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Information Paper

Common Structural Forms for Large Span Lightweight Steel Roofs

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING BRANCH ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT


October 2013

Structural Engineering Branch, ArchSD Information Paper on Large Span Lightweight Steel Roofs Issue No./Revision No. : 1/-

Page 1 of 24

File code : RoofSystem.doc CTW/MKL/NTF/ First Issue Date : October 2013

Contents

1. 2.

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 3 Structural Systems for Large Span Inaccessible Roofs ................................................. 3 2.1 Structural systems ...................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Two-way-spanning trusses ........................................................................................ 3 2.3 Cable stayed structure ............................................................................................... 6 2.4 Tensioned fabric structure ........................................................................................ 9 2.5 One-way-spanning structure ................................................................................... 11

3.

Structural Forms of One-way-spanning Steel Truss ................................................... 16

References

Copyright and Disclaimer of Liability This Information Paper or any part of it shall not be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission from Architectural Services Department. Moreover, this Information Paper represents the opinions of the author (s). It serves as an informational source to assist the internal use of the staff in Architectural Services Department, and should not be relied on by any third party. No liability is therefore undertaken to any third party. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the information contained in this Information Paper at the time of publication, no guarantee is given nor responsibility taken by the author(s) and Architectural Services Department for errors or omissions in it. Readers are advised to make sure that the information contained herein has not been affected or changed by recent developments. The author(s) further encourages readers to verify all relevant representation, statements and information with their own professional knowledge and by reviewing primary sources where appropriate. The author(s) and Architectural Services Department expressly disclaim all liability for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information in this Information Paper (including the formulae and data).

Structural Engineering Branch, ArchSD Information Paper on Large Span Lightweight Steel Roofs Issue No./Revision No. : 1/-

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File code : RoofSystem.doc CTW/MKL/NTF/ First Issue Date : October 2013

1. 1.1

Introduction Large span structures are frequently employed in ArchSD projects to serve as the roofs for sports arenas, spectator stands, swimming pools, workshops, etc. In Hong Kong, the material commonly used in most buildings is reinforced concrete. Concrete is a good building material in that it is durable; the service life can easily exceed 50 years if constructed and maintained properly. It is also an easily available material that local contractors are able to handle competently. However, for large span structures over (say 20m), rc structures require large and massive beams which would be aesthetically unacceptable. Lightweight steel structures are therefore preferred. SEB is now preparing a set of guidelines - Guidelines on Bracing Systems for Steel Structures, providing guidance of the layout and design of bracing systems for large span lightweight roofs. The purpose of this Information Paper is to: a) b) c) describe various structural systems for large span lightweight roofs; discuss their respective pros and cons; and give examples of the structural systems for large span lightweight roofs of previous projects in ArchSD.

1.2

2. 2.1

Structural Systems for Large Span Inaccessible Roofs Structural systems Various structural systems are commonly available in the market, including: a) b) c) d) two-way-spanning trusses; cable-stayed roof; tensioned fabric roof; and one-way-spanning girders, trusses or portals.

2.2

Two-way-spanning trusses Two-way-spanning trusses (commonly known as space frames) were once the most common type of roof construction for the sports arenas in Hong Kong. Prominent example is Hong Kong Coliseum completed in 1983. Two-way-spanning trusses consist of a three dimensional structure spanning in two directions (Figure 1(a) and Figure 2). Structural depth can be shallower and member sizes can be smaller. For a 40m40m clear span, the typical depth of the trusses is 2.5m. Generally, circular hollow sections are used. There are a few proprietary systems available in Hong Kong, each with a different type of node jointing system (Figure 1(b)). As such, the cost of two-wayspanning trusses is therefore generally higher than that for other structural systems.

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(a) Plan

(b) Typical jointing systems in two-way-spanning trusses Figure 1 Two-way-spanning trusses at Tsuen Wan West Sports Centre

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(a) Cross section

(b) During installation

(c) Isometric view Figure 2 Two-way-spanning trusses at Tsuen Wan Swimming Pool Complex
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2.3

Cable stayed structure

2.3.1 Cable stayed structure consists of masts (pylons) and steel cables (Figure 3 and Figure 4(a)). By using suspension cables, the span of a beam is reduced and thus its structural depth and weight are minimized. As the form of structure is explicitly shown, it is visually impressive and possesses a character. The materials for cables can be galvanized steel wires, stainless steel wires or galvanized rods. The cost per unit m2 of constructing cable stayed lightweight roof is around $4,600 in 1999.

(a) Cross section

(b) Isomeric view Figure 3 Cable-stayed roof at Tsing Yi Complex

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(a) Cross section

(b) Elevation

(c) During installation Figure 4(a) Cable-stayed roof at Ma On Shan Swimming Pool

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2.3.2 Cables have only a component of stiffness in the axial direction only, and will exhibit a geometrical non-linear behaviour under external loading with increase in stiffness under increasing loads. Initial pre-tension is required to be introduced into the system to increase the structural stiffness, which enables the cables to be always in tension under any load combination. However, the tensioning process of one of the cables will cause forces in the other stressed cables to decrease. Thus, the stressing process should be carried out in a number of cycles such that the tensions are even and symmetrical. Experience in Tsing Yi Complex was that after stressing some of the tensioned rods in this project appeared to have excessive sag, indicating that the design pre-tension could not be achieved. Adjustment of the turnbuckles in these tensioned rods would then be required by a specially designed tensioning device - the Technotensioner (Figure 4(b)). The device works on the principle of gripping the tensioned rod at either side of the turnbuckle and then by pulling the bars towards the turnbuckle, which is being rotated to take up the extension of the rod. The lock nuts are wound back from the ends of the turnbuckle to allow the tensioned road to be pulled into it by means of hydraulic jacks. Once the rod reaches the required tension as indicated on the pressure gauges, the gripping force can then be transferred from the device to the rod.

Figure 4(b) Device for fine adjustment of pre-tension in tensioned rod 2.3.3 Usually, cables will be arranged symmetrical on plan so as to provide lateral stability on this direction, and additional cross bracing will be required in between the masts to enhance the lateral in the other direction.

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2.4

Tensioned fabric structure

2.4.1 Tensioned fabric structure is another option as lightweight inaccessible roof (Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(b)). It consists of PTFE or PVC coated fabric with doubly curved shape. By forcing the fabric to take on double-curvature, the fabric gains sufficient stiffness to withstand the loads. In order to induce an adequately doubly curved form it is necessary to pretension or prestress the fabric or its supporting structure. Finding the correct geometry (form finding) and prestress forces for such structures is crucial such that it has the optimal internal stresses of the systems. Unlike conventional structures, which carry loads in bending and have a fixed given desired form, fabric structures take the shape according to the force flow, and hence an inappropriate form governed by aesthetic design would mean that an uneconomic design with large prestress forces results. Moreover, an inappropriate form will lead to wrinkles, flapping, and ponding problems. Figure 5(c) shows the typical structural forms of tensioned fabric structure. 2.4.2 The design and construction are carried out specialists, and a sample particular specification for tensioned fabric structure (available: http://asdiis/cmbiis/cmbiis_a/research/Technical/Tic/new_tech_inform.asp) is devised incorporating the architectural, structural and building services requirements for the design, fabrication, erection and maintenance of tensioned fabric structures by ArchSD. The form finding and analysis are mostly carried out by proprietary softwares, and yet, limited softwares are available in the market for form finding and to establish loads transferred to attachment points, columns and backstays. SEB has installed one Oasys GSA Suite, which includes a module on form finding and analysis of fabric structure. This software can help project officer to devise the preliminary optimal form and to check the submission from designer.

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(i) Elevation (Source: Hong Kong Tourist Board)

(ii) Plan showing layout of cables Figure 5(a) Tensioned fabric structure at the Museum of Coastal Defence

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Figure 5(b) Tensioned fabric structure at Tung Chung Swimming Pool

(i) radial tent with radical cables (ii) roof with biaxial cables Figure 5(c) Typical forms of tensioned fabric structure (Source: http://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~bswmwong) 2.5 One-way-spanning structure

2.5.1 Timber, being lightweight, is theoretically ideal for lightweight roof. However, its low strength and stiffness result in the type of timber that can be used in large span construction is glued-laminated timber (usually known as glulam) (Figure 6). It consists of parallel laminations of wood, bonded together to produce members that act as single structural units. It is produced by a controlled industrial process and the members can be made to complex profiles; curving and variation in depth along the length of the member are also feasible. Unlike natural timber, which has a variability of properties, glulam timber is purposely made to achieve uniformity and consistency in strength and stiffness. However, the long-term durability of such glued-laminated timber should be studied especially under direct sunlight, which may result in the deterioration of the glue.

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(a) Elevation

Cross-section of glulam

(b) Cross section Figure 6 Glued laminated timber girder roof at Aberdeen Sports Ground 2.5.2 Among the various structural systems, one-way-spanning plane (Figure 7(a)) or triangulated (Figure 7(b), Figure 7(c) and Figure 7(d)) (with triangle in cross section) structural steel trusses are nowadays most commonly adopted to span over 20m to 60m, and will therefore be the main focus of this Information Paper. The spacing between plane trusses is usually about 46m (and the spacing between triangulated trusses being usually about 8-10m) to suit the sheeting and the maximum spanned length of purlins.

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Figure 7(a) Typical one-way-spanning plane trusses over a sports arena

(i)

Section

(ii) Photo Figure 7(b) One-way-spanning triangulated trusses at Sai Kung Tang Shiu Kin Sports Ground

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(i) Plan of top chords

(ii) Isometric view Figure 7(c) Typical one-way-spanning triangulated trusses over a sports arena

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Section of truss

(i) Longitudinal section of a typical triangulated truss

(ii) During installation

(ii) Photo of elevation Figure 7(d) One-way-spanning triangulated trusses at Siu Sai Wan Sports Ground
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3. 3.1

Structural Forms of One-way-spanning Steel Truss The following three structural forms as one-way-spanning plane or triangulated roof trusses are usually adopted in ArchSD projects (Tasou, 2003): (a) Pratt (or N) truss () (Figure 8(a)); (b) Howe truss () (Figure 8(b)); or (c) Warren truss () (Figure 8(c) and Figure 8(d)).

(a) Pratt or N truss

(b) Howe truss

(c) Warren truss

(d) Modified Warren truss Figure 8 Typical structural forms of one-way-spanning trusses 3.2 The Pratt truss was first developed in 1844 under patent of Thomas and Caleb Pratt fro bridges. The Pratt truss has diagonals in tension under normal vertical loading so that the shorter vertical web members are in compression and the longer diagonal web members are in tension. However, as lightweight steel roof, cause a reversal of load thus putting the longer web members Pratt roof truss wind loads into compression. Figure 9 shows the triangulated Pratt trusses in Hammer Hill Swimming Pool, where trusses at 7.5m c/c with 38.2m clear span and 2.9m depth at mid-span were used.

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Figure 9(a) Plan and sections of Pratt triangulated plane trusses at Hammer Hill Road Swimming Pool
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(i) Showing the Pratt truss

(ii) External elevation

(Source: P&A Engineering Limited)

(iii) Typical truss during installation

Figure 9(b) Photos showing Pratt trusses at Hammer Hill Road Swimming Pool 3.3 The converse of the Pratt truss is the Howe truss. The Howe Truss was designed by William Howe in 1840. The Howe truss can be advantageous for very lightly loaded roofs in which reversal of load due to wind will dominate. In addition the tension chord is more heavily loaded than the compression chord at mid-span under normal vertical loading. Figure 10 shows the triangulated Howe trusses at Sun Yat Sen Memorial Swimming Pool, where trusses at 7.5m c/c with 48m clear span and 2.0m depth at midspan were used.

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(a) Photo

(b) Longitudinal section of a typical truss

(c) Section showing all triangulated trusses Figure 10 Triangulated Howe triangulated trusses at Sun Yat Sen Memorial Swimming Pool

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3.4

Warren truss was patented by James Warren in 1848. It contains a series of isosceles triangles or equilateral triangles, and thus has equal length compression and tension web members, resulting in a net saving in steel weight for smaller spans. The added advantage of the Warren truss is that it avoids the use of web members of differing length and thus reduces fabrication costs. For larger spans, the modified Warren truss (Figure 8(d)) may be adopted where additional restraint to the chords is required (this also reduces secondary stresses). The modified Warren truss requires more material than the parallel-chord Pratt truss, but this is offset by its symmetry and pleasing appearance. Figure 9(d) shows the plane Warren trusses in Shek Kip Mei Park, where trusses at 4.25m c/c with depth 3.575m at mid-span spanning 38.2m was adopted.

Figure 9(b) Plane Warren trusses in Shek Kip Mei Park Sports Centre 3.6 Span-to-depth ratio The Pratt or Warren plane trusses are usually spaced at 4m to 6m c/c to suit purlins and aluminium cladding, and triangulated trusses can be spaced at 7.5 to 8m c/c. Both have an economic span-to-depth ratio of between 10 and 20 depending on the intensity of the applied loads. For the top end of the span range the bay width should be such that the web members are inclined at approximately 50 or slightly steeper (Tasou, 2003).

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3.7

Member types

3.7.1Various types of members (e.g. rolled universal beams, columns, T- or channel-sections) can be used (Figure 10(a)), and the general rule of thumb is that in steelwork construction bolted site splices are much preferred to welded splices for economy and speed of erection. Hence, the top and bottom chords in the past were usually made of two angles or channels connected together with a gusset plate so as to facilitate the connection of the diagonal members by bolts (Figure 10(b)). The gusset plates enable the incoming members to be positioned in such a way that their centroidal axes meet at a single point, thus avoiding load eccentricities (Tasou, 2003).

Figure 10(a) Common member types in trusses

Figure 10(b) Bolted connections for angles in trusses (Source: MacGinley, 1992) 3.7.2 Shop fabrication using welding is, however, now the norm, and rolled universal beams and/or columns become the common chosen sections, as they provide a flat surface for welding. Structural hollow sections (either RHS or CHS) are becoming more popular due to their efficiency in compression and their neat and pleasing appearance in the case of exposed trusses, though in most cases there are exposed BS ducts underneath the trusses. Structural hollow sections, however, have higher fabrication costs and are only suited to welded construction. This is especially a problem for triangulated trusses where the diagonal members connecting to the bottom chords in overlap joint (Figure 10(c)(i)) are difficult to be cut into the required shape even with today CNC cutting machine. For ease of construction, RHS is preferred as it eliminates curved profile cutting to achieve a perfect fit at the intersection of two circular members (Figure 10(c)(ii)). Should CHS be adopted, a gap joint (Figure 10(c)(iii)) is preferred for ease of construction, yet the additional eccentric moment should be considered if lines of action do not coincide.

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(i) Overlap joint (Source: British Steel, 1999)

(ii) Joint in RHS (iii) Gap joint in CHS (Source: Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes, 1999)

(iv) Gap joint with eccentric moment

(Source: British Steel, 1999) Figure 10(c) Joint connections in hollow section 3.7.3 Besides fabrication, joints in structural hollow sections can fail in a number of different failure modes depending on the joint type, the geometric parameters of the joint and the type of loading. The design should therefore consider such failure modes. References for the design of joints in hollow sections can be found in Annex K in Eurocode 3 (BSI, 2005), Design Guide for Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Joints under Predominantly Static Loading (CIDECT, 1991) (copy available at SEB Library), Design Guide for Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Joints under Predominantly Static Loading (CIDECT, 1992) (copy available at SEB Library), and Design of SHS Welded Joints (British Steel, 1999). SEB has also installed CIDJOINT in PC 8911 at Room 3817 for design of joints in hollow sections. An interactive on-line version of CIDJOINT is also available free at URL: http://www.cidect.org/en/Software/CIDJOINT.php (accessed: 27 September 2013). SEB has also installed PROKON in the network for design of simple connections of structural steelwork in accordance with BS 5950 and Eurocode 3.

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3.8

Bracing Horizontal bracing is required for roof trusses: a) b) to transmit wind load from roof surface or from building faade to vertical elements such as rigid frame, vertical bracing or wall; and to provide restraints to members subject to lateral buckling, lateral-torsional buckling, torsion and compression by reducing their effective length and decreasing their slenderness ratio.

Figure 9(b) shows the typical bracing systems for one-way-spanning plane trusses. For top chords of plane trusses, the roof bracing is designed in the form of a horizontal truss to transmit the lateral forces to vertical elements. Though members at top chords are subjected to compression under dead and imposed loads and hence are susceptible to lateral buckling, the roof is usually cladded with lightweight aluminium profiled sheeting, which can provide restraint to these top chord members in compression. For bottom chords, when uplift from wind is greater than the dead load, it causes a reversal of load in all members and members in the bottom chords of a truss would be in compression. In plane trusses, bottom chord members are usually restrained by tie members, which are then transmitted to the top chords via vertical bracing at the end bays. Detailed information and discussion of the design of bracing systems for different types of roof trusses can be found in Guidelines on Bracing Systems for Steel Structures (being prepared as at 26 September 2013). 3.9 Corrosion protection General Specification for Building 2012 of ArchSD Table 15.7 specifies protective systems for selection by project officers (and its earlier versions) for different Life to First Maintenance. For a Life to First Maintenance of at least 15 years in C3 or C4 environments, Type C, D and G painting systems are commonly specified. Detailed information and discussion can be found in SEBGL-ST3: Guidelines on Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures (available: http://asdiis/sebiis/2k/resource_centre/), and in determining the cost among these painting systems, SEBGL-ST4: Guidelines on Long First Maintenance Period Corrosion Protection Systems for Structural Steelwork - A Cost Comparison (available: http://asdiis/sebiis/2k/resource_centre/) may be referred. 3.10 Fire protection Element of construction in Code of Practice for Fire Safety in Buildings 2011 issued by Buildings Department does not include member forming the roof or part of the roof. Therefore, a roof is not considered as an element of construction and there is no fire resisting construction requirement for it, except that the structure is essential for the

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stability of an external wall which needs to have fire resistance. Detailed requirements and discussion can be found SEBGL-OTH1: Guidelines on the Fire Resisting Construction for Roof Structures (available: http://asdiis/sebiis/2k/resource_centre/). References BSI (2005), EN 1993-1-8 (Eurocode 3): Design of steel structures - Part 1-8: Design of joints (London: BSI). CIDECT (1991), Design Guide for Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Joints under Predominantly Static Loading (CIDECT). CIDECT (1992), Design Guide for Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Joints under Predominantly Static Loading (CIDECT). British Steel (1999), Design of SHS Welded Joints (Corby: Welded Tubes). FLL (2008), Guidelines for the Planning, Construction and Maintenance of Green Roofing (Bonn: FLL). Hui, S C M (2006), Benefits and potential applications of green roof systems in Hong Kong, Proceedings of the 2nd Megacities International Conference 2006, 1-2 December 2006, Guangzhou, China, pp. 351-60 (available: http://web.hku.hk/~cmhui/present.htm; accessed: 26 September 2013). Hui, S C M (2010), Development of technical guidelines for green roof systems in Hong Kong, Presented at Joint Symposium 2010 on Low Carbon High Performance Buildings, 23 November 2010, Hong Kong (available: http://web.hku.hk/~cmhui/present.htm; accessed: 26 September 2013). MacGinley, T J (1997), Structural Steelwork: Design to Limit State Theory (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann). Tasou, P (2003), Trusses, in Davison, B and Owens, G W (eds) (2003), Steel Designers Manual (Oxford: Blackwell Science, 6th ed). Zhao, L, Jing, H Y, Xu, L Y, Han, Y D and Xiu, J J (2012), Analysis of creep crack growth behavior of P92 steel welded joint by experiment and numerical simulation, Materials Science & Engineering A, 558, pp.119-28.

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