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Q-1 Discuss the General aspect of Sanitary Engineering . Ans. When ever supplied water is to be used it has to be suitably disposed off. The other wastes from the society are also to be carried and disposed off at suitable places so as to protect the public health. Thus, the end of water supply scheme is the starting point of sanitary project. Much attention was not paid to this branch of public health engineering in olden days. The people found out their own methods and the public life was so adjusted that sanitation of a locality did not impose serious problems in those days. The accommodation of lavatories in the unit of residential building, construction of flats, development of cities, concentration of population at few points, coming up of large public places and institutions, etc, are some of the factors responsible for the scientific development of sanitary engineering. The sanitary projects require careful thinking and planning. A sanitary scheme is not so simple as a water supply scheme. It requires many factors to be taken into account before a particular line of treatment is recommended. The importance of this branch of engineering is gradually increasing day by day and attempts are being made to simplify the processes of waste disposal. The day-to-day consumption of water reduces the available quota of natural water. This factor has led the scientists to find out ways and means of procuring fresh potable water. The first remedy to increase the quota of natural water was the conversion of sea water into potable water. No satisfactory method of such conversion has yet been found out. Chemical Engineers are at present engaged in converting sea water economically into fresh water so as to obtain a good source of water supply for areas located nearby sea. The other development that has recently taken place is the conversion of final effluent from sewage treatment plant into potable water and it is technically known as waste water reclamation. There are better chances for this latter development for becoming successful, especially for water deficient areas and a time may come when sewage, after being properly treated, will be supplied as potable water to public. The success of waste water reclamation in future in preference to desalination is based on the fact that ordinary sewage contains approximately 99.9 per cent water while average sea water is only 96.5 percent water. Thus, a complete cycle of operations will be formed-supply of water, consumption of water, formation of sewage, treatment of sewage and supply of treated sewage as potable water. The public health engineers should have a broad knowledge of all aspects of the subject of water quality control, i.e. inter-dependence between water, wastewater and pollution control. Q-2 What is the Purpose of sanitation? Enlist the fundamental principle of Sanitation and discuss any three of them. Ans. The main purpose of sanitation is to maintain an environments that will not affect the public health in general. Sanitation create such conditions of living which will not result into serious outbreak of epidemic or in other words, it is a preventive measure for the preservation of health of community . Principles of sanitation:

Following are some of the fundamental principles of sanitation which result in better living conditions: 1. Collection and conveyance 2- Interior decoration 3- Orientation of building4- Prevention of dampness 5- Supply of water 6- Treatment of waste

1. Collection and conveyance: The basic principle of sanitation is to remove any waste matter as early as possible after its formation. The earlier it is removed, the more it will be harmless. The waste matter may be in any of the three forms-solid, liquid or gaseous. 2. Interior decoration: The interior decoration of the building should be done after giving a serious thinking. The substances which are likely to catch dust should not be generally placed in room or if placed, arrangement should be made to clean them periodically. 3. Orientation of building: In order to achieve natural ventilation, the orientation of building should be made to achieve the natural conditions at site of construction of building. The building should be so oriented with respect to the local climatic conditions that all the rooms are properly lighted naturally and that there is free circulation of fresh air. 4. Prevention of dampness: The construction of building should be damp-proof. The health of human body is considerably affected when there is presence of damp in the surroundings. 5. Supply of water: There should be plentiful supply of pure water to the building. The polluted water leads to the development of unhygienic conditions in the building. 6. Treatment of waste: All the waste matter received from the building should be disposed off only after giving proper treatment to it. Thus the effluent from sewage plant should be thrown into Natural River or stream after it has been made harmless. Q- 3 Enlist all the points of important in any public sanitary project and discuss any four of them. Ans. Following are the points of importance in any public sanitary project: 1. Financial aspect 2-Population 3-Present methods of disposal 4-Quality of sewage 5- Rainfall 6- Rate of sewage 7-Sources of sewage 8- Topography of the area 9- Treatment methods 10-Trends of town development Explanation. 1. Financial Aspect: Any sanitary project for its complete achievement requires considerable fund. The project should, therefore, be made as economical as possible by taking the advantage of available natural conditions. Always try to prepare the alternative design /options and choose one of the best that has low effect of cost. 2. Population: It is the general practice to design the sanitary project in such a way that it will accommodate the population after three or four decades. The present population is worked out from the study of census records and the forecast of probable population after three or four decades is made by the application of any suitable method. 3 Present methods of disposal: The present methods of waste disposal should be properly studied and a sincere attempt should be made to make the maximum use of existing conditions. 4. Quality of sewage: The quality of sewage should be ascertained after its proper analysis and depending upon its properties, a line of treatment should be recommended.

5. Rainfall: Their should be proper arrangement of removal of storm/ rain water by some suitable disposal method. Therefore data of rainfall in the locality of project prove to be useful to determine the quantity of storm water. 6. Rate of sewage: A suitable rate of sewage should be assumed for the design of various units of sanitary project. The usual assumption made in this connection is that the rate of sewage is very nearly equal to the rate of supply of water. 7. Sources of sewage: The probable sources which are going to contribute the sewage should be properly studied. The source of sewage gives some idea regarding the quantity and quality of sewage. 8. Topography of the area: The topographical map of the area to be served by the sanitary project should be prepared and it should be studied in relation to low lying areas, ridges, density of population, nature of soil layers, site of treatment plant, etc. The study of the topographical map of the area is essential for simple and cheap sanitary system. 9. Treatment methods: The treatment methods should be prepared and the methods of disposal of final products of the treatment should be carefully decided. 10. Trends of town development: The trends of town development in future should be properly adjusted in the project. Such trends may take various forms such as possibility of new industries, public recreation centers, public institutions, new residential colonies, etc. Q-4 What type of drawings are prepared for guiding supervisory staff also write the points which are included in writing a report for sanitary project. Ans. Following drawings are usually prepared: 1. Contour plans of the area 2- Detailed drawings of all units of project 3-Diagram of proposed treatment methods 4-Site plan showing location of scheme 5-Topographical map The points which are generally included in writing a report are given below. 1. Acquisition of land for the project 2. Alignments and gradients of sewers 3. Designs with detailed calculations of various units of the sanitary project 4. Existing methods of waste disposal 5. Financial aspect of the project 6. Layout and design of sewers 7. Nature of industrial development 8. Specifications of construction work 9. Population to be served by the project-at present and in future 10. Probable revenue from the project 11. Pumps and pumping machinery required for the project 12. Quality of sewage 13-Sources of sewage 14- Standards of purification Q-5 Describe the aspects to be considered at the time of final selection of Site for sewage treatment works: Ans Following aspects are considered: 1. Good foundation soil should be available for various sewage treatment units to rest firmly on the ground. 2. The general slope of the site should neither be too steep nor too flat. It will assist in placing various treatment units at such levels that sewage may flow from one unit to the other by gravity only.

3. The general level of the site should be lowest level area of the town or city so that the sewage from the entire town or city can be collected and conveyed by gravity only. 4. The location of site should be suitable with respect to the method of sewage treatment to be adopted for the project. 5. The location of site should be such that enough area is available for future expansion of the project. 6. The proximity of water course or enough waste land for irrigation will be considered as an additional advantage. 7. The site should be safe from floods for all the time. 8. The site should be situated on the leeward side of wind so that the undesirable odours will be prevented from entering the town or city. 9. The site should not be, as far as possible, far away from the town or city. 10. The subsoil water level at the site should remain low even during monsoon. Q-6 What points are considered while making Design of Sewage treatment plant. Ans. Following points should be kept in mind for making design of the sewage treatment plant: 1. Every unit of the plant should have flexibility in control and operation. 2. The design of the plant should be aimed at granting the safety of health of the personnel operating the plant. 3. The major units of the plant should have by pass facilities which can be put into commission during emergency. 4. The overall design of the plant should be such that there is easy accessibility for operation and maintaining valves and sampling points. 5. There should be adequate alternative provisions in case the plant fails or is shut down for repairs or any other reason. 6. There should be some alternative for operating of the plant when its outlet is submerged under high water. 7. The treatment plant should accommodate a full fledged laboratory in which routine tests can be carried out for the performance of various units of the plant.

Q-7 Define the following 1- Bacteria 2- Invert 3- Refuse 4- Dilute or weak sewage Ans. 1. Bacteria: These are microscopic unicellular plants or organisms and for the study of sanitary engineering, they are divided into three groups, namely, aerobic, anaerobic and facultative. The aerobic bacteria require light and free oxygen for their existence and development. The anaerobic bacteria do not require light and free oxygen for their existence and development. The facultative bacteria can exist in presence or absence of oxygen, but they grow in plenty in absence of air. 2. Invert: The lowermost level of a sewer is known as its invert and in the construction of sewers, the invert levels are to be carefully checked for the proper functioning of the sewer line. 3. Refuse:

The term refuse is used to indicate what is rejected or left as worthless and for the study of sanitary engineering it is divided into five categories: i. Garbage: The Term garbage is used to indicate dry refuse and it includes decayed fruits, grass, leaves, paper pieces, and vegetables, etc. ii. Sewage: The term sewage is used to indicate the liquid waste from the community and it includes sullage, discharge from latrines, urinals, etc, industrial waste and storm water. The term night soil is sometimes used to indicate the human and animal excreta. iii. Storm water: The term storm water is used to indicate the rain water of the locality. iv. Subsoil water This indicates the ground water which finds its entry into sewers through leaks. v. Sullage: The term sullage is used to indicate the waste water from bath rooms, kitchens, etc. It is merely waste water and does not create bad smell. 4-Dilute or weak sewage: This term is used for sewage containing less suspended solid matters. Q-8 What do you mean by 1- Combined sewage 2- Crude or raw sewage3- Dry weather flow 4- Fresh sewage5- Industrial sewage 6- Septic sewage Ans. 1-Combined sewage: This indicates a combination of sanitary sewage and storm water with or without industrial waste. 2-Crude or raw sewage: This indicates the sewage that is not treated. Domestic or sanitary sewage: This indicates sewage mainly derived from residential or business buildings, institutions, etc, and it may or may not contain storm water. 3-Dry weather flow: This indicates the normal flow of sewage during dry season of the year. 4-Fresh sewage: This term is used to indicate the sewage which has been recently originated or produced. 5-Industrial sewage: This term is used to indicate the sewage in which industrial wastes are predominant. 6-Septic sewage: This indicates sewage which is under-going the treatment process. 7-Wet weather flow: This indicates the normal flow of sewage during rainy season of the year. Q-9 Differtiate between Sewer and Sewerage also discuss all the terminologies Sewer. Ans A-Sewer :Drains through which sewage is conveyed are known as sewers. concerning to

B- Sewerage: The entire science of collection and carrying sewage by water carriage system through sewers is known as sewerage . Terminologies of Sewers 1-Branch or sub main sewer: This term is used to indicate the sewer which obtains its discharge from a few laterals and delivers it to the main sewer. It thus serves only a relatively small area.

2-Combined Sewer: The sewer which carries domestic sewage and storm water is known as combined sewer. 3-Common sewer: The sewer on which all the inhabitants have equal legal rights 4-Depressed sewer: When an obstruction is met with, then sewer is constructed lower than the adjacent sections to overcome the obstruction. Such a section of sewer is known as depressed sewer. 5-Intercepting sewer: This term is used to indicate the sewer which intercepts the discharge from a number of main sewers and it carries the flow to the point of treatment . 6-Lateral sewer: The sewer obtaining its discharge directly from buildings is known as a lateral sewer and it thus indicates the first stage of sewage collection. 7-Main Sewer: This term is used to indicate the sewer which obtains its discharge from a few branch or submain sewers. It thus serves relatively a large area. 8-Outfall sewer: The length of main or trunk sewer between the connection of the lowest branch and final point of disposal is known as an outfall sewer and it thus conducts the sewage either to the treatment plant or to the point of final discharge. 9-Relief or overflow sewer: The sewer which is meant to carry the excess discharge from an exiting sewer is known as a relief sewer. 10-Trunk sewer: The sewer which obtains its discharge from two or more main sewers is known as a trunk sewer. Sewerage: The entire science of collection and carrying sewage by water carriage system through sewers is known as sewerage and the sewage thus collected and conveyed is taken to a suitable place for its disposal.