Fig.1.2. Reverse metallurgy [2]

Fig.1.3. Corrosion is a reverse of metallurgy [1]

Fig.1.4. Distribution of Discipline where active corrosion engineers have graduated [3]

Esakkiraja N PSG College of Technology Coimbatore - 4

08Y506 - CORROSION ENGINEERING


Lecture 1 Basics: Introduction Definition and cost of corrosion

Examples

Fig.1.5. Degradation of steels & Rusting of iron fence Corrosive Environments Air and humidity. Fresh, distilled, salt and marine water. Natural, urban, marine and industrial atmospheres. Steam and gases, like chlorine. Ammonia. Hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Fuel gases. Acids. Alkalies. Soils, etc... Electrochemical Cell For corrosion to take place, the formation of an electrochemical or corrosion cell is essential. A corrosion cell is essentially comprised of the following four components (Fig. 1.6)

Anode Cathode Electrolyte Metallic path

Fig.1.6 Galvanic cell


Esakkiraja N PSG College of Technology Coimbatore - 4

08Y506 - CORROSION ENGINEERING


Lecture 1 Basics: Introduction Definition and cost of corrosion

Oxidation reaction occurs at Anode Anodic reaction release of electrons Reduction occurs at Cathode Cathodic reaction gain of electrons Metallic path is a conductor to conduct the e- from anode to cathode simply copper wire Electrolyte electrically conductive solution simply salt solution or Acids

Anions'. Migrate towards the anode (OH-) but precipitate as Fe(OH)2 before reaching it. Cations'. Migrate towards the cathode (Fe2+) & deposit on cathode. Questions and Answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is corrosion? Why study corrosion? Explain how corrosion can be considered as extractive metallurgy in reverse. List five important consequences of corrosion. Which is the most common cause of corrosion damage, corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking or pitting corrosion? 6. Describe with an example how corroded structures can lead to environmental pollution. 7. Does corrosion affect humans? If so, explain how. 8. Describe two engineering disasters in which corrosion played a leading role. 9. State two important corrosion websites. 10. Name three cities in India which have the most corrosive environment. 11. What is Anode, Cathode, Electrolyte and Electrochemical cell? Reference:
1. 2. 3. Mars.G.Fontana, Corrosion Engineering, McGraw Hill Book Company, 3 rd edition, 1987. Zaki Ahmad, Principles of corrosion engineering and corrosion control, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 2006. Pierre. R. Roberge, Corrosion Engineering principles and practice, McGraw Hill Book Company, 2008 Pierre. R. Roberge, Handbook of corrosion Engineering, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1999

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