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Chapter 1 The Essence of UNIX and Linux Operating system (OS) most important program that runs on a computer;

r; it enables user to store information, process raw data, use application software, and access all hardware attached to a computer (printer or keyboard); it controls all the computers resources and provides the base upon which application programs can be used or written A PC (stand-alone machine: desktop/laptop) operating system conducts all the input, output, processing, and storage operations on a single computer Server operating systems the heart of a computer network; controls the operations of a server computer Server computer or host computer accepts requests from user programs running on other machines (clients); provides multiuser access to network resources, including sharing files, hard disks and printers; servers can be PC-type computers, clusters of PCtype computers working as one or several units, or mainframes; a server can be on a private or public network Server-based network users data and applications reside on the server (centralized approach); system administrator secures all the information on the network by securing the server and maintains the users applications and performs backup operations directly on the server Peer-to-peer network often used on small networks; each system on the peer to peer network is both a server and a client, hence no central server to manage user accounts; data and applications reside on the individual systems in the network; software upgrades and backup must be performed locally at each computer; security is not uniformly implemented; users are responsible for adminsitering their own systems Mainframe large computer that has historically offered extensive processing, mass storage and client access for industrial-strength computing; today, most of mainframe computers are being replaced by PC-type computers that are designed as servers with powerful processing and disk storage capabilities and cost considerably less than mainframes Computer network combines the convenience and familiarity of the personal computer with the ability to share files and other computer resources; networked computers are connected by cables and through wireless communication (Ex: Internet) UNIX and Linux: - Everyday user - friendly systems that offer a huge array of commercial and free software (ex: free office suite) - Programmer ideal for collaborativew development of software because they offer powerful tools and utilities

System administrators contain time tested and leading edge tools for networking and multiuser management Multiuser systems allow many people to simultaneously access share the resources of a server computer Multitasking operating systems allow one user to execute more than one program at a time Has built-in networking functions; they can be used on systems functioning as: o dedicated servers in a server based network o client workstations connected to a server based network o client/server workstations connected to a peer to peer network o stand-alone workstations not connected to a network Portable operating systems can be used in a variety of environments o connect to the Internet o executing popular programs such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP) an Internet protocol used for sending files, and Telnet an Internet terminal emulation program that enables a PC to respond like a terminal (a device that has a monitor and keyboard but no CPU; aka dumb terminal) Employ Secure Shell (SSH) a form of authentication developed for UNIX/Linux systems to provide security for communications over a network Advantages of UNIX/Linux: o Enable employees to work on a range of computers (portability) o Are stable, reliable and versatile o Have thousands of applications written for them, both commercial and free o Offer many security options o Are well suited for networked environments

UNIX - originally developed by a group of programmers at AT&T Bell Labs in the late 1960s and early 1970s - it was distributed in its source code form, so users can customized it as needed - standard versions of UNIX - SystemV (SysV) developed by AT&T Bell Labs and Berkeley Software Distributions (BSD) by UC Berkeley; Linux has features of both versions - Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX (POSIX) project standardize UNIX UNIX concept: - Shell an interface between the user and the operating system, and the hierchical structure of directories and subdirectories - Layered components that make up an operating system layers of software surround the computer systems inner core to protect the hardware and software components and to manage the core system and its users (pyramid structure)

User s

Access through User mode

Shells Access through Kernel mode UNIX operating system (Kernel)

Hardware

o At the bottom of the pyramid is the hardware. At the top are the users. The layers between provide insulation, ensuring system security and user privacy. The kernel is the base operating system, and it interacts directly with the hardware, software services, application programs, and usercreated scripts (which are files containing commands to execute). It is accessible only through Kernel mode, which is reserved for the system administrator. This prevents unauthorized commands from invading basic operating system code and hardware resulting in actions that might hang or disrupt smooth operating system functions. User mode provides access to higher layers where all application software resides. UNIX was wrote in C programming language, this operating system can be installed on any computer that has a C compiler

Linux - modern operating system - variant of UNIX, Linux runs on PCs with Intel-type processors, but use the same file systems and commands as other UNIX versions - a UNIX-like operating system because it is not written from the traditional UNIX code. Instead, it is original code (the kernel) created to look and act like UNIX, but with enhancements that include the POSIX standards. Linus Torvalds, who released it to the public free of charge in 1991, originally created Linux. A number of organizations and companies now offer free and commercial distributions or versions of Linux. - popular server system on the Web and in businesses (Google Linux Web server) - popular versions of Linux: Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux, Knoppix - Linux offers all the complexity of UNIX and can be obtained at no cost; or, for a relatively small amount of money - With all the networking features of commercial UNIX versions, Linux is robust enough to handle large tasks. - You can install Linux on your PC,where it can coexist with other operating systems, and test your UNIX skills

The shell is a UNIX/Linux program that interprets the commands you enter from the keyboard. UNIX/Linux provide several shells, including the Bourne shell, the Korn shell, and the C shell. - Stephen Bourne at AT&T Bell Labs developed the Bourne shell as the first UNIX command processor. - Another Bell employee, David Korn, developed the Korn shell. Compatible with the Bourne shell, the Korn shell includes many extensions, such as a history feature that lets you use a keyboard shortcut to retrieve commands you previously entered. - The C shell is designed for C programmers use. - Linux uses the freeware Bash shell as its default command interpreter. Its name is an acronym for Bourne Again Shell, and it includes the best features of the Korn and Bourne shells. - No matter which shell you use, your initial communications with UNIX/Linux always take place through a shell interpreter. If you use a graphical user interface (GUI) desktop (similar to MicrosoftWindows with graphics and icons),which you learn about later in this chapter and in Chapter 11,then your communications occur through the GUI desktop. To use commands, you open a special window,called a terminal window,and your communications with the operating system occur through a shell interpreter within the terminal window.Most versions of UNIX and Linux that support using a GUI desktop offer a terminal window. This is a powerful feature because it is literally your window to using commands. All of the commands that you learn in this book can be used in a terminal window or directly from the command line on a system that does not use a GUI desktop