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The International Authority on Air System Components

AMCA Publication 99
Standards Handbook










AMCA 99

STANDARDS HANDBOOK




























AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL
30 WEST UNIVERSITY DRIVE
ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, IL 60004-1893 USA

AMCA 99 Standards Handbook














































COPYRIGHT 2003 by Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 and 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is
unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Executive Director,
Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
AMCA 99 Standards Handbook



AMCA 99
STANDARDS HANDBOOK
CONTENTS





99-0021-01 The Fan Laws
99-0066-01 The AMCA Vocabulary: Definitions
99-0068-03 The AMCA Vocabulary: Product Definitions
99-0070-01 The AMCA Vocabulary: Symbols
99-0098-00 Basic Series of Preferred Numbers
99-0100-76 Metric Units and Conversion Factors
99-0200-00 Charts & Tables
99-0401-86 Classification for Spark Resistant Construction
99-1401-66 Operating Limits for Central Station Units
99-2404-03 Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans
99-2405-03 Inlet Box Positions for Centrifugal Fans
99-2406-03 Designation for Rotation and Discharge of Centrifugal Fans
99-2407-03 Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive Centrifugal Fans
99-2408-69 Operating Limits for Centrifugal Fans
99-2410-03 Drive Arrangements for Tubular Centrifugal Fans
99-2412-03 Impeller Diameters & Outlet Areas for Centrifugal Fans
99-2413-03 Impeller Diameters & Outlet Areas for Industrial Centrifugal Fans
99-2414-03 Impeller Diameters & Outlet Areas for Tubular Centrifugal Fans
99-3001-03 Dimensions for Axial Fans
99-3404-03 Drive Arrangements for Axial Fans

Purpose of AMCA Standards

AMCA Standards are adopted in the public interest. They are intended to eliminate
misunderstanding between the manufacturer and the purchaser and to assist in selecting,
specifying, and obtaining the proper product for the particular need.

Existence of an AMCA Standard does not in any respect preclude any member or non-member
from manufacturing or selling products not conforming to the standard.



Approval of Standards

Proposed standards are reviewed by the appropriate Standards Committees and by the Board of
Directors before submittal to the membership for approval. An affirmation vote of two-thirds of the
members affected is required for adoption or revision.



Review of Standards

AMCA Standards are regularly reviewed, but may also be reviewed at any time at the request of
the membership or by direction of the Board of Directors.
AMCA PUBLICATION 99
STANDARDS HANDBOOK
CONTENTS



99-0021-01 The Fan Laws
99-0066-01 The AMCA Vocabulary: Definitions
99-0068-03 The AMCA Vocabulary: Product Definitions
99-0070-01 The AMCA Vocabulary: Symbols
99-0098-00 Basic Series of Preferred Numbers
99-0100-76 Metric Units and Conversion Factors
99-0200-00 Charts & Tables
99-0401-86 Classification for Spark Resistant Construction
99-1401-66 Operating Limits for Central Station Units
99-2404-03 Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans
99-2405-03 Inlet Box Positions for Centrifugal Fans
99-2406-03 Designation for Rotation and Discharge of Centrifugal Fans
99-2407-03 Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive Centrifugal Fans
99-2408-69 Operating Limits for Centrifugal Fans
99-2410-03 Drive Arrangements for Tubular Centrifugal Fans
99-2412-03 Impeller Diameters & Outlet Areas for Centrifugal Fans
99-2413-03 Impeller Diameters & Outlet Areas for Industrial Centrifugal Fans
99-2414-03 Impeller Diameters & Outlet Areas for Tubular Centrifugal Fans
99-3001-03 Dimensions for Axial Fans
99-3404-03 Drive Arrangements for Axial Fans



THE FAN LAWS

Fan impellers differ from one another in many respects, even among those of the same type. One
characteristic that all share is that each individual impeller design can be uniquely related to the overall
diameter of the impeller. Because of this unique relationship, all impellers that share the same geometric
design but differ only in size are said to have similarity. Fan casings share in this unique relationship, with the
casing being optimized with respect to an impeller design so that aerodynamic performance goals are
achieved. A fan design, then, is a geometrically unique combination of fan impeller and fan casing. All sizes
of fans produced according to this unique geometry have similarity based on their respective diameters.
Similarity is useful in that it enables the prediction of aerodynamic performance: given the performance of a
fan of a given diameter at a certain rotational speed and a certain air density, the performance of that same
unique geometry at another impeller diameter, or rotational speed or air density can be determined.

Note that the variables that affect a fan's aerodynamic performance are: impeller diameter, rotational speed
and air density. Since these variables are expressed as ratios, they are dimensionless and are independent
of the system of units used, as long as the units are used consistently for each ratio.

The mathematical statements which describe the effects of these factors on aerodynamic performance for
any known performance point are known collectively as the FAN LAWS.

FAN LAWS FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

As with all laws, some similarity requirements must be met if the FAN LAWS are to be effective:

A. DESIGN GEOMETRY

Geometric similarity must exist between any two fan sizes; i.e., dimensions must be proportional and
angularity must be constant for all essential air passages of the impeller and the casing.

B. GAS DENSITY

As air moves through the fan, it is acted upon by the rotating impeller and there results a pressure rise. With
a pressure rise, one would expect that the gas undergoes compression. Compression, in turn, means a
change in gas density.

The compressibility coefficient (K
p
) must be calculated for the condition. The supporting formulas for K
p

originate in Appendix C, ANSI/AMCA Standard 210-99.










2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 1 OF 10



C. REYNOLDS NUMBER

Reynolds number is one of many descriptors of fan performance, and further information is available in most
textbooks on fluid mechanics. For our purposes here, it is necessary to know that for a given fan design
geometry, there are many possible Reynolds numbers, and that there is a threshold value on either side of
which fluids behave differently. The similarity requirement here is that both sets of operating parameters
result in Reynolds numbers such that the effect of any difference between them is negligible. The implied
requirement is that both of the Reynolds numbers must be on the same side of the threshold value. For
additional information on Reynolds number, see Handbook of Fan Engineering, latest edition.

D. MACH NUMBER

Mach number relates to the velocity of a gas (air) as it passes into or through a fan. Similarity requires that
the Mach numbers for the two sets of parameters must be reasonably close. Just as was the case with
Reynolds number, there is a threshold value and a difference in performance on either side of the threshold.
Since almost all fans operate well below the threshold value for Mach number, no procedure for determining
the threshold value is given in this document.

Then for any given point on a fan performance curve, the relationship between a known performance point
and desired performance point c (converted) is given by the FAN LAWS.


THE FAN LAWS

1ST LAW:

Q
Q
D
D
N
N
K
K
c c
3
c
p
pc



2ND LAW:

P
P
D
D
N
N
K
K
tc
t
c
2
c
2
p
pc
c



3RD LAW:

P
P
D
D
N
N
vc c
2
c
2
c







2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 2 OF 10
Errata February 2005

AMCA 99-0021-01

On page 2 of 10 the last equation on the page should read:






[The denominator of the first term should have the subscript v.]

c c c
v
vc
N
N
D
D
P
P
2 2



4TH LAW:

H
H
D
D
N
N
K
K
c c
5
c
3
p
pc
c




5TH LAW:

P P P
sc tc vc
=

Where P
tc
and P
vc
are established per the 2
ND
and 3
RD
FAN LAWS.


6TH LAW:


sc tc
sc
tc
P
P
=




Where P
sc
is established using the 5
TH
FAN LAW and P
tc
is established using the 2
ND
FAN LAW.

In the above, subscript c denotes the new operating condition, and:

D = Impeller diameter
D
c
= Impeller diameter, converted
N = Impeller rotational speed
N
c
= Impeller rotational speed, converted
Q = Volume airflow rate
Q
c
= Volume airflow rate, converted
P
t
= Pressure, total
P
tc
= Pressure, total, converted
P
v
= Pressure, velocity
P
vc
= Pressure, velocity, converted
H = Power
H
c
= Power, converted
P
s
= Pressure, static
P
sc
= Pressure, static, converted

sc
= Efficiency, static, converted

tc
= Efficiency, total, converted




2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 3 OF 10



and K
p
and K
pc
are determined from:

( )
( )
K
ln 1 x
x
z
ln 1 z
p
=
+

(
+

(


( )
x
P
P C p
t
t1 b b
=
+


( ) ( )
z
1 C H
Q P C p
h
t1 b b
=

(
+

(
(



z
z
P C p
P C p
N
N
D
D 1
1
c t1 b b
t1c b bc
c c
2
c
2
c
c
=
+
+



K 1
1
1
z
2 1
1
1
2
z
6
pc
t c
c
c t c
c
c c
c
c
2
1
= +


|
\

|
.
|

(
+

,

an approximation derived from a series expansion, sufficiently accurate for K
p
>= 0.9, and fan mechanical
efficiency
t
is given by:

t
t p
h
QP K
C H
=
Note: For all fans,
t
=
tc
(for incompressible flow only)

Where:
K
p
= Compressibility coefficient
K
pc
= Compressibility coefficient, converted
x = A coefficient of convenience in the equation
z = A coefficient of convenience in the equation
P
t1
= Total pressure at fan inlet
C
b
= Barometer constant: SI = 1 (I-P = 13.63)
C
h
= Power constant: SI = 1 (I-P = 6362)
p
b
= Barometer pressure, Pa (in. Hg)
= Ratio of specific heats = 1.4

EXAMPLE:
The following example shows how the FAN LAWS, including compressibility, are applied in aerodynamic
performance predictions for a given fan design.

2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 4 OF 10



KNOWN PARAMETERS:
SI I-P

impeller diameter D 927 mm 36.5 inches

fan rotational speed N 1000 rpm 1000 rpm

air density 1.152 kg/m
3
0.072 lb
m
/ft
3


volume airflow rate Q 7.952 m
3
/s 16850 cfm

total pressure P
t
953.7 Pa 3.84 in. wg

barometric pressure p
b
97.359 kPa 28.75 in. Hg

power H 9299 W 12.47 hp

ratio of specific heats 1.4 1.4



CONVERSION PARAMETERS:

SI I-P

impeller diameter D
c
1524 mm 60 inches

fan rotational speed N
c
820 rpm 820 rpm

air density
c
1.2 kg/m
3
0.075 lb
m
/ft
3


volume airflow rate Q
c
UNKNOWN UNKNOWN

total pressure P
tc
UNKNOWN UNKNOWN

power H
c
UNKNOWN UNKNOWN

barometric pressure p
b
101.321 kPa 29.92 in. Hg


To determine the flow rate Q
c
and pressure P
tc
, FAN LAWS 1 and 2 must be used. The GIVEN and
CONVERTED conditions provide all the information required for the calculations except K
p
and K
pc
.




2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 5 OF 10



Determine K
p
:

( )
( )
K
ln 1 x
x
z
ln 1 z
P
=
+



EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS IN SI UNITS:


( )
x
P
P C P
t
t1 b b
=
+



( )( ) ( )
=
+
953.7
0 1 97359


=
953.7
97359


x 0.0097957 =


( ) ( )
z
1 C H
Q P C P
h
t1 b b
=




( )( )
( )( ) ( )
=

1.4 1
1.4
1 9299
7.952 0 1 97359


z 0.0034317 =


( )
( )
K
ln 1 x
x
z
ln 1 z
p
=
+




( )
( )
=
+

ln 1 0.0097957
0.0097957
0.0034317
ln 1 0.0034317


K 0.99684
p
=




2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 6 OF 10


t
t p
h
QP K
C H
=


( )( )( )
( )( )
=

(
7.952 953.7 0.99684
1 9299

t
0.813, or 81.3% =

To determine K
pc
, calculate the factors in the necessary equations:

( )
( )
z
z
P C p
P C p
N
N
Dc
D
c t1 b b
t1c b bc
c c
2 2
=
=
=




( )
( )
=
+
+

(
0 1x97359
0 1x101321
1.2
1.152
820
1000
1524
927
2 2


z / z 1.81905
c
=

Then:

( )( ) ( )
z
z
z 1.81905 0.0034317 0.006242
c
= =

And:

( )( ) ( )( )

t c
c
1
0.813 1.4
1.4 1
2.8455

(
=

(
=

( ) ( )( )
K
1
1 2.8455 1
0.006242
2
2.8455 1 2.8455 2
0.006242
6
pc
2
=
+
|
\

|
.
|
+
|
\

|
.
|


Then:

K 0.994235
pc
=


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 7 OF 10


And to obtain the values for the unknowns at the converted conditions:
Q 7.952
1524
927
820
1000
0.99684
0.994235
c
3
=



= 29.05 m / s
3


P 953.7
1524
927
820
1000
1.2
1.152
0.99684
0.994235
tc
2 2
=



=1810.2 Pa

H 9.299
1524
927
820
1000
1.2
1.152
0.99684
0.994235
c
5 3
=



= 64.31 kW
EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS IN I-P UNITS:


( )
x
P
P C p
t
t1 b b
=
=



( )( )
=
+
3.84
0 13.63 28.75


=
3.84
391.86


x 0.0097994 =


( ) ( )
z
1 C H
Q P C p
h
t1 b b
=




( )( )
( )( ) ( )
=

1.4 1
1.4
6362 12.47
16850 0 13.63 28.75



( )
=

0.4
1.4
79334.14
16850 0 391.86


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 8 OF 10




( )( )
( )( )
=

0.2857 79334.14
16850 391.86



( )( )
( )
=

0.2857 79334.14
6602841


( )( )
[ ]
= 0.2857 0.0120151

z 0.0034327 =

To determine K
pc
, calculate the factors in the necessary equations:

Then:
( )
( )
z
z
P C p
P C p
r
r
N
N
D
D
c t1 b b
t1c b bc
c c
2
c
2
=
+
+




( )( )
( )( )
=
+
+

0 13.63 3.84
0 13.63 28.75
0.075
0.072
820
1000
60
36.5
2 2


=1.818652

( )( ) z 1.818652 0.0034327 0.006243
c
= =

And:

( )( )

t c
c
1
0.813 1.4
1.4 1
1.1382
0.4
2.8455

=

( ) ( )( )
K
1
1 2.8455 1
0.006243
2
2.8455 1 2.8455 2
0.006243
6
pc
2
=
+



Then:

K 0.994262
pc
=


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 9 OF 10



And to obtain the values for the unknowns at the converted condition:

Q 16850
60.0
36.5
820
1000
0.075
0.072
0.99684
0.99426
c
3 2
=



= 61534 cfm

P 3.84
60.0
36.5
820
1000
0.075
0.072
0.99684
0.99426
tc
2 2
=



= 7.2867 in.wg

H 12.47
60.0
36.5
820
1000
0.075
0.072
0.99684
0.99426
c
5 3
=



= 86.189 hp































2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE FAN LAWS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0021-01
PAGE 10 OF 10



ABSOLUTE PRESSURE Pressure above a perfect vacuum; the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric
pressure.

ABSOLUTE ROUGHNESS A measure of surface unevenness; the distance between high and low points
on a surface.

ACFM (ACTUAL CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE) Actual volume airflow rate through a plane of measurement,
at the existing air density, expressed in ft
3
/min.

ACMS (ACTUAL CUBIC METERS PER SECOND) - Actual volume airflow rate through a plane of
measurement, at the existing air density, expressed in m
3
/s.

ACTUATOR (OPERATOR) A mechanism attached to a damper or adjustable louver to move its blades, or
attached to a vaneaxial fan to change impeller blade pitch. An actuator may be manually, electrically,
pneumatically or hydraulically powered.

ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION DEVICE Any component having sound absorption as its primary function.

ADJUSTABLE PITCH The ability to mechanically alter the angle (pitch) of an impeller blade with the
impeller at rest.

AIR CURTAIN (AIRSTREAM) A directionally-controlled stream of air, moving across the entire height and
width of an opening, which reduces the infiltration or transfer of air from one side of the opening to the other
and/or inhibits the passage of insects, dust, or debris.

AIR CURTAIN AVERAGE CORE VELOCITY The average of several air curtain core velocities measured
along the width of the air curtain.

AIR CURTAIN CORE VELOCITY The peak air velocity of the air curtain as measured across the air curtain
depth at a specified distance from the discharge nozzle.

AIR CURTAIN DEPTH The airstream dimension perpendicular to both the height and width of the opening
being protected.

AIR CURTAIN UNIT EFFICIENCY The ratio of the air curtain output air power to the power input to the
motor, expressed as a percentage.

AIR CURTAIN UNIT RATED THROW The distance away from an air curtain unit discharge nozzle to a
point where a specified minimum air velocity is achieved.

AIR CURTAIN UNIT VELOCITY PROJECTION The average air curtain core velocity at specified distances
from the air curtain unit discharge nozzle.

AIR CURTAIN WIDTH The airstream dimension perpendicular to the direction of airflow and parallel to the
width of the opening being protected.

AIR (GAS) DENSITY The mass per unit volume of air or gas.




2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 1 OF 17



AIRFLOW RATE See VOLUME AIRFLOW RATE or MASS AIRFLOW RATE.

AIRFOIL (1) A shape such that, when it is moved through air, has greater lift than drag. (2) A blade or vane
having a streamlined shape.

AIR SYSTEM An assembly of connected ducts, filters, conditioning devices, dampers, louvers and fans for
the purpose of moving air from one place to another in a controlled fashion.

AIR THROW The horizontal or vertical axis distance an air stream travels after leaving an air outlet before
the air velocity is reduced to a specific terminal value.

AMCA TESTING LABORATORY The associations testing laboratory, currently located in Arlington
Heights, Illinois, or an independent laboratory licensed by AMCA to perform pre-certification performance
tests and performance check tests.

AMCA ACCREDITED LABORATORY A laboratory equipped and staffed to conduct tests according to the
appropriate AMCA-accepted test method, and which has been inspected by an AMCA staff engineer and duly
approved for such testing.

ANECHOIC TERMINATION A device placed at the end of a test duct to prevent excessive reflection of
sound waves back into the duct, thus reducing interference with the sound waves being measured.

ATTENUATE To weaken a signal by reducing its amplitude.

ATTENUATION The amount by which sound amplitude is decreased as it travels from a sound source to a
receiver located at a given point.

AVERAGE OUTLET VELOCITY (1) The airflow rate of a fan per unit area of the fan discharge, calculated
by dividing the airflow rate by the area of the fan discharge. (2) The free-delivery airflow rate of an air curtain
unit divided by the face area of the discharge nozzle.

AXLE A shaft on which a damper or louver blade rotates.

BACKPLATE A circular plate, a component of a centrifugal fan impeller, which is attached to the fan hub
and serves as the major attachment for the impeller blades and as the means of transmitting torque to them.

BACKPLATE / CENTERPLATE LINER A narrow strip of steel, ceramic or synthetic material, installed in
sets, each attached to the backplate / centerplate of an impeller, adjacent to an impeller blade, for the
purpose of protection against erosion.

BALANCING The process of adding or removing mass on a rotor to move the center of gravity toward the
axis of rotation so as to reduce the unbalanced forces.

BAROMETRIC Pertaining to a barometer or the results obtained by using a barometer.







2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 2 OF 17



BAROMETRIC PRESSURE The absolute pressure exerted by the atmosphere at a location of
measurement.

BEARING LOSS The power loss resulting from friction in the main bearings of a fan or motor.

BLADE (1) The flow element of an impeller, which, by its shape and motion, generates airflow inside a fan,
transforming impeller rotational energy to kinetic energy of airflow. (2) A movable surface in a damper or
louver that can be rotated to control airflow. (3) A stationary louver surface intended to restrict the passage of
water, sound or other airborne materials, or to limit visual see-through.

BLADE ENTRY SEAL The sealing arrangement through which a damper blade passes in a guillotine
damper.

BLADE LINER A steel, ceramic or synthetic material piece having the same size and shape as the fan
blade, which covers the fan blade face in part or completely for the purpose of protection against erosion.

BLADE PASSAGE FREQUENCY The tone generated by the fans blades passing a fixed object and
having a frequency given by: F(Hz) = (number of blades x fan revolutions per minute) / 60.

BLADE SUPPORT (1) A structural member, located inside the duct section of a guillotine damper frame,
which supports the blade load when the damper is in the closed position; (2) A bracket that connects a
stationary louver blade to a rear-mounted structural support.

BLAST AREA The outlet area of a centrifugal fan less the projected area of its cut-off.

BONNET The portion of a guillotine damper that supports the damper blade when the damper is in the open
position. (1) OPEN TYPE: The damper blade is exposed to the atmosphere when blade is withdrawn from the
duct. (2) FULLY ENCLOSED (SEALED) TYPE: The entire bonnet encloses the damper blade when the
damper is in the open position.

CASING see HOUSING.

CENTERLINE SUPPORT A method of supporting a fan housing at its centerline when necessary to control
differential thermal growth of the housing.

CENTERPLATE see BACKPLATE

CERTIFIED RATING A published performance rating of a product which AMCA has licensed to bear the
AMCA Certified Performance Rating Seal. The seller of the product certifies that the rating is in accordance
with the appropriate AMCA-approved test method and that the requirements of the AMCA Certified Ratings
Program have been met.

CERTIFIED RATINGS PROGRAM The testing and licensing program established by AMCA International to
verify the published performance ratings of a product produced by a seller.







2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 3 OF 17



CHAMBER (1) A test enclosure having a means for settling airflow, a cross sectional area larger than the
inlet/outlet of test equipment connected to it, and the capability for measuring airflow rate and pressure. (2)
An enclosure used to regulate airflow and to absorb sound.

CLASS STANDARD An established minimum performance level of fan aerodynamic performance in terms
of pressure and airflow rate.

COMPRESSIBILITY The characteristic of air or a gas whereby its density is a function of pressure.

COMPRESSIBILITY COEFFICIENT A thermodynamic coefficient used to correct the perfect gas equation
when applied to air or gas.

CONTINUOUS LINE (CONTINUOUS BLADE) A term describing a louver constructed with blades that
present an uninterrupted horizontal or vertical line to complement or enhance architectural features.

CONTROLLABLE PITCH IMPELLER An axial impeller having a mechanism by which the pitch angle of all
the impeller blades can be changed while the impeller is rotating.

CORE AREA The front cross-sectional area (product of minimum width and minimum height) of the front
opening of a louver assembly with the blades removed.

CORE AREA VELOCITY The airflow rate through a louver divided by its core area.

CORROSION RESISTANT A term descriptive of materials or surface treatments that reduce corrosive
attack.

COUNTERBALANCE Weights or springs that offset the unbalanced weight of an eccentrically pivoted
damper blade.

COUNTERWEIGHT An adjustable or variable weight used to offset (counterbalance) an eccentrically
pivoted damper blade.

CRITICAL SPEED, FIRST The rotational speed of a fan corresponding to the lowest natural frequency of
the rotating fan impeller and shaft assembly when mounted on rigid supports without benefit of damping.

CUT-OFF A baffle or plate at the narrowest radial distance between the impeller and the housing near the
outlet of a centrifugal fan, and which directs air away from the impeller and minimizes recirculation of air.

CURB A roof penetration with a raised perimeter to seal against the weather and to facilitate installation of
roof mounted ventilation equipment such as a fan or hood.

DECIBEL A dimensionless number expressing, in logarithmic terms, a level of sound pressure or power.

DENSITY The mass per unit volume of a gas, liquid, or solid.







2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 4 OF 17



DETERMINATION The complete set of measurements for a particular point of operation for a product under
test. The measurements must be sufficient to determine all performance variables.

DIFFUSER (1) A duct discharge termination through a ceiling for the control and discharge of air. (2) A
gradual transition of a duct, located at a fan outlet, which increases in cross sectional area and permits a
portion of velocity pressure to be regained as static pressure; also known as an evas.

DISCHARGE ANGLE (1) The angle formed by the plane of an opening and the direction of an air curtain.
(2) The angle of air or other gas flow exiting an impeller.

DISCHARGE NOZZLE An air curtain unit component that directs and controls the airstream.

DISCHARGE NOZZLE DEPTH The inside nozzle dimension perpendicular to both the direction of airflow
and the width of the airstream.

DISCHARGE NOZZLE WIDTH - The inside nozzle dimension perpendicular to the direction of airflow and
parallel to the width of the airstream.

DISCHARGE STATIC PRESSURE See FAN STATIC PRESSURE

DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE - Air temperature measured by a temperature-sensing device without
modification to compensate for the effect of humidity.

DRY-BULB THERMOMETER An ordinary thermometer, especially one with an un-moistened bulb; not
influenced by atmospheric humidity.

DUCT A passageway used primarily for conveying air or other gas at low pressure.

DUCTED FAN A fan having ductwork connected to the fan inlet, the fan outlet, or both.

DYNAMIC SIMILARITY A comparison that uses ratios of forces due to elasticity, viscosity, gravity, surface
tension, inertia and pressure to show equivalence between two similar fans. The variables compared are fan
Reynolds number, point of operation, compressibility, gas specific heat ratio, and tip speed Mach parameter.

EFFICIENCY A ratio of the useful energy provided by a dynamic application to the energy supplied to the
system at a specific point of operation.

END REFLECTION A phenomenon that occurs whenever sound is transmitted across an abrupt change in
area, such as from the end of a duct into a room. When end reflection occurs, some of the sound is reflected
back into the smaller area of the duct and does not escape into the room.

ENERGY FACTOR The ratio of the total kinetic energy of airflow to the kinetic energy corresponding to the
average air velocity.

EQUIVALENT DIAMETER The diameter of a circle having the same area as another geometric shape. For
a rectangular cross-section having width (a) and height (b), the equivalent diameter is given by: D
e
=
(4ab/)
0.5





2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 5 OF 17



EXPLOSION-PROOF APPARATUS Apparatus enclosed in a case that is capable of withstanding an
explosion of a specified gas or vapor which may occur within it, and of preventing the ignition of a specified
gas or vapor surrounding the enclosure by sparks, flashes, or explosion of the gas or vapor within, and which
operates at such an external temperature that a surrounding flammable atmosphere will not thereby be
ignited.

EXTERNAL STATIC PRESSURE see FAN STATIC PRESSURE RISE

EVAS see DIFFUSER

EXPANSION JOINT (FLEXIBLE CONNECTOR) A flexible member used to attach a fan inlet and/or outlet
to a connecting duct.

FACE AREA The total cross-sectional area of an air curtain unit discharge, a damper, louver, or duct.

FAN (1) A device that uses a power-driven rotating impeller to move air or gas. The internal energy
increase imparted by a fan to air or a gas is limited to 25 kJ/kg (10.75 BTU/lb
m
). (2) A device having a power-
driven rotating impeller, without a housing, for circulating air in a room.

FAN AIR (GAS) DENSITY The density of air or gas corresponding to the total pressure, total temperature,
and composition of the air or gas at a fan inlet.

FAN AIRFLOW RATE The volume airflow rate at a fan inlet at fan air density.

FAN APPURTENANCES Accessories added to a fan for the purpose of control, isolation, safety, static
pressure regain, erosion protection, etc. Common appurtenances include inlet box(es), inlet box damper,
variable inlet vane, outlet damper, vibration isolation base, inlet screen, belt guard, evas or diffuser, sound
attenuator, erosion protection, and turning gear.

FAN BOUNDARIES Limits defining the interfaces between the fan and the remainder of the air system and
delineated as the planes perpendicular to the airstream as it enters and leaves a fan. Various appurtenances,
such as an inlet box, inlet vane, inlet cone, silencer, screen, rain hood, damper, evas or diffuser, may be
included as part of a fan between the inlet and outlet boundaries.

FAN EFFICIENCY, STATIC see FAN STATIC EFFICIENCY

FAN EFFICIENCY, TOTAL see FAN TOTAL EFFICIENCY

FAN EQUIPMENT An assembly of a fan and its various appurtenances, as defined by the fan boundaries.

FAN IMPELLER POWER The power delivered to a fan impeller, specifically, the fan shaft power minus the
bearing loss.

FAN INLET The plane perpendicular to an airstream where the airflow first meets the inlet cone or the inlet
box furnished by the fan manufacturer.






2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 6 OF 17



FAN INLET AREA The gross inside area measured at the plane(s) of the inlet connection(s). For
converging inlets, the inlet area is considered to be a plane perpendicular to the airstream where it first meets
the inlet cone.

FAN OUTLET The plane perpendicular to the airstream at the outlet opening of the fan or the manufacturer-
supplied evas or diffuser.

FAN OUTLET AREA The gross inside area measured at the plane of the outlet opening. For a roof
ventilator, it is the gross impeller outlet area for centrifugal types or the gross housing area at the impeller for
axial types.

FAN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS The pressure rise (total or static) and the volume airflow rate
generated by a fan, and its power consumption at any given point of operation.

FAN POWER INPUT The power required to drive a fan and any elements in the drive train.

FAN POWER OUTPUT The useful power delivered to the air or a gas, and which is proportional to the
product of the fan airflow rate, the fan total pressure, and the compressibility coefficient.

FAN REYNOLDS NUMBER A dimensionless parameter for judging dynamic similarity of flow in
geometrically similar fans, relating inertia to viscous forces, and given by:
Re = ND
2
/ 60
where: Re = fan Reynolds number, dimensionless
= 3.14159
N = fan rotational speed, rpm
D = tip diameter of impeller, m (ft)
= inlet air density, kg/m
3
(lb
m
/ft
3
)
= absolute viscosity, Pas (lb
m
/fts)

FAN SHAFT The spindle on which a fan impeller is mounted, and upon which it rotates.

FAN SHAFT POWER The power delivered to the input end of a fan shaft, exclusive of drive losses other
than that due to the fan or motor bearings, and fan shaft seal friction.

FAN SOUND POWER The ratio of sound power, radiated into a standard test duct, to a reference value of
1.0x10
-12
watts.

FAN ROTATIONAL SPEED The rotating speed of a fan impeller, in revolutions per minute.

FAN STATIC EFFICIENCY A parameter consisting of fan total efficiency multiplied by the ratio of static
pressure to total pressure, at a given point of operation.

FAN STATIC PRESSURE At a given point of fan operation, the difference between fan total pressure and
fan velocity pressure; the difference between static pressure at fan outlet and total pressure at fan inlet.






2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 7 OF 17



FAN STATIC PRESSURE RISE At a given point of fan operation, the increase in static pressure between
fan inlet and fan outlet.

FAN TOTAL EFFICIENCY At a given point of fan operation, a ratio equal to the fan power output divided by
the power input to the fan.

FAN TOTAL PRESSURE At a given point of fan operation, the difference between total pressure at fan
outlet and fan inlet.

FAN VELOCITY PRESSURE The pressure corresponding to the average air velocity at a specified fan
outlet.

FILTER A device used to separate vibration on the basis of frequency.

FIXED PITCH A term descriptive of an axial impeller having all blades permanently secured at a given pitch
angle.

FLASHING A sheet metal strip placed at the junction of intersecting building surfaces to resist the entrance
of water.

FLOW RATE The volume flow rate of a gas at a specific gas density.

FOUNDATION STIFFNESS The lateral spring constant of the foundation as referenced to the fan bearing
centerline. Factors to be considered include the foundation block, the sub-soil, piles, if any, the concrete pier
supporting the steel fan supports, and the interface between the steel supports and the concrete pier.

FREE AREA The minimum louver or damper area through which air can pass.

FREE AREA VELOCITY The airflow rate through a damper or louver divided by its free area.

FREE AIR see FREE AIR DELIVERY

FREE AIR DELIVERY That point of operation where a fan or an air curtain unit operates against zero static
pressure.

FREQUENCY The number of complete cycles in a unit of time. When applied to sound, it is the number of
complete pressure wave fluctuations which pass a given point each second. For a time period of seconds,
the unit of measure is the Hertz (Hz).

GAS DENSITY The mass per unit volume of air or gas.

GAUGE PRESSURE The value of a pressure when the reference pressure is the barometric pressure at
the point of measurement.

GEOMETRIC SIMILARITY A comparison of the ratio of corresponding dimensions of two fans, including
angles, each dimension proportioned to impeller diameter. The proportional dimensions include material
thickness, clearances, and roughness, as well as airflow passages




2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 8 OF 17



GUIDE VANES Curved stationary vanes (stator vanes) located at the impeller inlet or discharge to reduce
swirl and to enhance static pressure regain from the airflow.

HEAD (1) The upper or highest frame member of a damper or louver. (2) Fluid pressure expressed in
terms of height of water column.

HOUSING A stationary enclosure for an impeller, having an inlet and an outlet, and designed to direct the
flow of air through the impeller and towards the outlet. The housing may also affect the energy transformation
of the airstream.

HOUSING SIDEPLATE LINER A narrow strip of steel, ceramic or synthetic material fastened to the
sideplate of a centrifugal fan housing at the intersection of the sideplate and the scroll, for the purpose of
erosion protection.

HUB The center portion of an impeller, by which the impeller is connected to its shaft, and through which
the shaft transmits torque to the impeller.

HYDRAULIC DIAMETER A characteristic dimension in Reynolds number calculations, taken normal to the
fluid flow and equal to four times the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter.

IDENTICAL MODULES A standard for performance comparison wherein two fans have identical
aerodynamic designs, including fan impeller diameter, impeller tip width, number of blades, blade pitch, blade
arc, blade size, scroll configuration and angle of expansion, rotational speed, distance to the next adjacent fan
or barrier, and essentially the same inlet and outlet conditions. Motor frame size and drive are be the same if
these are within the airstream.

IMPELLER The assembled rotating component of a fan, designed to increase the energy level of the
airstream.

INDEPENDENT ACCREDITED LABORATORY With respect to the AMCA International Accredited
Laboratory Program, a laboratory not owned by or affiliated with an AMCA member company but which has
been designated as an Accredited Laboratory by the AMCA Board of Directors for the purpose of performing
pre-certification performance tests, performance check tests, and challenge tests.

INLET BOX A component, similar to a duct elbow, which can be added to the inlet of an axial or centrifugal
fan for the purpose of directing airflow into the fan inlet in line with the axis of the fan shaft.

INLET FLOW PROFILE The shape of the air velocity profile just upstream of a fan inlet and which indicates
variation in airflow through a plane extending across the airflow passage.

INTERFERENCE FIT A mating condition of two components wherein the limits of size are so specified that
an interference always results when the mating components are assembled; either a press fit or a shrink fit.

JACKSHAFT (1) A separate shaft used to operate multiple louver or damper sections. (2) An intermediate
shaft between motor and fan impeller.







2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 9 OF 17



JAMB The vertical frame member on either side of a damper or louver.

JOURNAL The part of a rotor that is in contact with or supported by a bearing in which it revolves.

KINEMATIC SIMILARITY A relationship between airflow systems requiring that the ratios of all
corresponding velocities be similar for two fans to be considered similar. This includes corresponding
velocities of the air or gas and corresponding peripheral velocities of the impellers. The directions and points
of application of all corresponding vectors must be identical.

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY The viscosity of a fluid divided by its mass density.

LINKAGE A system of bar links, pivots, and rotating members for the transfer of force and motion to louver
and damper blades.

MACH NUMBER A ratio of fluid velocity to the speed of sound in the same fluid.

MAKE-UP AIR Outside air that is brought into a building to replace exhaust air and building leakage
(exfiltration), or process exfiltration.

MASS AIRFLOW RATE The mass of air that passes through a given area in unit time and is obtained by
multiplying the volumetric airflow rate by the air density.

MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS RATING The maximum continuous airflow, pressure and temperature values at
which the fan is specified to operate.

MEASUREMENT PLANE The radial plane in the test duct, generally perpendicular to the airflow, at which
measurement(s) is(are) obtained.

MECHANICAL RUN-OUT The total actual variation in the location of a shaft surface during a complete
revolution as determined by a stationary measuring device such as a dial indicator.

MOTOR POWER The power delivered from the output shaft of the motor.

MULLION A frame support member between multiple section louvers or dampers.

NATURAL FREQUENCY The frequency at which a system oscillates in the absence of external forces and
exhibits a maximum response to an external input.

NON-DUCTED FAN A fan without ductwork connected to either its inlet or its outlet.

NOSE PIECE (REPLACEABLE) A sacrificial metal, ceramic or synthetic material piece added to the
leading edge of an airfoil blade for the purpose of erosion protection.

NOZZLE A flow-measuring device having a streamlined entrance and a sharp-edged outlet perpendicular to
its longitudinal axis. Airflow rate through a nozzle is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure
across the nozzle and the throat area of the nozzle.

OCTAVE BAND A range of frequencies between two end frequencies selected such that the center
frequency is twice the center frequency of the next lowest band.


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 10 OF 17



ONE-THIRD OCTAVE BAND A band of frequencies resulting from the division of an octave band into three
smaller bands.

OPPOSED BLADE DAMPER A damper constructed such that adjacent blades rotate in opposite directions.

OUTLET VELOCITY The average velocity of air emerging from an outlet, measured in the plane of the
outlet.

OUTLET VELOCITY UNIFORMITY A measure of test velocity variation equal to the standard deviation of
measured test velocities divided by the average of those test values, the ratio being subtracted from one
(1.0).

PACKING Sealing material used to minimize or eliminate leakage at the shaft penetration of a housing or
frame.

PARALLEL BLADE DAMPER A damper in which the blades rotate in the same direction.

PARTIAL BLADE LINER A narrow piece of metal, ceramic or synthetic material located at the intersection
of the impeller blade and backplate or centerplate for erosion protection.

PEAK DESIGN TEMPERATURE The maximum temperature at which a piece of equipment can operate for
a specific duration.

POINT OF OPERATION The relative position on a fan or air curtain unit performance curve corresponding
to a particular airflow rate, pressure, power consumption, and efficiency.

POINT OF RATING The specified fan operating point on its characteristic curve.

POWER RATING - The amount of power consumed by the drive motor(s) of the air curtain unit.

PRESSURE (1) Force per unit area; (2) Stress per unit volume of a fluid, corresponding to the energy per
unit volume of a fluid.

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL Commonly, the change in static pressure across a device. The term is
seldom if ever associated with velocity pressure or total pressure.

PRESSURE DROP Commonly, (1) The static pressure difference between two points in an airflow system,
due to frictional resistance along system walls, or in passing over or through an obstruction; (2) A measure of
the resistance to airflow across a device, which is expressed as the difference in static pressure across the
device at a specific rate of airflow. The term is seldom if ever associated with velocity pressure or total
pressure.

PRESSURE LOSS The change in total pressure due to friction and turbulence.

PRODUCT LINE A product or series of product sizes with a common design purpose and generally similar
aerodynamic features, but not necessarily homologous, cataloged under the same product description or
name and/or identifying references.




2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 11 OF 17



PROPELLER A bladed device (impeller) that rotates on a shaft to produce a useful thrust of air or gas in a
direction parallel with the shaft axis.

PSYCHROMETRIC Pertaining to the measurement and determination of water vapor content in
atmospheric air.

RACKING The twisting of a frame out of its intended planar arrangement.

RATE OF TEMPERATURE CHANGE The increase or decrease in temperature per unit time.

RELATIVE ROUGHNESS FACTOR The measurement of surface unevenness, from peaks to valleys,
divided by a dimension such as pipe diameter.

RESONANCE A condition of high vibration response that occurs when the frequency of an external driving
force approaches the natural frequency of the system.

RESONANT FREQUENCY See NATURAL FREQUENCY

RESONANT SPEED, DESIGN The calculated fan rotational speed corresponding to the lowest natural
frequency of the combined fan shaft in bending, considering the fan rotor, oil film, bearing housing, and
bearing supports, but excluding the effect of foundation stiffness.

RESONANT SPEED, INSTALLED The calculated fan rotational speed corresponding to the lowest natural
frequency of the combined fan shaft in bending, considering the fan rotor, oil film, bearing housing, and
bearing supports, and including the effect of foundation stiffness.

REYNOLDS NUMBER A dimensionless number representing the ratio of internal forces to viscous forces at
a particular point of a fluid in motion. Its value is calculated as: the fluids density times the flow velocity at the
point of interest, multiplied by a characteristic length, and the product divided by the fluids viscosity.
Re = (VD / ) = (VD / )
where: Re = Reynolds number, dimensionless
= inlet air density, kg/m
3
(lb
m
/ft
3
)
V = Velocity of air, m/s (ft/s)
D = Diameter, m (ft)
= absolute viscosity, Pas (lb
m
/fts)
= kinematic viscosity, m
2
/s (ft
2
/s)

ROTOR An assembly consisting of a fan impeller mounted on its shaft.

SAMPLING TUBE A windscreen tube designed for minimum sensitivity to airflow noise, and designed to be
attached to a standard 13 mm (0.5 in.) microphone.

SCROLL LINER A metal, ceramic or synthetic material piece attached to a fan scroll for the purpose of
erosion protection.





2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 12 OF 17



SEAL AIR (1) Air introduced into the air chamber of an isolation damper at a pressure higher than that of
gases either upstream or downstream, to prevent passage of duct gas across the enclosed damper space. (2)
Pressurized air introduced into a shaft seal chamber to function as a leakage barrier to process gas. (3)
Pressurized air introduced into a housing around a furnace to prevent the escape of products of combustion.

SEATING TORQUE - The amount of torque required to compress the seals or hold the louver or damper
blades in the closed position.

SEISMIC QUALIFICATION Documentation supplied with an item of equipment that substantiates the ability
of the equipment to withstand the effects of an earthquake of specified magnitude.

SHAFT A cylindrical piece of metal, usually solid, that is used to support a rotating part such as a fan
impeller, and transmit torque to the supported component.

SHAFT SEAL A device that creates a barrier over the circumference of a fan shaft or damper axle for the
purpose of limiting or preventing the passage of air or gas across the barrier.

SHALL and SHOULD In this and other AMCA standards, the word shall is understood to be mandatory,
and the word should as advisory.

SHUT-OFF That point of fan operation where the airflow rate is zero.

SHUTTER See BACKDRAFT DAMPER.

SILL The bottom or lowest frame member of a louver or damper.

SIMILARITY A ratio used to compare a given characteristic of two fans; when equated to unity, similarity is
said to exist for that characteristic. The ratios considered may be for dynamic, geometric, and/or kinematic
characteristics

SKEWING The deviation of a frame from rectangularity or from a straight line.

SONE (1) A unit of loudness corresponding to the loudness of a sound at a frequency of 1000 Hz and a
sound pressure of 0.02 microbar (40 dB); (2) A linear unit of sound loudness based on the perception of the
average human ear.

SOUND An auditory sensation produced by the vibration of matter that results in propagation by variation of
pressure, particle displacement or density through an elastic medium.

SOUND ATTENUATION - See ATTENUATION

SOUND POWER LEVEL The acoustic power rating of a sound source measured in decibels and equal to
ten times the logarithm (base 10) of the acoustic power in watts with reference to 1x10
-12
watts.








2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 13 OF 17



SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL The acoustic pressure at a point in space where a microphone or a listeners
ear is situated. One decibel (dB) of sound pressure is defined as 20 times the logarithm (base 10) of the
sound pressure fluctuation with reference to 0.0002 microbars (20 micropascals).

SPECIFIC HEAT The ratio of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given mass of any
substance one degree to that amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of a
standard substance one degree (usually water at 15C (59F)).

SPECIFIC HEAT AT CONSTANT PRESSURE The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a
unit mass of a substance one degree at constant pressure.

SPECIFIC HEAT AT CONSTANT VOLUME - The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit
mass of a substance one degree at constant volume.

SPECIFIC HEAT RATIO The numeric ratio of the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure to that of the
same gas at constant volume.

STALL LIMIT That point near the peak of an axial fans pressure curve (for a particular blade angle) that
corresponds to the minimum airflow at which the fan can be operated without instability.

STANDARD AIR Air having a density of 1.2 kg/m
3
(0.075 lb
m
/ft
3
), a specific heat ratio of 1.4, a viscosity of
1.819E-05 Pas (1.222E-05 lb
m
/ft-s) and an absolute pressure of 101.325 kPa (406.78 in. wg). Air at 20C
(68F), 50% relative humidity, and 101.325 kPa (29.92 in. Hg) has these properties, approximately.

STANDARD AIR DENSITY A density of 1.2 kg/m
3
(0.075 lb
m
/ft
3
), corresponding approximately to air at
20C (68F), 50% relative humidity, and 101.325 kPa (29.92 in. Hg).

STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE A reference pressure (assumed to be at sea level) defined by
the International Civil Aeronautics Organization (ICAO) as 101.325 kPa. In I-P units the corresponding values
are 14.696 psi or 29.921 in. Hg at 32F.

SCFM (STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE) The volume airflow rate through a plane of
measurement, corrected to standard air density of 0.075 lb
m
/ft
3
.

SCMS (STANDARD CUBIC METERS PER SECOND) - The volume airflow rate through a plane of
measurement, corrected to standard air density of 1.2 kg/m
3
.

START-OPEN PRESSURE The differential pressure across a backdraft or pressure relief damper at which
the blades begin to rotate towards the open position.

STATIC PRESSURE That portion of air pressure that exists by degree of compression only.

STATIC REGAIN (1) The conversion of velocity pressure at a small area into static pressure at a larger
area by slowing the gas or air velocity by means of a diffuser or an evas; (2) The amount of static pressure
gained by conversion of velocity pressure to static pressure.






2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 14 OF 17



STATIC TEMPERATURE The temperature that exists by virtue of the internal energy of the air alone. If a
portion of the energy is converted to kinetic energy, the static temperature is decreased accordingly.

STOP An angle or rigid strip used to close the gap between a blade edge and frame at the top and bottom
of a damper or a louver.

SUB-FRAME (BUCKFRAME) A frame installed in a wall opening to facilitate the mounting or removal of a
louver.

SUB-SILL (EXTENDED SILL) A shaped metal flashing installed at the bottom of a wall opening to facilitate
water drainage.

SURGE LIMIT A point near the peak of a centrifugal fans performance pressure curve that defines the
minimum airflow rate at which a fan can be operated without instability.

SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR A decrease in fan performance capability, observed as a pressure loss that
results from the effect of fan inlet restrictions / obstructions, fan outlet restrictions or other conditions
influencing the performance of the fan when it is installed in a system.

SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSSES The sum of the static pressure losses due to friction, shock, dissipation of
velocity pressure at the system discharge and the static pressure differences between the entry and
discharge openings of an air system. System pressure losses are total pressure losses.

TEMPERATURE, DESIGN The minimum or maximum temperature at which a fan or damper can be
continuously operated.

TEMPERATURE, DESIGN AIR (1) That air temperature at which a heating, ventilating or air conditioning
system or apparatus is designed to maintain (indoor design) or to operate against (outdoor design). Outdoor
design temperature is usually give for both minimum and maximum conditions. (2) The maximum and/or
minimum gas temperature for specification of process control equipment.

TEMPERATURE, OPERATING The air temperature in the fan under actual normal operating conditions.

TERMINATING DUCT Where a fan under test for sound and equipped with both inlet and outlet ducts, one
duct contains the sound pressure measurement device. The duct on the opposite side may be equipped with
an anechoic termination and is known as the terminating duct.

TEST A series of determinations for various points of operation of a fan, damper, louver, airflow
measurement station or air curtain unit.

TEST BLOCK The operating test point above and beyond the Maximum Continuous Rating that
demonstrates the fan margin to the customer.










2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 15 OF 17



TEST DUCT (1) A duct section of prescribed length that is defined originally in ANSI/AMCA 210 (and
subsequently in AMCA standards 500D and 500L), and which is used to control and measure airflow rate and
pressure. (2) A duct that functions as the sound measurement section and has an anechoic termination.

TIP SPEED The peripheral velocity at the tips of a fan impeller.

TIP SPEED MACH PARAMETER A dimensionless number expressing the ratio of a fan impellers
peripheral velocity to the local velocity of sound at the fan inlet.

TOTAL PRESSURE The air pressure that exists by virtue of the degree of compression and rate of motion
of flowing air. It is equal to the algebraic sum of the velocity pressure and the static pressure at a point.
Thus, if the air is at rest, the total pressure will equal the static pressure.

TOTAL TEMPERATURE The temperature that exists by virtue of the internal and kinetic energy of the air.
If the air is at rest, the total temperature will equal the static temperature.

TORSIONAL CRITICAL SPEED The fan rotational speed that corresponds to the natural frequency in
torsion of its power transmission system, including driver, drive train components, and the fan rotor.

TURNING GEAR An intermittent fan drive arrangement consisting of a motor, a speed reducer, and a
unidirectional engagement clutch fastened to the outboard end of a fan shaft or motor shaft through a flexible
coupling. The turning gear rotates the complete rotating assembly at a low speed to prevent distortion in the
rotor assembly due to uneven cooling. The turning gear may be sized to have the capability of starting the
main rotor. Axial fans generally do not require a turning gear.

VANE (1) A stationary curved surface used to straighten or direct airflow, (2) A flat or curved surface that
can be rotated about an axis to direct airflow.

VARIABLE PITCH IMPELLER An axial impeller having a mechanism or mechanisms by which the pitch
angle of each impeller blade can be changed while the impeller is at rest.

VELOCITY DISTORTION PARAMETER AXIAL A parameter characterizing air velocity distortion within a
measuring plane at a constant radius in a circular duct, and in a direction parallel to the fan shaft centerline in
a rectangular duct. It is expressed as a percentage of the mean velocity of the air at the fan inlet

VELOCITY DISTORTION PARAMETER INLET FLOW An indicator of the variation in the airflow field at
the inlet plane of a fan. It is calculated by applying the principle of standard deviation, using velocity
measurements taken in a matrix form in a transverse plane across the flow field and expressed as a
percentage of the mean velocity of the air at the fan inlet.

VELOCITY DISTORTION PARAMETER TRANSVERSE A parameter characterizing the air velocity
distortion within a measuring plane in a radial direction for a circular duct and at a right angle to the fan shaft
in a rectangular duct. It is expressed as a percentage of the mean velocity of the air at the fan inlet.

VELOCITY PRESSURE That portion of air pressure that exists by virtue of rate of motion only.






2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
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Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 16 OF 17



VELOCITY PROFILE A graphic presentation of the distribution of velocities, shown parallel to the general
direction of flow, in a moving fluid.

VELOCITY PROJECTION The average core velocity at several distances from a discharge nozzle of an air
curtain unit.

VIBRATION The continuing periodic motion of an elastic system having properties of amplitude, frequency,
and phase, with values generally reported as displacement, velocity, or acceleration.

VISCOSITY A proportionality factor relating the shearing stress to a unit rate of change in the velocity of the
flowing gas or liquid. Also known as ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY or DYNAMIC VISCOSITY, depending on
whether the value is defined in terms of force or terms of mass.

VOLUME AIRFLOW RATE The volume of air that passes through a given area in unit time.

VOLUTE - See HOUSING.

WAVELENGTH In a wave, the distance between two adjacent points that have the same phase. For sound
waves, wavelength is determined by dividing the speed of sound in the medium through which the wave
propagates by the frequency of the sound.

WET-BULB DEPRESSION The difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures at the same
location.

WET-BULB TEMPERATURE The temperature measured by a temperature sensor covered by a water-
moistened wick and exposed to air in motion. When properly measured, wet-bulb temperature is a close
approximation of the temperature of adiabatic saturation.

WET-BULB THERMOMETER A thermometer having a sensing bulb covered with cloth, usually muslin or
cambric, and saturated with water.

WHEEL See IMPELLER.

WIND-MILLING The reverse-direction rotation of a fan rotor due to a flow of natural air into the fan housing
when the fan driver is not energized.


















2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
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Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
DEFINITIONS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0066-01
PAGE 17 OF 17



ABRASION RESISTANT FAN (or DAMPER) - A fan or damper designed to minimize abrasion, having parts
subject to wear constructed of materials that are abrasion resistant and/or are easily replaceable.

ACOUSTICAL DUCT SILENCER An air duct section containing sound absorbing materials that reduce the
transmission of sound through the air passage.

ACOUSTICAL LOUVER - A louver incorporating sound absorbing material to reduce sound transmission
across an opening.

ADJUSTABLE LOUVER - A louver in which the blades may be rotated either manually or mechanically.

AIR CURTAIN UNIT An air moving device that produces a curtain of air.

AIR DIFFUSER - A duct discharge termination located in a ceiling and arranged to direct airflow, or to promote
air mixing.

AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT STATION - A multiple-point sensing device used to measure the airflow in a duct
and which consists of a single or multiple array of sensors in permanent position across the duct system.
1. DIFFERENTIAL (VELOCITY) PRESSURE OUTPUT TYPE - Converts air velocity into a differential
(velocity) pressure signal which correlates to the velocity or volume of air flowing through a duct.
2. ELECTRONIC OUTPUT TYPE - Converts air velocity into an electronic signal that correlates directly and
proportionally to the velocity of the air volume flowing through a duct.

AIR-HANDLING UNIT - A packaged assembly of air-conditioning components (coils, filters, fan, humidifier, and
so forth) that provides for treatment of air before it is distributed.
1. BLOW-THROUGH Fan is mounted upstream of a heat exchanger.
2. CENTRAL STATION Does not include a source of heating or cooling.
3. COOLING Includes a means for cooling air.
4. COOLING HEATING Includes the means for both heating and cooling air.
5. DRAW-THROUGH Heat exchanger(s) are mounted upstream of the fan.
6. HEATING Includes a means for heating air.

AXIAL FAN - A fan in which the airflow is predominately parallel to the impellers axis of rotation.

BACKDRAFT DAMPER - A damper which, when mounted in a duct or opening, permits airflow in one direction
only.

BALANCING DAMPER - A damper used to regulate the airflow in an air system.

BAROMETRIC DAMPER - A backdraft damper having an adjustable start-open pressure and used for gravity
ventilation or other low velocity applications.




2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 6, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
STANDARD
99-0068-03
PAGE 1 OF 7



BATH FAN A fan used to exhaust air from a bathing / toilet area for the primary purpose of moisture and/or
odor removal.

BIFURCATED FAN - A direct-driven fan having the airstream-mounted drive motor separated from the
airstream by means of a compartment or tunnel.

BLAST DAMPER A damper that reacts to sudden pressure changes in an air system, to either relieve the air
pressure, or to isolate a space from the rapid pressure rise.

BLOWER A fan that operates against air system resistance downstream of the fan; a Forced Draft Fan.

BOX FAN A fan used in an office or residential application and having the motor and impeller enclosed in an
approximately square box having a handle.

CAST-IRON VOLUME FAN A fan having a housing made of cast iron.

CENTRIFUGAL CEILING/WALL EXHAUSTER A factory-assembled fan consisting of one or more centrifugal
impellers connected to a motor and enclosed in a housing; usually including an inlet grille and a backdraft
damper, and intended for installation in a ceiling or a wall.

CEILING DAMPER - A device intended to protect an air duct opening in a fire-rated ceiling assembly and which
operates to interrupt airflow automatically in the event of fire to restrict the passage of flame and heat.

CEILING EXHAUST FAN - A fan mounted in a ceiling and which serves to exhaust air from a room.

CEILING FAN - A propeller fan supported from a ceiling and which serves to circulate air within a given space;
also known as an air circulation fan.

CENTRIFUGAL FAN - A fan in which a gas, such as air, is moving in a primarily axial direction upon entering
the impeller and has its direction changed by the impeller blades to an essentially radial flow at the impeller
discharge. The impeller is generally contained in a volute housing

CIRCULATING FAN - A fan used for moving air within a space, and which is unconnected to any ducting, and is
usually without a housing.

COMBINATION LOUVER-DAMPER - A louver having both stationary and eccentrically pivoted movable blades
that can be opened and closed.

COMBUSTION AIR BLOWER A centrifugal fan that serves to supply pressurized air to a burner system
combusting gas, oil, or other fuel.

CONTRA-ROTATING FAN - An axial flow fan having two impellers arranged in series and rotating in opposite
directions.

CONVEYING FAN - A fan suitable for conveying solids (e.g., wood chips, textile waste, pulverized material, or
dust).



2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 6, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
STANDARD
99-0068-03
PAGE 2 OF 7



CORROSION RESISTANT FAN A fan having an impeller and housing constructed of materials that resist
corrosion, or having airstream or exterior components surface-treated to minimize the corrosive effect of certain
chemicals or compounds.

CROSS-FLOW FAN - A fan in which the fluid path though the impeller is in a direction substantially at right
angles to its axis with air both entering and leaving radially at its periphery.

DAMPER A device used to vary the volume of air passing through an opening, duct or confined cross-section
by varying the cross-sectional area.

DESTRATIFICATION FAN - An air circulation fan located in a room to move warm air from the ceiling
downward or to mix air in a given space.

DOWNDRAFT FAN An exhaust fan that serves to remove heated air and moisture by inducing air to flow
down to a fan inlet located below a cooking surface.

DUST FAN - A fan that serves to extract dust-laden air.

ELECTRIC AIR HEATER A space heater having electric resistance elements as the heat source and a fan for
the circulation of heated air.

EVAPORATIVE COOLER An assembly consisting of a fan or fans and other necessary equipment to cool by
evaporation the airflow created by the fan(s).

FACE-AND-BYPASS DAMPER A pair of dampers that operate together but with opposite motion, to direct an
airstream either through or around a heat transfer device.

FIRE DAMPER - A device arranged to interrupt airflow automatically through part of an air system so as to
restrict the passage of flame, and installed in a fire-related wall or floor to close automatically in the event of a
fire in order to maintain the integrity of the fire-rated separation.

FIXED LOUVER - A louver having immovable blades.

FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION FAN - An additional induced draft fan placed in series with and downstream of
an induced draft fan to overcome losses of retrofit air pollution control devices.

FORCED DRAFT FAN A high pressure / high volume fan used to supply primary and secondary combustion
air to a furnace / boiler and its exhaust system. See also: COMBUSTION AIR BLOWER and BLOWER.

GAS RECIRCULATION FAN An induced draft fan used to redirect boiler gases through the furnace,
superheaters, economizers and to overcome losses in connecting ductwork

GAS TIGHT FAN (DAMPER) A fan or damper constructed with seals and gaskets at all housing penetrations
to minimize gas leakage through the housing and appurtenances.

GENERAL PURPOSE FAN - A fan suitable for handling clean air that does not exceed a temperature of 80C
(176F), or 40C (104F) if the motor or the fan bearings are in the airstream.


2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 6, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
STANDARD
99-0068-03
PAGE 3 OF 7



GOGGLE DAMPER A damper having a single sliding blade that has a cut-out opening matching the inside
dimension of the duct to which it is attached. The blade slides in tracks and may be positioned to either allow or
restrict the passage of air or gas.

GRAVITY ROOF VENTILATOR - A roof mounted hood or louvered penthouse that uses the difference in air
density or internal building pressurization to vent air into or out of a building.

GRILLE - A perforated or bladed covering for an air inlet or outlet.

GUILLOTINE DAMPER - A damper used for isolation purposes and having a blade or blades that are
withdrawn from the duct area when the damper is fully open.

GUILLOTINE DAMPER, DOUBLE-BLADE - A guillotine damper having two parallel blades, the space between
them capable of being pressurized to prevent duct gas leakage across the space between the blades when the
damper is in the closed position.

HAZARDOUS LOCATION FAN (DAMPER) - A fan or damper equipped with electrical equipment having
enclosures tested as suitable to contain internal combustion without ignition of atmospheres external to the
enclosures. The fan or damper itself is of spark resistant construction.

HEAT RECOVERY VENTILATOR A fan-powered assembly utilizing a heat exchanger or heat recovery
material(s) to transfer energy from exhaust air to replacement air.

HEAVY DUTY DAMPER A channel frame air control device intended to be fastened between flanged duct
sections and constructed to withstand the elevated temperatures, pressures and contaminated gas flows of
industrial processes.

HIGH PRESSURE FAN A fan serving to supply air to an industrial process at relatively low airflow and
relatively high pressure.

HOT GAS FAN - A fan constructed of materials capable of operating continuously at elevated temperature

INDUCED DRAFT FAN A high pressure fan located downstream of a boiler/furnace which draws air or
induces products of combustion from the boiler and discharges them through the exhaust system; any fan which
induces airflow into the fan inlet.

INDUSTRIAL FAN A fan constructed of materials capable of withstanding the elevated temperatures,
pressures and contaminated gas flows of industrial processes.

INLET VANE (RADIAL) DAMPER A round damper intended for installation at or in a fan inlet and which
controls and/or pre-swirls air entering the fan impeller. The damper blades are mounted radially and operate in
parallel. The cylindrical (external) type has a sleeve or channel frame that allows mounting directly to the
exterior of a fan inlet. The cone (nested) type has blades supported by the centrifugal fan inlet cone. Either
type may be constructed such that the blades are cantilevered from the outer attachment or are in addition
supported by a center hub that may itself contain the operating mechanism.




2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 6, 2003
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0068-03
PAGE 4 OF 7



IN-LINE FAN A fan designed to be mounted between duct sections with air inlet and outlet being in an axial
direction.

ISOLATION DAMPER - A low leakage damper intended to regulate or stop the airflow in branches of a duct
system.

ISOLATION DAMPER, MAN-SAFE A damper containing an isolating system to seal off flue gases so that
men without breathing apparatus or other special equipment may safely enter the isolated section.

JET FAN - A fan mounted at the ceiling of a vehicular tunnel and which induces airflow by entrainment of air
with that streaming from the fan outlet.

KITCHEN FAN A centrifugal or axial fan located in a kitchen area and which serves to exhaust heat and
moisture.

LOUVER - A device comprising multiple blades which, when mounted in an opening, permits airflow but inhibits
the entrance of water or other elements.

MAKE-UP AIR UNITS - A packaged assembly consisting of a heat source and fan(s) serving to supply fresh,
tempered, replacement air for that exhausted from a building.

MATERIAL HANDLING FAN - see CONVEYING FAN

MECHANICAL DRAFT FAN A generic term of classification applying to any of the fans used in a furnace or
boiler system, including Forced Draft, Induced Draft, Primary Air, Overfire Air, Gas Recirculation, Seal Air, and
Flue Gas Desulfurization fans.

MIXED FLOW FAN - A fan in which the airflow through the impeller is intermediate between the centrifugal and
axial flow types, the air moving both axially and radially.

MULTI-STAGE FAN - A fan having two or more impellers that work in series, with guide (stator) vanes between
the impellers.

NON-CLOGGING FAN - A fan having an impeller designed to minimize clogging by virtue of its shape or by use
of special materials. The fan may also incorporate other features to allow use of cleaning sprays and to facilitate
the removal of any resulting materials.

OVERFIRE AIR FAN A fan that serves to deliver additional (excess) air downstream of the fuel burners in a
boiler for the purpose of improving combustion.

PACKAGED FAN see UTILITY SET

PARTITION FAN - A fan installed in or on a partition and used for moving air from one air space to another.

PASSIVE THROUGH-THE-WALL INLET A device mounted in an outside wall of a building and which serves
to allow the entrance of ambient air to replace that which has been exhausted.



2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 6, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
STANDARD
99-0068-03
PAGE 5 OF 7



PEDESTAL FAN A propeller fan intended for mounting on a stand having a base and column.

PENTHOUSE - A roofed structure incorporating louvers or louver blades in all or part of the walls and usually
located on the roof of a building.

PLENUM FAN - A fan having an un-housed centrifugal impeller that draws air into the impeller through an inlet
located in a barrier wall, and having a driver located on the same side of the barrier as the impeller.

PLUG FAN A fan having an un-housed impeller arranged such that the system into which it is inserted may
act as a housing, allowing air to be drawn into impeller inlet, and constructed such that the driver is located
outside the duct system
PORTABLE PERSONNEL COOLER A type of air circulator fan having the impeller and motor enclosed in a
common safety-guarded housing that is mounted on wheels or casters and which serves primarily to provide
cooling for personnel.

POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATOR A portable fan that can be positioned relative to an opening of a
confined space and cause it to be positively pressurized by discharge air velocity. It is principally used by
firefighters to mitigate the effect of smoke and is also used to assist in inflating hot air balloons.

POWER ATTIC VENTILATOR A fan used to exhaust air from an attic.

POWER GENERATION FAN see MECHANICAL DRAFT FAN

POWER ROOF/WALL VENTILATOR (PRV) - A fan consisting of a centrifugal or axial impeller with an integral
driver in a weather-resistant housing and with a base designed to fit, usually by means of a curb, over a wall or
roof opening.

PRESSURE BLOWER (TURBO BLOWER) - see HIGH PRESSURE FAN.

PRESSURE RELIEF DAMPER A type of backdraft damper having an adjustable start-to-open pressure and
which is capable of maintaining a relatively constant pressure at various airflows and which closes upon a
decrease in differential pressure.

PRIMARY AIR FAN see COMBUSTION AIR FAN

PROPELLER FAN - An axial fan having an impeller comprised of symmetrical and equally spaced blades
extending radially from a central hub and which is mounted in an orifice plate or ring.

RANGE HOOD A hood located above a range, stove, grill, or oven and which serves to exhaust hot air, fumes
or moisture directly to a buildings exterior or through filtering media for discharge back into the room.

REGISTER - A grille equipped with an integral damper or control valve.

REVERSIBLE AXIAL-FLOW FAN - An axial fan capable of changing impeller rotation so that air may be moved
in either direction along the fans axis of rotation.



2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 6, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
STANDARD
99-0068-03
PAGE 6 OF 7



SEAL AIR FAN (1) A fan that serves to pressurize an enclosure around a furnace or boiler to prevent the
escape of burned gases into ambient air. (2) A fan supplying air to a shaft seal chamber as a leakage barrier to
process gas. (3) A fan supplying air to the chamber of an isolation damper to prevent the passage of duct gases
across the enclosed space.

SIGHT-PROOF LOUVER - A louver that cannot be seen through from any direction.

SMOKE (LEAKAGE RATED) DAMPER - A damper intended to: (1) restrict the spread of smoke in HVAC
systems that are designed to be automatically shut down in the event of a fire or (2) control the movement of
smoke when the HVAC system is operational in a building having a smoke management system.

SMOKE MANAGEMENT FAN (SMOKE VENTILATION FAN) A fan that serves to exhaust smoke and heated
air from a building and which may be certified to remain operable after exposure to a given temperature for a
given duration.

SPARK RESISTANT FAN (or DAMPER) - A fan or damper constructed to reduce the potential for spark
generation when the airstream is potentially explosive.

STATIC VENTILATING DEVICE A device that passively exhausts air from a building by venting.

TABLE FAN An air circulator fan intended for use on a desk, table or counter top; it may also be provided with
the means for being mounted to a wall.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL DAMPERS A pair of dampers intended to be operated together to provide a total
airflow at a given temperature. Two different airflows are regulated by simultaneous damper adjustments.

TUBE AXIAL FAN - An axial flow fan with the impeller in a cylindrical housing and without guide vanes to
straighten the discharged air.

TUBULAR CENTRIFUGAL FAN - A fan having a centrifugal impeller within a cylindrical housing discharging
the air in an axial direction.

UTILITY SET - A centrifugal fan designed as a packaged unit, ready to run, either belt-driven or directly
connected to an electric motor.

VANE AXIAL FAN - A fan comprised of an axial impeller in a cylindrical housing having guide vanes located
upstream or downstream of the impeller, or both.

VENTILATOR - A device that serves to supply air into or exhaust air from a building.

VOLUME CONTROL DAMPER - A device which, when mounted in a duct or opening, is used to vary the
volume of air flowing through the duct or opening and which can be operated manually or mechanically, and can
have one or more blades.

WET GAS FAN - A fan that serves to move air that contains particles of water.

WHOLE-HOUSE FAN A fan mounted in the ceiling or attic wall of a house and from which it serves to exhaust
air and which incorporates a backdraft damper.

2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
PRODUCT DEFINITIONS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 6, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
STANDARD
99-0068-03
PAGE 7 OF 7


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P

A area of cross section m
2
ft
2


A duct width m ft

A
e
area-orifice equivalent to system m
2
ft
2


A
o
area-nozzle with no loss m
2
ft
2


ah absolute humidity, (mass)H
2
0 / (mass)dry air kg/kg lb
m
/lb
m


B minimum distance between the sill and bottom blade mm in.

B duct height m ft

BPF blade pass frequency Hz Hz

BW band width Hz Hz

b flow-induced absorption coefficient dB dB

C dynamic loss coefficient --- ---

C combined free field response correction dB dB

C nozzle discharge coefficient --- ---

C minimum distance between adjacent blades mm in.

C
m
constant for tip speed Mach number --- ---

C
n
nozzle discharge coefficient --- ---

C
p
specific heat at constant pressure J/kg-K Btu/lb
m
-F

C
v
specific heat at constant volume J/kg-K Btu/lb
m
-F

C
1
free field microphone correction response dB dB

C
2
frequency response correction of sampling tube dB dB
(normal incidence)

C
3
flow velocity correction for frequency response dB dB
required by sampling tube

C
4
modal correction for the frequency response dB dB
required by sampling tube

2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 1 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
c speed of sound m/s ft/s

D diameter of duct or impeller m ft

D
e
equivalent diameter m ft

D
e/y
ratio of straightener cell size (dia. to thickness of cell) --- ---

D
h
hydraulic diameter m ft

D
I
diameter of intermediate duct m ft

D
T
diameter of terminating duct m ft

DVM digital voltmeter --- ---

D
1-6
diameters along anechoic termination --- ---

d orifice diameter m ft

dBA estimated sound pressure level at a location --- ---
using "A" weighing network

E energy factor --- ---

E system resistance curve --- ---

E
i1-in
duct inlet end correction dB dB

E
o1-on
duct outlet end correction dB dB

Ev volts, direct current, output signal Vdc Vdc
of thermal flow sensor

e orifice plate end reflection dB dB

e
per
permissible specific unbalance m or (gmm)kg in. or (lb in.)/lb

e
x
per unit uncertainty in x --- ---

F beam load kg lb
f


FLA full load amps amps amps

f coefficient of friction --- ---

f frequency Hz Hz

2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
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Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 2 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
f
c
cut-off frequency Hz Hz

G water volume flow rate L/s gpm

G balance quality grade --- ---

g acceleration due to gravity m/s
2
ft/s
2


H fan power input kW hp

H actual louver height mm in.

H
a
air power of air curtain kW hp

H
L
power transmission loss kW hp

H
m
power input to motor kW hp

H
mo
motor power output kW hp

H
o
fan power output kW hp

H
r
fan impeller power kW hp

H
sr
fan shaft power kW hp

H/T axial fan hub-to-tip ratio --- ---

I index in transverse direction for velocity matrix --- ---

j index in axial direction for velocity matrix --- ---

K system effect factor --- ---

K loss coefficient relevant to a specific damper --- ---
design sample

K
E
friction chart correction factor for elevation --- ---

K
M
friction chart correction factor for roughness --- ---

K
p
compressibility coefficient --- ---

K
T
friction chart correction factor for temperature --- ---

kW kilowatts, electric power kW kW


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 3 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
L length m ft

L minimum distance between louver jambs mm in.

L
e
equivalent length of straightener m ft

L
m
average sound level from multiplexing six duct dB dB
stations or continuous circular traverses

L
max
maximum difference of microphone dB dB
readings (nose cone - sampling tube)

L
p
sound pressure level re 20 Pa dB dB


p
L average sound pressure level at the measuring plane dB dB

L
p
max maximum sound pressure level within the measuring duct dB dB

L
p
min minimum sound pressure level within the measuring duct dB dB

L
p1,pn
corrected sound pressure level of the fan dB dB

L
p1-p6
sound pressure levels at each of six stations dB dB
in the test duct

L
pb1,pbn
recorded sound pressure level of room background dB dB
as measured over the normal microphone path

L
pm1,pmn
recorded sound pressure level of fan and room dB dB
background as measured over the normal
microphone path

L
pNC
corrected sound pressure level with nose cone dB dB

L
pq1,pqn
corrected sound pressure level of reference sound source dB dB

L
pqm1,pqmn
recorded sound pressure level of RSS and room dB dB
background as measured over the normal
microphone path

L
pST
corrected sound pressure level with the sampling tube dB dB

L
t
turbulence noise suppression value dB dB

L
w
sound power level re 1x10
-12
watts dB dB


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 4 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
L
wA
sound power level of fan (A-weighted; for dB dB
each band or summarized)

L
W
A sound power level, A-weighted, re 1x10
-12
watts dB dB

L
WF
capacity fraction, re 1.0E-12 watts dB dB

L
WG
generalized sound power level, re 1.0E-12 watts dB dB

L
Wi
sound power level at the inlet, re 1.0E-12 watts dB dB

L
Wi
A sound power level at the inlet, A-weighted, dB dB
re 1.0E-12 watts

L
W1,Wn
total sound power of the test fan dB dB

L
Wi1,Win
sound power transmitted to the inlet duct of the fan dB dB

L
WK
specific sound power level, re 1.0E-12 watts dB dB

L
Wmi
measured sound power level from the inlet, dB dB
re 1.0E-12 watts

L
wmi1,wmin
measured sound power at the open inlet of a fan dB dB

L
Wmo
measured sound power level from the outlet, dB dB
re 1.0E-12 watts

L
wmo1,wmon
measured sound power at the open outlet of a fan dB dB

L
Wo
sound power level at the outlet, re 1.0E-12 watts dB dB

L
Wo
A sound power level at the outlet, A-weighted, dB dB
re 1.0E-12 watts

L
Wr1,Wrn
sound power level rating of the reference sound source dB dB

L
Wo1,Won
sound power transmitted to the outlet duct of the fan dB dB

L
x,x'
length of duct between planes x and x' m ft

L
1-5
lengths along anechoic termination m ft

l length of moment arm mm in.

la output signal of thermal mAdc mAdc
flow sensor

2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 5 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
M Mach number --- ---

M chamber dimension m ft

M rotor mass kg ---(see W)

M
t
tip speed Mach parameter --- ---

N rotational speed rev/min. rev/min.

NLA no-load amps A A

NPH nameplate power kW hp

NPV nameplate volts V V

n number of readings --- ---

P pressure Pa in. wg

P pressure differential or pressure drop across Pa in. wg
device being tested

P
c
pressure drop of combined dampers Pa in. wg

PL plane of measurement --- ---

P
n
pressure differential across nozzle Pa in. wg

P
n
pressure drop of damper "n" Pa in. wg

P
s
static pressure or fan static pressure Pa in. wg

P
s
pressure loss across damper Pa in. wg

P
s
fan static pressure rise Pa in. wg

P
s
static pressure regain from diffuser/evas Pa in. wg

P
sx
static pressure at plane x Pa in. wg

P
t
total pressure or fan total pressure Pa in. wg

P
t
total pressure loss due to friction Pa in. wg

P
tx
total pressure at plane x Pa in. wg


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 6 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
P
v
velocity pressure or fan velocity pressure Pa in. wg

P
vx
fan velocity pressure or velocity at plane x Pa in. wg

P
x-x'
pressure differential between planes x and x' Pa in. wg

p atmospheric pressure kPa in. Hg

p
b
corrected barometric pressure kPa in. Hg

p
e
saturated vapor pressure at tw kPa in. Hg

p
p
partial vapor pressure kPa in. Hg

p
x
absolute pressure at plane x kPa in. Hg

Q airflow rate or fan airflow rate m
3
/s cfm

Q directivity factor --- ---

Q
d
tested device airflow rate m
3
/s ft
3
/min

Q
i
interpolated airflow rate m
3
/s ft
3
/min

Q
r
test reference airflow rate m
3
/s ft
3
/min

Q
x
airflow rate at plane x m
3
/s ft
3
/min

R gas constant J/kg-K ft-lb/lb
m
-R

R room constant m
2
ft
2


R reflection constant --- ---

Re Reynolds Number; Fan Reynolds Number --- ---

RSS reference sound source --- ---

r radius m ft

r ratio of duct area to orifice area --- ---

r index in the radial direction in the measuring plane --- ---

r radial distance from test duct centerline to m ft
sampling tube location


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 7 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
rh relative humidity % %

S area or areas of test duct m
2
ft
2


S aspect parameter --- ---

S total loudness index sone sone

SEF system effect factor --- ---

S
F
outlet or inlet area of fan m
2
ft
2


S
R
system resistance factor m
4
ft
4


s
m
maximum octave band loudness index sone sone

T number of grid velocity measurements in the --- ---
transverse direction

T torque N-m lb
f
-in.

T absolute inlet total temperature or absolute temperature K R

T
a
length of transitions T1, T2, or T3 m ft

t number of velocity measurements at a given radius --- ---
r taken in circumferential increments

t temperature C F

t
d
dry-bulb temperature C F

t
t
total (stagnation) temperature C F

t
w
wet-bulb temperature C F

U number of grid velocity measurements in the --- ---
axial direction

U
per
permissible residual unbalance gmm lb in.

u number of velocity measurements at a given angle --- ---
taken at radial increments

V velocity or average velocity m/s ft/min.

V mean velocity at plane 1 m/s ft/min.

2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 8 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
V
a
velocity profile distortion in axial direction % %
(parallel to the fan impeller shaft)


I
mean velocity for each of the T traverses m/s ft/min.


j
mean velocity along each of the U grid stations m/s ft/min.

r mean velocity at a given radius r from duct center m/s ft/min.

t V

velocity profile distortion in transverse direction % %


(perpendicular to the fan impeller shaft)

V

mean velocity at a given angle in the measuring plane m/s ft/min.



v velocity at any point m/s ft/min.

W power input to motor kW W

W rainfall rate mm/hr in./hr

W actual louver width mm in.

W rotor weight (see M) lb
m


w weight of water gram oz
m


X plotting variable --- ---

X absolute uncertainty in X --- ---

x function used to determine K
p
--- ---

x peak air velocity along test plane m/s ft/min.

Y nozzle expansion factor --- ---

y thickness of straightener element mm in.

Z altitude m ft

z function used to determine K
p
--- ---

static pressure ratio for nozzles --- ---

diameter ratio for nozzles --- ---


2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 9 OF 11


SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
ratio of specific heats --- ---

absolute surface roughness height m ft

motor efficiency % %


ac
air curtain unit efficiency % %


s
fan static efficiency % %


t
fan total efficiency % %

index in the circumferential direction in the --- ---
measuring plane

wavelength m ft

absolute viscosity Pas lb
m
/fts

v kinematic viscosity m
2
/s ft
2
/s

air density kg/m
3
lb
m
/ft
3



s
air density at standard conditions kg/m
3
lb
m
/ft
3



x
air density at plane x kg/m
3
lb
m
/ft
3


n
standard deviation of quantity n --- ---

airflow direction --- ---

average absorption coefficient for each surface --- ---

average room absorption coefficient --- ---

angular velocity (of a rotor) rad/s rad/s

SUBSCRIPT

a atmospheric conditions

b barometric pressure

c converted or calculated value

d dry-bulb temperature

2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 10 OF 11



g static pressure

r reading

w wet-bulb depression

x generalized quantity (A,b,...,)

x plane 0,1,2,.... as appropriate

x,x' between planes x and x'

SYMBOL OR
ABBREVIATION DESCRIPTION SI I-P
0 plane 0 (general test area)

1 plane 1 (fan inlet)

2 plane 2 (fan outlet)

3 plane 3 (Pitot traverse station)

4 plane 4 (duct piezometer station)

5 plane 5 (nozzle inlet station in chamber)

6 plane 6 (nozzle discharge station)

7 plane 7 (outlet chamber measurement station)

8 plane 8 (inlet chamber measurement station)

















2001 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
THE AMCA VOCABULARY:
SYMBOLS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0070-01
PAGE 11 OF 11







Basic Series



Theoretical values



R 5



R 10



R 20



R 40



SERIAL
NUMBER

Base 10
Mantissa
of
logarithms


Calculated
values

Percentage
differences
between
basic series
and
calculated
values (%)

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

0

000

1.000

0







1.06

1

.025

1.0593

+0.07





1.12

1.12

2

.050

1.1220

-0.18







1.18

3

.075

1.1885

-0.71



1.25

1.25

1.25

4

.100

1.2589

-0.71







1.32

5

.125

1.3335

-1.01





1.40

1.40

6

.150

1.4125

-0.88







1.50

7

.175

1.4962

+0.25

1.60

1.60

1.60

1.60

8

.200

1.5849

+0.95







1.70

9

.225

1.6788

+1.26





1.80

1.80

10

.250

1.7783

+1.22







1.90

11

.275

1.8836

+0.87



2.00

2.00

2.00

12

.300

1.9953

+0.24







2.12

13

.325

2.1135

+0.31





2.24

2.24

14

.350

2.2387

+0.06







2.36

15

.375

2.3714

-0.48

2.50

2.50

2.50

2.50

16

.400

2.5119

-0.47







2.65

17

.425

2.6607

-0.40





2.80

2.80

18

.450

2.8184

-0.65







3.00

19

.475

2.9854

+0.49



3.15

3.15

3.15

20

.500

3.1623

-0.39







3.35

21

.525

3.3497

+0.01





3.55

3.55

22

.550

3.5481

+0.05







3.75

23

.575

3.7584

-0.22

This reference standard is in harmony with ISO 497:1973.
Those who wish to explore the topic of preferred numbers should refer to the ISO standard.

2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
BASIC SERIES OF
PREFERRED NUMBERS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0098-00
PAGE 1 OF 2








Basic Series



Theoretical values



R 5



R 10



R 20



R 40



SERIAL
NUMBER

Base 10
Mantissa
of
logarithms


Calculated
values
Percentage
differences
between
basic series
and
calculated
values (%)

4.00

4.00

4.00

4.00

24

.600

3.9811

+0.47







4.25

25

.625

4.2170

+0.78





4.50

4.50

26

.650

4.4668

+0.74







4.75

27

.675

4.7315

+0.39



5.00

5.00

5.00

28

.700

5.0119

-0.24







5.30

29

.725

5.3088

-0.17





5.60

5.60

30

.750

5.6234

-0.42







6.00

31

.775

5.9566

+0.73

6.30

6.30

6.30

6.30

32

.800

6.3096

-0.15







6.70

33

.825

6.6834

+0.25





7.10

7.10

34

.850

7.0795

+0.29







7.50

35

.875

7.4989

+0.01



8.00

8.00

8.00

36

.900

7.9433

+0.71







8.50

37

.925

8.4140

+1.02





9.00

9.00

38

.950

8.9125

+0.98







9.50

39

.975

9.4406

+0.63

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

40

1.000

10.0000

0

This reference standard is in harmony with ISO 497:1973.
Those who wish to explore the topic of preferred numbers should refer to the ISO standard.












2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
BASIC SERIES OF
PREFERRED NUMBERS
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0098-00
PAGE 2 OF 2



U.S.
Customary
Units
AMCA Standard (1)
Metric (SI) Unit
Conversion (4)
Factor
VOLUME FLOW


PRESSURE


POWER


TORQUE


DENSITY


SPEED (2)



VELOCITY


DIMENSIONS


MOMENT OF INERTIA


STRESS


TEMPERATURE (3)
cfm


in. wg


hp


lbf-in


lbm/ft
3



rpm


fpm


in.


lbm-ft
2



lbf/in
2



F
cubic meter per second
m
3
/s

pascal
Pa or N/m
2


watt
W or J/s

newton meter
NCm

kilogram per cubic meter
kg/m
3


revolution per second
rps

meter per second
m/s

millimeter
mm

kilogram meters squared
kgCm
2


pascal
Pa or N/m
2


kelvin

0.00047195


248.36


745.70


0.11298


16.018


0.016667


0.0050800


25.400


0.042140


6894.8


(F + 459.67)/1.8

Notes:
1) The choice of the appropriate multiple or sub multiple of an SI unit is governed by convenience. The
multiple chosen for a particular application should be the one which will lead to numerical values
within a practical range (i.e. kilopascal for pressure, kilowatts for power, megapascal for stress, and
liters/second for volume flow.)

2) The second is the SI base unit of time. Although outside SI, the minute has been recognized by
CIPM as necessary to retain for use because of its practical importance.

3) The kelvin is the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature and is preferred for most scientific and
technological purposes. The degree celcius (C) is acceptable for practical applications.

4) Multiply Customary unit by this factor to obtain AMCA Standard except for kelvin temperature.

1976 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.

Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
METRIC UNITS AND
CONVERSION FACTORS
Adopted

Supersedes AMS-100-76
AMCA
1976
Reviewed
1983
STANDARD
99-0100-76
PAGE 1 OF 1


STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC DATA VERSUS ALTITUDE CHART (SI)


Z
Altitude


m
t
Temperature


C
p
Atmospheric
Pressure

kPa
D
Air
Density

kg/m
3

:
Dynamic
Viscosity

PaCs
v
Kinematic
Viscosity

m
2
/s
c
Speed of
Sound

m/s
0
100
200
300
15.00
14.35
13.70
13.05
101.32
100.13
98.94
97.77
1.230
1.215
1.201
1.189
1.793x10
-05
1.790x10
-05

1.786x10
-05

1.784x10
-05

1.456x10
-05

1.473x10
-05

1.487x10
-05

1.500x10
-05

340.43
340.05
339.66
339.28
400
500
600
700
12.40
11.76
11.11
10.46
96.61
95.46
94.32
93.20
1.177
1.166
1.155
1.145
1.780x10
-05

1.777x10
-05

1.774x10
-05

1.771x10
-05

1.512x10
-05

1.524x10
-05

1.536x10
-05

1.546x10
-05

338.89
338.51
338.19
337.73
800
900
1000
1100
9.81
9.16
8.51
7.86
92.08
90.98
89.88
88.80
1.134
1.123
1.112
1.102
1.768x10
-05

1.765x10
-05

1.761x10
-05

1.758x10
-05

1.559x10
-05

1.571x10
-05

1.584x10
-05

1.595x10
-05

337.34
336.95
336.57
336.18
1200
1300
1400
1500
7.21
6.56
5.90
5.25
87.72
86.66
85.61
84.56
1.091
1.080
1.069
1.058
1.755x10
-05

1.751x10
-05

1.748x10
-05

1.745x10
-05

1.609x10
-05

1.621x10
-05

1.635x10
-05

1.649x10
-05

335.79
335.40
335.01
334.62
1600
1700
1800
1900
4.60
3.95
3.30
2.65
83.53
82.50
81.49
80.49
1.047
1.037
1.026
1.016
1.741x10
-05

1.738x10
-05

1.735x10
-05

1.732x10
-05

1.663x10
-05

1.676x10
-05

1.691x10
-05

1.705x10
-05

334.22
333.83
333.44
333.05
2000
2100
2200
2300
2.00
1.35
0.70
0.53
79.49
78.51
77.54
76.57
1.006
0.996
0.986
0.976
1.728x10
-05

1.725x10
-05

1.722x10
-05

1.718x10
-05

1.718x10
-05

1.732x10
-05

1.746x10
-05

1.760x10
-05

332.66
332.26
331.87
331.48
2400
2500
2600
2700
-0.60
-1.25
-1.90
-2.55
75.62
74.68
73.74
72.82
0.967
0.957
0.948
0.938
1.715x10
-05

1.712x10
-05

1.708x10
-05

1.705x10
-05

1.774x10
-05

1.789x10
-05

1.802x10
-05

1.818x10
-05

331.08
330.69
330.29
329.90
2800
2900
3000
3100
-3.20
-3.85
-4.50
-5.15
71.91
71.00
70.11
69.23
0.929
0.919
0.909
0.900
1.702x10
-05

1.699x10
-05

1.695x10
-05

1.692x10
-05

1.832x10
-05

1.845x10
-05

1.865x10
-05

1.880x10
-05

329.50
329.10
328.71
328.31
3200
3300
3400
3500
-5.80
-6.46
-7.11
-7.76
68.35
67.48
66.62
65.77
0.890
0.880
0.871
0.862
1.689x10
-05

1.685x10
-05

1.682x10
-05

1.679x10
-05

1.898x10
-05

1.914x10
-05

1.931x10
-05

1.948x10
-05

327.51
327.11
326.70
326.70






2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 1 OF 8


STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC DATA VERSUS ALTITUDE CHART (I-P)


Z
Altitude


ft
t
Temperature


F
p
Atmospheric
Pressure

in. Hg
D
Air
Density

lb
m
/ft
3

:
Dynamic
Viscosity

lb
m
/ft-s
v
Kinematic
Viscosity

ft
2
/s
c
Speed of
Sound

ft/s
-1000
-500
62.6
60.8
31.02
30.47
.0787
.0776
1.212x10
-05

1.208x10
-05

1.538x10
-04
1.556x10
-04

1120.7
1118.8
0 59.0 29.92 .0765 1.205x10
-05
1.576x10
-04
1116.9
500
1000
1500
2000
57.2
55.4
53.7
51.9
29.38
28.86
28.33
27.82
.0754
.0743
.0732
.0721
1.202x10
-05

1.198x10
-05

1.195x10
-05

1.192x10
-05

1.595x10
-04

1.614x10
-04

1.633x10
-04

1.653x10
-04

1115.0
1113.1
1111.1
1109.2
2500
3000
3500
4000
50.1
48.3
46.5
44.7
27.32
26.82
26.33
25.84
.0710
.0700
.0689
.0679
1.189x10
-05

1.185x10
-05

1.182x10
-05

1.179x10
-05

1.673x10
-04

1.694x10
-04

1.714x10
-04

1.735x10
-04

1107.3
1105.3
1103.4
1101.4
4500
5000
5500
6000
43.0
41.2
39.4
37.6
25.37
24.90
24.43
23.98
.0669
.0659
.0649
.0639
1.175x10
-05

1.172x10
-05

1.169x10
-05

1.165x10
-05

1.757x10
-04

1.778x10
-04

1.800x10
-04

1.823x10
-04

1099.5
1097.5
1095.6
1093.6
6500
7000
7500
8000
35.8
34.0
32.3
30.5
23.53
23.09
22.65
22.22
.0630
.0620
.0610
.0601
1.162x10
-05

1.158x10
-05

1.155x10
-05

1.152x10
-05

1.846x10
-04

1.869x10
-04

1.892x10
-04

1.916x10
-04

1091.7
1089.7
1087.7
1085.7
8500
9000
9500
10000
28.7
26.9
25.1
23.3
21.80
21.39
20.98
20.58
.0592
.0583
.0574
.0565
1.148x10
-05

1.145x10
-05

1.142x10
-05

1.138x10
-05

1.904x10
-04

1.965x10
-04

1.990x10
-04

2.015x10
-04

1083.8
1081.8
1079.8
1077.8























2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 2 OF 8


PSYCHROMETRIC DENSITY TABLE (SI)

Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions kg/m
3

Barometric Pressure kPa
Dry-Bulb
Temp. C
97 98.5 100 101.5 103 104.5
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
1.244981
1.242122
1.239396
1.236782
1.234260
1.263273
1.260977
1.258667
1.256345
1.254012
1.282390
1.280094
1.277753
1.275377
1.272975
1.302927
1.300086
1.297353
1.294710
1.292141
1.324194
1.322000
1.319731
1.317400
1.315018
1.340401
1.337965
1.335505
1.333027
1.330532
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
1.231812
1.229423
1.227079
1.224768
1.222480
1.251672
1.249325
1.246973
1.244618
1.242261
1.270553
1.268119
1.265679
1.263236
1.260796
1.289629
1.287163
1.284731
1.282324
1.279934
1.312595
1.310140
1.307661
1.305166
1.302659
1.328024
1.325506
1.322979
1.320447
1.317912
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
1.220207
1.217942
1.215680
1.213416
1.211147
1.239902
1.237545
1.235188
1.232834
1.230483
1.258360
1.255931
1.253510
1.251098
1.248697
1.277553
1.275177
1.272800
1.270421
1.268037
1.300147
1.297634
1.295123
1.292618
1.290121
1.315376
1.312841
1.310307
1.307778
1.305254
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
1.208871
1.206587
1.204295
1.201994
1.199687
1.228135
1.225792
1.223453
1.221119
1.218791
1.246304
1.243921
1.241546
1.239179
1.236817
1.265645
1.263247
1.260842
1.258431
1.256015
1.287634
1.285157
1.282692
1.280239
1.277798
1.302735
1.300224
1.297720
1.295225
1.292738
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
1.197375
1.195060
1.192743
1.190428
1.188116
1.216468
1.214150
1.211838
1.209530
1.207227
1.234459
1.232105
1.229752
1.227399
1.225045
1.253595
1.251173
1.248752
1.246334
1.243920
1.275367
1.272946
1.270533
1.268128
1.265728
1.290260
1.287790
1.285328
1.282875
1.280428
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
1.185810
1.183512
1.181224
1.178948
1.176683
1.204927
1.202631
1.200338
1.198047
1.195757
1.222689
1.220330
1.217968
1.215603
1.213236
1.241512
1.239113
1.236723
1.234343
1.231974
1.263332
1.260938
1.258544
1.256148
1.253747
1.277988
1.275553
1.273122
1.270693
1.268266
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
1.174432
1.172192
1.169963
1.167742
1.165527
1.193466
1.191174
1.188879
1.186581
1.184277
1.210866
1.208497
1.206131
1.203771
1.201420
1.229616
1.227266
1.224925
1.222588
1.220251
1.251342
1.248928
1.246506
1.244075
1.241632
1.265837
1.263406
1.260970
1.258527
1.256073
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
1.163312
1.161092
1.158860
1.156606
1.154320
1.151991
1.181965
1.179644
1.177313
1.174968
1.172609
1.170232
1.199084
1.196770
1.194483
1.192231
1.190025
1.187875
1.217911
1.215560
1.213191
1.210795
1.208361
1.205877
1.239178
1.236712
1.234235
1.231747
1.229250
1.226746
1.253607
1.251125
1.248624
1.246101
1.243553
1.240975


2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 3 OF 8


PSYCHROMETRIC DENSITY TABLE (SI) (Continued)

Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions kg/m
3

Barometric Pressure kPa
Dry-Bulb
Temp. C
97 98.5 100 101.5 103 104.5
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0
20.5
1.148567
1.146325
1.144073
1.141813
1.139548
1.167391
1.164887
1.162437
1.160033
1.157668
1.185062
1.182780
1.180492
1.178197
1.175897
1.203323
1.200987
1.198647
1.196304
1.193957
1.225071
1.222584
1.220116
1.217665
1.215229
1.240138
1.237641
1.235154
1.232675
1.230205
21.0
21.5
22.0
22.5
23.0
1.137279
1.135008
1.132735
1.130461
1.128188
1.155335
1.153029
1.150742
1.148470
1.146207
1.173591
1.171279
1.168962
1.166639
1.164311
1.191607
1.189254
1.186898
1.184537
1.182174
1.212804
1.210388
1.207980
1.205577
1.203177
1.227740
1.225283
1.222830
1.220383
1.217939
23.5
24.0
24.5
25.0
25.5
1.125917
1.123646
1.121378
1.119111
1.116846
1.143949
1.141691
1.139431
1.137164
1.134888
1.161977
1.159639
1.157295
1.154946
1.152592
1.179806
1.177435
1.175060
1.172681
1.170298
1.200778
1.198380
1.195979
1.193576
1.191169
1.215499
1.213061
1.210625
1.208190
1.205755
26.0
26.5
27.0
27.5
28.0
1.114582
1.112318
1.110055
1.107790
1.105523
1.132601
1.130299
1.127983
1.125650
1.123300
1.150234
1.147871
1.145503
1.143131
1.140754
1.167912
1.165521
1.163126
1.160726
1.158323
1.188756
1.186338
1.183912
1.181480
1.179039
1.203320
1.200883
1.198445
1.196003
1.193559
28.5
29.0
29.5
30.0
30.5
1.103253
1.100978
1.098695
1.096404
1.094102
1.120932
1.118548
1.116147
1.113730
1.111299
1.138373
1.135988
1.133599
1.131206
1.128809
1.155915
1.153503
1.151086
1.148664
1.146239
1.176591
1.174134
1.171669
1.169195
1.166714
1.191110
1.188656
1.186196
1.183730
1.181257
31.0
31.5
32.0
32.5
33.0
1.091787
1.089456
1.087106
1.084735
1.082339
1.108856
1.106402
1.103942
1.101478
1.099014
1.126408
1.124004
1.121596
1.119184
1.116769
1.143808
1.141372
1.138932
1.136487
1.134037
1.164226
1.161731
1.159230
1.156724
1.154213
1.178775
1.176286
1.173786
1.171277
1.168756
33.5
34.0
34.5
35.0
35.5
1.079915
1.077460
1.074970
1.072440
1.069867
1.096553
1.094100
1.091661
1.089240
1.086844
1.114351
1.111930
1.109506
1.107079
1.104649
1.131582
1.129122
1.126656
1.124186
1.121710
1.151700
1.149185
1.146669
1.144155
1.141644
1.166224
1.163679
1.161121
1.158549
1.155963
36.0
36.5
37.0
37.5
38.0
1.067247
1.064575
1.061846
1.059056
1.056198
1.084478
1.082149
1.079865
1.077632
1.075460
1.102216
1.099780
1.097342
1.094902
1.092459
1.119229
1.116742
1.114250
1.111753
1.109249
1.139139
1.136640
1.134151
1.131673
1.129210
1.153361
1.150743
1.148108
1.145455
1.142784



2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 4 OF 8


PSYCHROMETRIC DENSITY TABLE (I-P)


Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions lb
m
/ft
3

Barometric Pressure in. Hg
Dry-Bulb
Temp. F
28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0
30
31
32
33
34
.07703
.07687
.07671
.07654
.07638
.07839
.07822
.07806
.07789
.07772
.07974
.07957
.07940
.07924
.07907
.08111
.08093
.08075
.08058
.08041
.08245
.08228
.08210
.08193
.08175
.08380
.08363
.08345
.08327
.08310
35
36
37
38
39
.07621
.07605
.07589
.07573
.07557
.07756
.07739
.07723
.07706
.07690
.07890
.07873
.07856
.07840
.07823
.08024
.07807
.07990
.07973
.07956
.08158
.08141
.08123
.08106
.08089
.08292
.08274
.08257
.08239
.08222
40
41
42
43
44
.07541
.07525
.07509
.07493
.07477
.07674
.07657
.07641
.07625
.07609
.07806
.07790
.07773
.07757
.07740
.07939
.07922
.09705
.07889
.07872
.08072
.08055
.08038
.08021
.08004
.08205
.08187
.08170
.08153
.08135
45
46
47
48
49
.07461
.07445
.07429
.07413
.07397
.07592
.07576
.07560
.07544
.07528
.07724
.07707
.07691
.07674
.07658
.07855
.07838
.07822
.07805
.07788
.07986
.07970
.07953
.07936
.07919
.08118
.08101
.08084
.08066
.08049
50
51
52
53
54
.07381
.07366
.07350
.07334
.07318
.07512
.07496
.07479
.07464
.07447
.07642
.07625
.07609
.07593
.07576
.07772
.07755
.07739
.07722
.07706
.07902
.07885
.07868
.07852
.07835
.08032
.08015
.07998
.07981
.07964
55
56
57
58
59
.07302
.07287
.07271
.07255
.07240
.07431
.07415
.07399
.07383
.07367
.07560
.07544
.07528
.07512
.07495
.07689
.07673
.07656
.07640
.07623
.07818
.07801
.07784
.07768
.07751
.07947
.07930
.07913
.07896
.07879
60
61
62
63
64
.07224
.07208
.07193
.07177
.07161
.07352
.07336
.07320
.07304
.07288
.07479
.07463
.07447
.07430
.07414
.07607
.07590
.07574
.07557
.07541
.07734
.07718
.07701
.07684
.07668
.07862
.07845
.07828
.07811
.07794








2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 5 OF 8


PSYCHROMETRIC DENSITY TABLE (I-P)


Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions lb
m
/ft
3

Barometric Pressure in. Hg
Dry-Bulb
Temp. F
28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0
65
66
67
68
69
.07145
.07130
.07114
.07098
.07083
.07272
.07256
.07240
.07224
.07208
.07398
.07382
.07366
.07350
.07333
.07525
.07508
.07492
.07475
.07459
.07651
.07634
.07618
.07601
.07584
.07770
.07760
.07744
.07727
.07710
70
71
72
73
74
.07067
.07051
.07035
.07020
.07004
.07192
.07176
.07160
.07144
.07128
.07317
.07301
.07285
.07268
.07252
.07442
.07426
.07410
.07393
.07377
.07568
.07551
.07534
.07517
.07501
.07693
.07676
.07659
.07642
.07625
75
76
77
78
79
.06988
.06972
.06956
.06940
.06925
.07112
.07096
.07080
.07064
.07048
.07236
.07220
.07203
.07187
.07171
.07360
.07343
.07327
.07310
.07294
.07484
.07467
.07451
.07434
.07417
.07603
.07591
.07574
.07557
.07540
80
81
82
83
84
.06909
.06893
.06877
.06861
.06845
.07032
.07015
.07000
.06983
.06967
.07155
.07138
.07122
.07105
.07089
.07277
.07261
.07244
.07227
.07211
.07400
.07383
.07366
.07349
.07333
.07523
.07506
.07489
.07472
.07454
85
86
87
88
89
.06829
.06812
.06796
.06780
.06764
.06950
.06934
.06917
.06901
.06885
.07072
.07056
.07039
.07022
.07005
.07194
.07177
.07160
.07143
.07126
.07316
.07299
.07281
.07264
.07247
.07437
.07420
.07403
.07385
.07368
90
91
92
93
94
.06748
.06731
.06715
.06698
.06682
.06868
.06852
.06835
.06818
.06801
.06989
.06972
.06955
.06938
.06921
.07109
.07092
.07075
.07058
.07041
.07230
.07213
.07195
.07178
.07161
.07351
.07333
.07316
.07298
.07280
95
96
97
98
99
.06665
.06648
.06632
.06615
.06598
.06785
.06768
.06751
.06734
.06717
.06904
.06887
.06870
.06853
.06835
.07024
.07006
.06989
.06972
.06954
.07143
.07126
.07108
.01091
.07073
.07263
.07245
.07227
.07209
.07191
100 .06581 .06700 .06818 .06937 .07055 .07174







2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 6 OF 8


DRY AIR DENSITY CORRECTION FACTOR (SI)

(Multiply Standard Air Density, 1.2 kg/m
3
x the Factor to obtain Density at Condition B.)
Altitude, m Sea Level 300 600 900 1200
Barometer, mm Hg
kPa
759.97
101.32
733.47
97.79
707.46
94.32
682.43
90.98
657.90
87.71
Air Temp. C -20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
1.22
1.12
1.03
.95
.93
.85
.79
.77
.73
.69
.65
.62
.57
.57
.56
.54
.52
.50
.49
1.12
1.04
.97
.91
.86
.80
.76
.72
.69
.65
.61
.57
.56
.55
.53
.52
.50
.48
.46
1.08
1.01
.94
.88
.83
.78
.73
.70
.67
.63
.59
.55
.54
.53
.51
.50
.48
.49
.48
1.04
.97
.90
.85
.80
.75
.70
.67
.64
.61
.57
.53
.52
.51
.49
.48
.46
.45
.43
1.00
.94
.87
.81
.77
.72
.68
.65
.62
.59
.55
.51
.50
.49
.47
.46
.44
.43
.41

Altitude, m 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700
Barometer, mm Hg
kPa
634.34
84.57
611.3
81.50
588.98
78.52
567.17
75.62
546.30
72.83
Air Temp. C -20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
.97
.90
.84
.78
.74
.69
.65
.62
.60
.57
.53
.49
.48
.47
.45
.44
.43
.41
.40
.93
.87
.81
.75
.71
.67
.63
.61
.58
.55
.51
.47
.46
.46
.44
.43
.41
.40
.39
.91
.84
.78
.73
.69
.65
.61
.59
.56
.53
.50
.47
.45
.46
.43
.42
.40
.39
.37
.87
.81
.75
.70
.67
.63
.59
.57
.54
.51
.49
.45
.43
.43
.41
.40
.38
.37
.36
.84
.80
.72
.68
.64
.60
.58
.58
.53
.49
.47
.43
.42
.41
.39
.38
.37
.35
.34


2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 7 OF 8


DRY AIR DENSITY CORRECTION FACTOR (I-P)

(Multiply Standard Air Density, 0.075 lb
m
/ft
3
x the Factor to obtain Density at Condition B.)
Altitude, ft. -1000 Sea
Level
1000 2000 3000 4000
Barometer, in. Hg
in. wg
31.02
422.2
29.92
407.5
28.86
392.81
27.82
378.6
26.82
365.0
25.84
351.7
Air Temp. F -40
0
40
70
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
700
800
900
1000
1.31
1.19
1.10
1.04
0.98
0.90
0.83
0.77
0.72
0.68
0.64
0.60
0.57
0.54
0.52
0.47
0.44
0.40
0.37
1.26
1.15
1.06
1.00
0.95
0.87
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.62
0.58
0.55
0.53
0.50
0.46
0.42
0.39
0.36
1.22
1.11
1.02
0.96
0.92
0.84
0.77
0.72
0.67
0.62
0.60
0.56
0.53
0.51
0.48
0.44
0.40
0.37
0.35
1.17
1.07
0.99
0.93
0.88
0.81
0.74
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.57
0.54
0.51
0.49
0.46
0.43
0.39
0.36
0.33
1.13
1.03
0.95
0.89
0.85
0.78
0.71
0.67
0.62
0.58
0.55
0.52
0.49
0.47
0.45
0.41
0.37
0.35
0.32
1.09
0.99
0.92
0.86
0.81
0.75
0.69
0.64
0.60
0.56
0.53
0.50
0.47
0.45
0.43
0.39
0.36
0.33
0.31

Altitude, ft. 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000
Barometer, in. Hg
in. wg
24.90
338.9
23.98
326.4
23.09
314.3
22.22
302.1
21.39
291.1
20.58
280.1
Air Temp. F -40
0
40
70
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
700
800
900
1000
1.05
0.95
0.88
0.83
0.78
0.72
0.66
0.62
0.58
0.54
0.51
0.48
0.45
0.44
0.41
0.38
0.35
0.32
0.30
1.01
0.91
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.69
0.64
0.60
0.56
0.52
0.49
0.46
0.44
0.42
0.40
0.37
0.33
0.31
0.29
0.97
0.89
0.82
0.77
0.73
0.67
0.62
0.58
0.54
0.51
0.48
0.45
0.43
0.41
0.39
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.27
0.93
0.85
0.79
0.74
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.56
0.52
0.49
0.46
0.43
0.41
0.39
0.37
0.34
0.31
0.29
0.26
0.90
0.82
0.76
0.71
0.68
0.62
0.57
0.58
0.50
0.47
0.44
0.42
0.39
0.38
0.35
0.33
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.87
0.79
0.73
0.69
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.51
0.48
0.45
0.42
0.40
0.38
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.29
0.27
0.25

2000 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
CHARTS & TABLES
BSR AMCA
STANDARD
99-0200-00
PAGE 8 OF 8
CLASSIFICATIONS FOR
SPARK RESISTANT
CONSTRUCTION

Supersedes 99-0401-82
Adopted Air Movement and
AMCA
STANDARD
2-12-86 Control Association
International, Inc.
99-0401-86
Arlington Heights, IL
PAGE 1 OF 1
Reviewed
1986
60004-1893 U.S.A.


Fan applications may involve the handling of potentially explosive or flammable particles, fumes, or vapors.
Such applications require careful consideration of all system components to insure the safe handling of such
gas streams. This AMCA Standard deals only with the fan unit installed in that system. The Standard
contains guidelines which are to be used by both the manufacturer and user as a means of establishing
general methods of construction. The exact method of construction and choice of alloys is the responsibility
of the manufacturer; however, the customer must accept both the type and design with full recognition of the
potential hazard and the degree of protection required.

TYPE CONSTRUCTION

A All parts of the fan in contact with the air or gas being handled shall be made of nonferrous
material. Steps must also be taken to assure that the impeller, bearings, and shaft are
adequately attached and/or restrained to prevent a lateral or axial shift in these components.

B The fan shall have a nonferrous impeller and nonferrous ring about the opening through which
the shaft passes. Ferrous hubs, shafts, and hardware are allowed provided construction is such
that a shift of impeller or shaft will not permit two ferrous parts of the fan to rub or strike. Steps
must also be taken to assure that the impeller, bearings, damper blades and shaft are adequately
attached and/or restrained to prevent a lateral or axial shift in these components.

C The fan shall be so constructed that a shift of the impeller or shaft will not permit two ferrous parts
of the fan to rub or strike.

NOTES:

1. No bearings, drive components or electrical devices shall be placed in the air or gas stream unless they
are constructed or enclosed in such a manner that failure of that component cannot ignite the surrounding
gas stream.

2. The user shall electrically ground all fan parts.

3. For this Standard, nonferrous material shall be any material with less than 5% iron or any other material
with demonstrated ability to be spark resistant.

4. The use of aluminum or aluminum alloys in the presence of steel which has been allowed to rust requires
special consideration. Research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and others has shown that aluminum
impellers rubbing on rusty steel may cause high intensity sparking.

The use of the above Standard in no way implies a guarantee of safety for any level of spark resistance.
Spark resistant construction also does not protect against ignition of explosive gases caused by catastrophic
failure or from any airstream material that may be present in a system.

This Standard applies to:
Centrifugal Fans
Axial and Propeller Fans
Power Roof Ventilators

This Standard applies to ferrous and nonferrous metals. The potential questions which may be
associated with fans constructed of FRP, PVC, or any other plastic compound were not addressed.

1986 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.

Adopted
11-30-66
OPERATING LIMITS FOR
CENTRAL-STATION UNITS
Air Movement and
AMCA
Control Association
STANDARD
International, Inc.
99-1401-66
Arlington Heights, IL
PAGE 1 OF 1
Reviewed
1983
60004-1893 U.S.A.




1. This standard includes the following total static
pressure classifications:

Class A Total static pressure of 0 inches
to 3 inches maximum of water gauge.

Class B Total static pressure of 3 inches to
5.5 inches maximum of water gauge.

Class C Total static pressure over 5.5 inches
of water.

2. Total static pressure includes the internal static
pressure losses.



































1966 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.


AMCA Drive
Arrangement
ISO 13349
Drive
Arrangement
Description
Fan
Configuration
Alternative Fan
Configuration
1 SWSI 1 or
12 (Arr. 1 with
sub-base)
For belt or direct drive.

Impeller overhung on shaft, two
bearings mounted on pedestal
base.

Alternative: Bearings mounted
on independent pedestals, with
or without inlet box.





2 SWSI

2

For belt or direct drive.

Impeller overhung on shaft,
bearings mounted in bracket
supported by the fan casing.

Alternative: With inlet box.





3 SWSI 3 or
11 (Arr. 3 with
sub-base)
For belt or direct drive.

Impeller mounted on shaft
between bearings supported by
the fan casing.

Alternative: Bearings mounted
on independent pedestals, with
or without inlet box.





3 DWDI 6 or
18 (Arr. 6 with
sub-base)
For belt or direct drive.

Impeller mounted on shaft
between bearings supported by
the fan casing.

Alternative: Bearings mounted
on independent pedestals, with
or without inlet boxes.





4 SWSI 4 For direct drive.

Impeller overhung on motor
shaft. No bearings on fan.
Motor mounted on base.

Alternative: With inlet box.





5 SWSI 5 For direct drive.

Impeller overhung on motor
shaft.No bearings on fan. Motor
flange mounted to casing.

Alternative: With inlet box.





2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
DRIVE ARRANGEMENTS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on April 17, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2404-03
PAGE 1 OF 2

2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
AMCA Drive
Arrangement
ISO 13349
Drive
Arrangement
Description
Fan
Configuration
Alternative Fan
Configuration
7 SWSI 7 For coupling drive.

Generally the same as
Arr. 3, with base for the
prime mover.

Alternative: Bearings
mounted on
independent pedestals
with or without inlet
box.




7 DWDI

17
(Arr. 6 with base
for motor)
For coupling drive.

Generally the same as
Arr. 3 with base for the
prime mover.

Alternative: Bearings
mounted on
independent pedestals
with or without inlet
box.





8 SWSI 8 For direct drive.

Generally the same as
Arr. 1 with base for the
prime mover.

Alternative: Bearings
mounted on
independent pedestals
with or without inlet
box.







9 SWSI 9 For belt drive.

Impeller overhung on
shaft, two bearings
mounted on pedestal
base.

Motor mounted on the
outside of the bearing
base.

Alternative: With inlet
box.






10 SWSI 10 For belt drive.

Generally the same as
Arr. 9 with motor
mounted inside of the
bearing pedestal.

Alternative: With inlet
box.







Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
DRIVE ARRANGEMENTS
FOR CENTRIFUGAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on April 17, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2404-03
PAGE 2 OF 2










Notes:
1. Position of inlet box and air entry to inlet box is determined from the drive side as defined below:
a. On single inlet fans: The drive side is that side which is opposite of the fan inlet.
b. On double inlet fans:
1) With a single driver: That side with the driver is considered as the drive side.
2) With multiple drivers: That side with the higher total power is considered as the drive side. If
the total power on each side is equal, then that side which has the fixed (non-expansion)
bearing is considered as the drive side.

2. Position of inlet box is determined in accordance with diagrams. Angle of air entry to box is referred to the
top vertical axis of fan in degrees as measured in the direction of fan rotation. Angle of air entry to box
may be any intermediate angle as required.

3. Positions 135 to 225 in some cases may interfere with floor structure.


2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.

Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
INLET BOX POSITIONS
FOR CENTRIFUGAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on May 9, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2405-03
PAGE 1 OF 1

Clockwise
Up Blast
CW 360
Clockwise
Top Angular Up
CW 45
Clockwise
Top Horizontal
CW 90
Clockwise
Top Angular Down
CW 135
Clockwise
Down Blast
CW 180
Clockwise
Bottom Angular Down
CW 225
Clockwise
Bottom Horizontal
CW 270
Clockwise
Bottom Angular Up
XW 315
Counterclockwise
Up Blast
CCW 360
Counterclockwise
Top Angular Up
CCW 45
Counterclockwise
Top Horizontal
CCW 90
Counterclockwise
Top Angular Down
CCW 135
Counterclockwise
Down Blast
CCW 180
Counterclockwise
Bottom Angular Down
CCW 225
Counterclockwise
Bottom Horizontal
CCW 270
Counterclockwise
Bottom Angular Up
CCW 315


Notes:

1. Direction of rotation and angular reference is determined from the drive side as defined below:

a. On single inlet fans: The drive side is that side opposite the fan inlet.

b. On double inlet fans:

1) With a single driver: That side with the drive is considered the drive side.

2) With multiple drivers: That side with the higher total power is considered the drive side. If
the total power on each side is equal, then the side that has the fixed (non-expansion)
bearing is considered the drive side.

2. Direction of discharge is determined in accordance with diagrams. Angle of discharge is referred to
the top vertical axis of fan and designated in degrees as measured in the direction of fan rotation.
Angle of discharge may be any intermediate angle as required.

3. A fan inverted for ceiling suspension or rotated for side wall mounting will have its direction of
rotation and angle of discharge determined when fan is located as if floor mounted.

4. This standard is in harmony with ISO 13349. In ISO 13349, CCW fans are referred to as LG, i.e.,
Left or Gauche, while CW fans are referred to as RD, i.e, Right or Droit-handed rotation.












2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
DESIGNATION FOR ROTATION
AND DISCHARGE OF
CENTRIFUGAL FANS
An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on April 17, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2406-03
PAGE 1 OF 2


METHODS OF DESIGNATION OF THE ANGULAR POSITION OF
COMPONENT PARTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL FAN


360
0
180
0
225
0
270
0
315
0
90
0
45
0
135
0
360
0
270
0
315
0
90
0
135
0
45
0
225
0
180
0
CCW Example 1 CW Example 2



Outlet CCW 315 Outlet CW 360
Inspection door CCW 135 Inspection door CW 45
Inlet box CCW 45 Inlet box CW 360
Motor CCW 360 Motor CW 135



















2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
DESIGNATION FOR ROTATION
AND DISCHARGE OF
CENTRIFUGAL FANS
An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on April 17, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2406-03
PAGE 2 OF 2










Location of motor is determined by facing the drive side of the fan and designating the
motor position by letters W, X, Y or Z as the case may be.









2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.


Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
ANSI/AMCA
99-2407-03
PAGE 1 OF 1
MOTOR POSITIONS FOR BELT
OR CHAIN DRIVE
CENTRIFUGAL FANS
An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on April 17, 2003


5000 6000 7000 4000 3000 2000 1000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
4" @ 4175
OUTLET VELOCITY (OV) feet per minute
S
T
A
T
I
C

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

(
S
P
)

i
n
c
h
e
s

o
f

w
a
t
e
r
To be designated as meeting the requirements of a specified Class,
as defined in this Standard, a fan must be physically capable of
operating safely at every point of rating on or below the "minimum
performance" limit for that Class.
Fan is required to be physically capable
of performing over this range.
13" @ 3780
8" @ 3000
CLASS III
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS II
SELECTION ZONE
2" @ 3200
CLASS I
SELECTION ZONE
5" @ 2300
Ratings may be published
in this UPPER RANGE.
6" @ 5260
Ratings may be published
in this LOWER RANGE.
Typical Class II
characteristic curve.
20
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
I m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
C
L
A
S
S

I


1983 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.


Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
OPERATING LIMITS FOR
SINGLE WIDTH CENTRIFUGAL
FANS Ventilating Airfoils &
Backwardly Inclined.
Supersedes 2408-69
AMCA
STANDARD
99-2408-69
PAGE 1 OF 5
Adopted
10-20-69
Reviewed
1983


5000 6000 7000 4000 3000 2000 1000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
4" @ 4380
8" @ 3150
6" @ 5520
5" @ 2415
2" @ 3360
13" @ 3970















To be designated as meeting the requirements of a specified Class,
as defined in this Standard, a fan must be physically capable of
operating safely at every point of rating on or below the "minimum
performance" limit for that Class.
Ratings may be published
in this UPPER RANGE.
Fan is required to be physically capable
of performing over this range.
CLASS III
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS II
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS I
SELECTION ZONE
Ratings may be published
in this LOWER RANGE.
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
I
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e













C
L
A
S
S

I
OUTLET VELOCITY (OV) feet per minute
S
T
A
T
I
C

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

(
S
P
)

i
n
c
h
e
s

o
f

w
a
t
e
r


1983 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.


Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
OPERATING LIMITS FOR
DOUBLE WIDTH CENTRIFUGAL
FANS Ventilating Airfoils &
Backwardly Inclined.
Supersedes 2408-69
AMCA
STANDARD
99-2408-69
PAGE 2 OF 5
Adopted
10-20-69
Reviewed
1983


6" @ 3640
5000 6000 7000 4000 3000 2000 1000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19






20




10" @ 4600
5" @ 6100
3" @ 4900
4" @ 2800
2" @ 3700

To be designated as meeting the requirements of a specified Class,
as defined in this Standard, a fan must be physically capable of
operating safely at every point of rating on or below the "minimum
performance" limit for the Class.
Ratings may be published
in this UPPER RANGE.
Fan is required to be physically
capable if performing
over this range.
CLASS III
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS II
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS I
SELECTION ZONE
Ratings may be published
in this LOWER RANGE.
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
I
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e












C
L
A
S
S

I
OUTLET VELOCITY (OV) feet per minute
S
T
A
T
I
C

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

(
S
P
)

i
n
c
h
e
s

o
f

w
a
t
e
r


1983 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.


Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
OPERATING LIMITS FOR
SINGLE WIDTH CENTRIFUGAL
FANS Ventilating Forward Curved.

Supersedes 2408-69
AMCA
STANDARD
99-2408-69
PAGE 3 OF 5
Adopted
10-20-69
Reviewed
1983


5000 6000 7000 4000 3000 2000 1000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
3" @ 5150
OUTLET VELOCITY (OV) feet per minute
S
T
A
T
I
C

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

(
S
P
)

i
n
c
h
e
s

o
f

w
a
t
e
r
To be designated as meeting the requirements of a specified Class,
as defined in this Standard, a fan must be physically capable of
operating safely at every point of rating on or below the "minimum
performance" limit for that Class.
10" @ 4800
5" @ 6400
CLASS III
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS II
SELECTION ZONE
2" @ 3900
CLASS I
SELECTION ZONE
4" @ 2900
Ratings may be published
in this UPPER RANGE.
6" @ 3800
Ratings may be published
in this LOWER RANGE.
20
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
I
Fan is required to be physically
capable of performing
over this range.
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

C
L
A
S
S

I
I
m
i
n
i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
C
L
A
S
S

I


1983 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.


Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
OPERATING LIMITS FOR
DOUBLE WIDTH CENTRIFUGAL
FANS Ventilating Forward Curved.

Supersedes 2408-69
AMCA
STANDARD
99-2408-69
PAGE 4 OF 5
Adopted
10-20-69
Reviewed
1983


3000 2000 1000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
4" @ 2350








13" @ 2050
8" @ 1630
2" @ 1800
5" @ 1250


6" @ 2950

20



0
To be designated as meeting the requirements of a specified Class,
as defined in this Standard, a fan must be physically capable of
operating safely at every point of rating on or below the "minimum
performance" limit for that Class.
Ratings may be published
in this UPPER RANGE. Fan is required to be physically
capable of performing
over this range.
Ratings may be published
in this LOWER RANGE.
CLASS III
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS II
SELECTION ZONE
CLASS I
SELECTION ZONE
m
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p
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C
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A
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I
I
m
i
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p
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m
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C
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A
S
S

I
I
m
i
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i
m
u
m

p
e
r
f
o
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m
a
n
c
e













C
L
A
S
S

I
OUTLET VELOCITY (OV) feet per minute
S
T
A
T
I
C

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

(
S
P
)

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1983 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.


Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.

OPERATING LIMITS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL FANS Tubular.

Supersedes 2408-69
AMCA
STANDARD
99-2408-69
PAGE 5 OF 5
Adopted
10-20-69
Reviewed
1983

Motor
Left
View Facing Outlet
Motor Shown in Position 360
360
45
90
135
180
225
270
315
View Facing Outlet
View Facing Outlet


Arrow designates the direction of airflow.

Rotation of fans is determined by viewing from the fan outlet end.

Specify either up blast or down blast discharge for vertically-mounted fans.

The locations of motors, supports, access doors, etc., are determined by
viewing the outlet of the fan and resting location 180 on the floor as shown for
Arrangement 9.

Arrangements 4 and 9 can be furnished with supports for floor, wall or ceiling
mounting. The position of these supports determines which motor locations
are available for motor placement. Generally motor locations 135, 180, and
225 are not available on floor, wall or inverted ceiling-mounted fans and motor
locations 45, 90, 270 and 315 may not be available for ceiling-hung fans.

Another method of mounting vertical fans is shown in the view on the right.
Specify fan to be furnished with ceiling-mounting brackets, floor mounting
brackets, or both.



ARRANGEMENT 1
For belt drive. Impeller overhung on
a shaft supported by bearings
mounted within casing. Motor
mounted independent of casing.
Horizontal discharge.




ARRANGEMENT 4
For direct drive. Impeller overhung
on motor shaft. Motor supported
within casing. For horizontal or
vertical discharge. Duct mounting
shown.




ARRANGEMENT 9
For belt drive. Impeller overhung on
a shaft supported by bearings
mounted within casing. Designed
for mounting of motor on outside of
casing in one of the standard
locations shown. For horizontal and
vertical discharge. Duct mounting
shown.



Vertical Mounting
Ceiling-Mounting Brackets
Floor-Mounting Brackets





2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
DRIVE ARRANGEMENTS FOR
TUBULAR CENTRIFUGAL FANS
An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on May 20, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2410-03
PAGE 1 OF 1




A
B
D





Outlet Area Max
(Inside dimensions)
A x B
Outlet Area Max
(Inside dimensions)
A x B
SWSI DWDI
Impeller
Diameter
D
SWSI DWDI
m
2
m
2
mm inches ft
2
ft
2

0.081
0.083
0.098

0.145
0.149
.0176
311
*315
343
12.25

13.50
0.86

1.05
1.55

1.89
0.105
0.121
0.133
0.189
0.218
0.240
*355
381
*400
15.00



1.29

2.33


0.146
0.169
0.179
0.263
0.304
0.322
419
*450
464
16.50

18.25
1.57

1.91
2.82

3.45
0.208
0.215
0.261
0.375
0.387
0.470
*500
508
*560
20.00



2.30

4.14


0.266
0.323
0.331
0.479
0.581
0.595
565
622
*630
22.25
24.50
2.85
3.45
5.12
6.21
0.392
0.420
0.484
0.705
0.756
0.871
686
*710
762
27.00

30.00
4.19

5.17
7.54

9.31
0.533
0.585
0.675
0.960
1.054
1.215
*800
838
*900

33.00


6.26


11.27

0.716
0.833
0.871
1.289
1.500
1.568
927
*1000
1022
36.50

40.25
7.66

9.31
13.79

16.77



Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
IMPELLER DIAMETERS & OUTLET
AREAS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 7, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2412-03
PAGE 1 OF 2
2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Notes:
1. SWSI = Single width, single inlet
fan.
DWDI = Double width, double
inlet fan.
2. Precise outlet area:
SI
SWSI:
OA(m
2
) = 0.833E-06 (D
mm
)
2

DWDI:
OA(m
2
) = 1.5E-06 (D
mm
)
2

I-P
SWSI:
OA(ft
2
) = 5.74967E-03 (D
in.
)
2

DWDI:
OA(ft
2
) = 1.034941E-03 (D
in.
)
2

3. A fan conforming to this Standard
shall not exceed the impeller
diameter or maximum outlet area
shown.

*Preferred sizes in SI and in
accordance with ISO 13351.





A
B
D




Outlet Area max
(Inside dimensions)
A x B
Outlet Area Max
(Inside dimension)
A x B
SWSI DWDI
Impeller
Diameter
D
SWSI DWDI
m
2
m
2
mm inches ft
2
ft
2

1.045
1.065
1.291
1.882
1.916
2.324
*1120
1130
1245

44.50
49.00

11.39
13.80

20.49
24.85
1.302
1.582
1.633
2.344
2.848
2.940
*1250
1378
*1400
54.25 16.92
30.46
1.935
2.133
2.342
3.484
3.840
4.215
1524
*1600
1676
60.00

66.00
20.70

25.05
37.26

45.08
2.700
2.865
3.333
4.860
5.157
6.000
*1800
1854
*2000
73.00 30.64 55.15
3.506
4.181
4.259
6.310
7.526
7.665
2051
*2240
2261
80.75

89.00
37.49

45.54
67.48

81.98
5.190
5.208
6.358
9.342
9.375
11.445
2496
*2500
2762
98.25

108.75
55.50

68.00
99.90
122.40
6.533
7.742
8.269
11.760
13.935
14.884
*2800
3048
*3150
120.00 82.80

149.03

9.439
10.502

16.990
18.904

3366
*3550


132.50

100.94 181.70




Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
IMPELLER DIAMETERS & OUTLET
AREAS FOR
CENTRIFUGAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on August 7, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2412-03
PAGE 2 OF 2
2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Notes:
1. SWSI = Single width, single inlet fan.
DWDI = Double width, double inlet
fan.
2. Precise outlet area:
SI
SWSI:
OA(m
2
) = 0.833E-06 (D
mm
)
2

DWDI:
OA(m
2
) = 1.5E-06 (D
mm
)
2

I-P
SWSI:
OA(ft
2
) = 5.74967E-03 (D
in.
)
2

DWDI:
OA(ft
2
) = 1.034941E-03 (D
in.
)
2

3. A fan conforming to this Standard
shall not exceed the impeller diameter
or maximum outlet area shown.

*Preferred sizes in SI and in accordance
with ISO 13351.



Outlet Area
Max (Inside
Dimensions)
A x B
Impeller
Diameter
D*
Inlet Diameter,
Maximum at Point of
Connection (Inside Diameter C)
Impeller
Diameter
D
Outlet Area
Max (Inside
Dimensions)
A x B
m
2
mm mm inches inches ft
2

0.020
0.031
0.049
*280
*355
*450
*160
*200
*250


0.078


*560

*315
11

13
19.13

22.63
0.66

0.92

1.26


*710

*400
15

17
22.13

29.63
1.23

1.58

0.196


*900

*500
19

21
33.00

36.50
1.97

2.41
0.246

0.312
*1000

*1120
*560

*630

23

40.00

2.89

0.396


*1250

*710
26

29
45.13

50.50
3.69

4.59
0.503

0.636
*1400

*1600
*800

*900

33

57.50

5.94

0.785


*1800

*1000
37

41
64.38

71.25
7.47

9.17
0.985


*2000 *1120

45
49

78.25
85.25

11.04
13.10
1.227

1.539
*2240

*2500
*1250

*1400

54

93.75

15.90

2.011

*2800

*1600
60 104.25 19.63



Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
IMPELLER DIAMETERS & OUTLET
AREAS FOR INDUSTRIAL
CENTRIFUGAL FANS
An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on April 17, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2413-03
PAGE 1 OF 1
Notes:
1. Maximum impeller
diameter: (SI) = 1.75 x
maximum inlet inside
diameter; rounded up to
next highest standard SI
impeller size.
(I-P) = 1.75 x maximum
inlet inside diameter.

2. A fan conforming to
this standard shall not
exceed the impeller
diameter or maximum
outlet area shown.

*Preferred sizes in SI
and in accordance with
ISO 13351.
2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.

Outlet Area
Maximum
(r
2
)

Impeller
Diameter
D
Outlet Area
Maximum
(r
2
)

m
2


mm

inches

ft
2


0.145
0.149
0.176

311
*315
343

12.25

13.50

1.55

1.89

0.189
0.218
0.240

*355
381
*400


15.00


2.33

0.263
0.304
0.322

419
*450
464

16.50

18.25

2.82

3.45

0.375
0.387
0.470

*500
508
*560


20.00


4.14

0.479
0.581
0.595

565
622
*630

22.25
24.50

5.12
6.21

0.705
0.756
0.871

686
*710
762

27.00

30.00

7.54

9.31

0.960
1.054
1.215

*800
838
*900


33.00


11.27

1.289
1.500
2.568

927
*1000
1022

36.50

40.25

13.79

16.77

1.882
1.916
2.324

*1120
1130
1245


44.50
49.00


20.49
24.85








Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
IMPELLER DIAMETERS & OUTLET
AREAS FOR TUBULAR
CENTRIFUGAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on July 8, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2414-03
PAGE 1 OF 2
2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Notes:
1. Precise outlet area=

SI: OA(m
2
)

= 1.5x10
-06
(D(mm))
2


I-P: OA(ft
2
)=1.034941x10
-02
(D(in.))
2


2. A fan conforming to this Standard
shall not exceed the impeller diameter or
maximum outlet area shown.

3. Outlet areas in SI and I-P units are
not exactly equal due to rounding of
sizes in the respective systems.

*Preferred sizes in SI and conforming to
ISO 13351.

Outlet
Area
Maximum
(r
2
)

Impeller
Diameter
D
Outlet Area
Maximum
(r
2
)

m
2


mm

inches

ft
2


2.344
2.848
2.940

*1250
1378
*1400


54.25


30.46

3.484
3.840
4.215

1524
*1600
1676

60.00

66.00

37.26

45.08

4.860
5.157
6.000

*1800
1854
*2000


73.00


55.15

6.310
7.526
7.665

2051
*2240
2261

80.75

89.00

67.48

81.98

9.342
9.375
11.445

2496
*2500
2762

98.25

108.75

99.90

122.40

11.760
13.935
14.884

*2800
3048
*3150


120.00


149.03

16.990
18.904

3366
*3550

132.50

181.70










Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
IMPELLER DIAMETERS & OUTLET
AREAS FOR TUBULAR
CENTRIFUGAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on July 8, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-2414-03
PAGE 2 OF 2
2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Notes:
1. Precise outlet area=

SI: OA(m
2
)

= 1.5x10
-06
(D(mm))
2


I-P: OA(ft
2
)=1.034941x10
-02
(D(in.))
2


2. A fan conforming to this Standard
shall not exceed the impeller diameter or
maximum outlet area shown.

3. Outlet areas in SI and I-P units are
not exactly equal due to rounding of
sizes in the respective systems.

*Preferred sizes in SI and conforming to
ISO 13351.



I.D.
FAN SIZE
MOTOR


CUTAWAY VIEW
(Motor Support Not Shown)



Fan Size
(Casing ID)
mm
Outlet Area
m
2

200
224
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
710
800
900
1000
1120
1250
1400
1600
1800
2000
2240
2500
2800
3150
3550
0.031
0.039
0.049
0.062
0.078
0.099
0.126
0.159
0.196
0.246
0.312
0.396
0.503
0.636
0.785
0.985
1.23
1.54
2.01
2.54
3.14
3.94
4.91
6.16
7.79
9.90



Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.

DIMENSIONS FOR AXIAL FANS


An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on May 22, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-3001-03
PAGE 1 OF 1
2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.
Notes:
1. This standard is not limited
to the range of sizes listed.
Smaller and larger fan sizes
conforming to the R20 series,
with the 1000mm size as a
base, may be included. See
AMCA 99-0098, Basic Series of
Preferred Numbers.

2. Fan size is based upon
casing ID; impeller diameter is
slightly smaller.


AMCA Drive
Arrangement
ISO 13349
Drive
Arrangement
Description
Fan
Configuration
Alternative Fan
Configuration

1

1
12 (Arr. 1 with
sub-base)
For belt or direct drive.

Impeller overhung on shaft,
two bearings mounted either
upstream or downstream of
the impeller.

Alternative: Single stage or
two stage fans can be
supplied with inlet box and/or
discharge evas.








3


3
11 (Arr. 3 with
sub-base)
For belt or direct drive.

Impeller mounted on shaft
between bearings on internal
supports.

Alternative: Fan can be
supplied with inlet box,
and/or discharge evas.






4

4
For direct drive.

Impeller overhung on motor
shaft. No bearings on fan.
Motor mounted on base or
integrally mounted.

Alternative: With inlet box
and/or with discharge evas.

M M



M M


7

7
For direct drive.

Generally the same as Arr. 3
with base for the prime
mover.

Alternative: With inlet box
and/or discharge evas.

M




M


8

8
For direct drive.

Generally the same as Arr. 1
with base for the prime
mover.

Alternative: Single stage or
two stage fans can be
supplied with inlet box and/or
discharge evas.


M



M


9

9
For belt drive.

Generally same as Arr. 1 with
motor mounted on fan
casing, and/or an integral
base.

Alternative: With inlet box
and/or discharge evas.




M


NOTE: All fan orientations may be horizontal or vertical.

2003 Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc.

Air Movement and
Control Association
International, Inc.
Arlington Heights, IL
60004-1893 U.S.A.
DRIVE ARRANGEMENTS FOR
AXIAL FANS

An American National Standard
Approved by ANSI on June 10, 2003
ANSI/AMCA
99-3404-03
PAGE 1 OF 1