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CS101 Introduction to Computing

Lecture 30
Internet Services

During the last lecture (Introduction to the Internet)

We looked at the role Internet plays in todays computing

We reviewed some of the history and evolution of the Internet

Internet: The Enabler

Enables attractively-priced workers located in Pakistan to provide services to overseas clients Enables users to easily share information with others located all over the world Enables users to easily, inexpensively communicate with others remote users Enables the users to operate and run programs on computers located all over the world 3

The Internet is unlike any previous human invention. It is a world-wide resource, accessible to all of the humankind.

Key Characteristics (1)

Geographic Distribution Global - reaches around the world Robust Architecture

Adapts to damage and error Speed

Data can travels at near c on copper, fiber, airwaves 5

Key Characteristics (2)

Universal Access Same functionality to everyone Growth Rate The fastest growing technology ever Freedom of Speech Promotes freedom of speech The Digital Advantage Is digital: can correct errors

Internet: Network of Networks

A large number of networks, interconnected physically Capable of communicating and sharing data with each other

From the users point view, Internet a collection of interconnected networks looks like a single, unified network 7

TCP/IP (2)
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCP breaks down the message to be sent over the Internet into packets

IP routes these packets through the Internet to get them to their destination When the packets reach the destination computer, TCP reassembles them into the original message 8

1960's 1969 - DoD-ARPA creates an experimental network ARPANET as a test-bed for emerging networking technologies

ARPANET originally connected 4 universities & enabled scientists to share info & resources across long distances

1980's 1983 - The TCP/IP protocols becomes the only set of protocols used on the ARPANET This sets a standard for all networks, and generates the use of the term Internet as the net of nets


1990's 1993 - CERN releases WWW, developed by Tim Berners-Lee It uses HTTP and hypertext, revolutionizing the way info is presented & accessed on Internet


1990's 1993-1994 - Web browsers Mosaic & Netscape Navigator are introduced Their GUI makes WWW & Internet more appealing to the general public


Todays Goal: Internet Services

To look at several services provided by the Internet
FTP Telnet Web eMail Instant messaging VoIP

But first, we need to find out about the addressing scheme used on the Internet

Internet Addressing
Regular post cannot be delivered unless we write a destination address on the envelope Same is true for the Internet Regular post can be delivered at the intended address even if the given address is not precise. That is not the case for Internet addressing
DNS address IP address

IP Address (1)
A unique identifier for a computer on a TCP/IP network Format: four 8-bit numbers separated by periods. Each 8-bit number can be 0 to 255 Example: (IP address of the VU Web server)



IP Address (2)
Networks using TCP/IP route messages based on the IP address of the destination Any IP addresses (as long as they are unique) can be assigned within a PN However, connecting a PN to the Internet requires using unique, registered IP addresses

Domain Names
IP addresses are fine for computers, but difficult to recognize and remember for humans A domain name is a meaningful, easy-toremember label for an IP address Examples:

DNS: Domain Name System (1)

DNS is the way that Internet domain names are located & translated into IP addresses Maintaining a single, central table of domain name/IP address relationships is impractical
Billions of DNS-IP translations take place every day The DNS-IP tables get updated continuously


DNS: Domain Name System (2)

Tables of DNs & IP addresses are distributed throughout the Internet on numerous servers There is a DNS server at most ISPs. It converts the domain names in our Internet requests to actual IP addresses

In case it does not have a particular domain name in its table, it makes a request to another DNS server on the Internet 21

Internet Services
There are many, but we will look at only the following: FTP Telnet Web eMail Instant messaging VoIP

FTP: File Transfer Protocol

Used to transfer files between computers on a TCP/IP network (e.g Internet) Simple commands allow the user to:
List, change, create folders on a remote computer Upload and download files

Typical use: Transferring Web content from the developers PC to the Web server

Telnet Protocol
Using Telnet, a user can remotely log on to a computer (connected to the users through a TCP/IP network, e.g. Internet) & have control over it like a local user, including control over running various programs In contrast, FTP allows file operations only Typical use: Configuring and testing of a remote Web server

The Web
The greatest, shared resource of information created by humankind A user may access any item on the Web through a URL, e.g.

Before, going any further, let us dissect this URL


Protocol Identifier

Server Address

Directory & File Name


How does the Web work?


User launches the browser on his/her computer

Users Computer



User types in the URL into the browser

Users Computer


The browser breaks down the URL

Users Computer
cs/index.html Directory & File Name

http Protocol Identifier Servers Name


Browser sends servers name to the DNS server

Users Computer Domain Name DNS Server IP Address


Browser establishes a connection with the server

Users Computer


Web Server


Browser sends a GET request for cs/index.html

Users Computer

Web Server


Server sends the requested file to the browser

Users Computer

Web Server


Browser displays index.html

Users Computer


Computer-to-computer messaging Inexpensive, and quite quick, but not instant!

The most popular service on the Internet, even more than surfing, but soon to be overtaken by instant messaging
Billions are sent every day

How does an eMail system work?


But first, the components:

eMail client SMTP server POP3 server


eMail Clients
Programs used for writing, sending, receiving, and displaying eMail messages Examples: Outlook, Communicator, Hotmail, YahooMail


SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

A protocol used to send and receive eMail messages over a TCP/IP network


POP3: Post Office Protocol

A protocol used for receiving eMail messages A POP3 server maintains text files (one file per user account) containing all messages received by a user eMail client interacts with the POP3 server for discovering and downloading new eMail messages

The message is prepared using the eMail client

Senders Computer

eMail Client


The eMail client sends it to the SMTP server

Senders Computer

SMTP Server


If the receiver is local, it goes to the POP3 server

Senders Computer POP3 Server

SMTP Server


The receiver picks it at his/her convenience

Senders Computer POP3 Server

SMTP Server

Receiver's Computer


Otherwise, it is sent to receiver's SMTP server

Senders Computer

SMTP Server Internet

SMTP Server

Which forwards it to the local POP3 server

Senders Computer

SMTP Server

POP3 Server

SMTP Server

The receiver picks it at his/her convenience

Senders Computer

SMTP Server

Receiver's Computer

POP3 Server

SMTP Server

The Trouble with eMail

Slow response times No way of knowing if the person we are sending eMail to is there to read it The process of having a conversation through eMail by exchanging several short messages is too cumbersome
49 Instant messaging (IM) solves these problems

Instant Messaging
The IM services available on the Internet (e.g. ICQ, AIM, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger) allow us to maintain a list of people (contacts) that we interact with regularly We can send an instant messages to any of the contacts in our list as long as that contact is online


Using Instant Messaging (1)

Whenever a contact in our list comes online, the IM client informs us through an alert message and by playing a sound

To send an instant message to a contact, just click on the contact in the IM client, and start typing the message


Using Instant Messaging (2)

The selected contact will receive that message almost immediately after you press Enter When the contacts IM client receives the message, it alerts the contact with a blinking message and by playing a sound


Using Instant Messaging (3)

That contact then can type a response to the received message, and send it instantly Several such conversations can be carried out simultaneously, each occupying a separate IM windows


How instant messaging works?


User launches the IM client

IM Client

Internet My Computer


IM client finds the IM server & logs in

My Computer

IM Server


It sends communication info (IP address, etc) to the IM server

Temporary File

My Computer

IM Server


IM server finds users contacts & sends him/her the communication info for the ones online

My Computer

IM Server


IM server also tells the contacts that the user is online; sends his/her communication info to them
Contacts Computer

My Computer

IM Server


Now the users & the contacts IM clients are ready to communicate directly (P2P)
Contacts Computer

My Computer

IM Server

The IM server doesnt play any part in this 60 P2P communication

As new contacts come online, IM server informs them about the user being online & vice versa
Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer


Multiple, simultaneous conversations are possible

Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer


When the user logs-off, his/her IM client informs the IM server

Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer


IM server erases the temporary file and informs the users contacts about his/her offline status
Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer


Key Point
Once the IM server provides the communication info to the user and his/her contacts IM client, the two are able to communicate with each other without the IM servers assistance This server-less connection is termed as a P2P connection


Why do we require the server in the first place? Why doesnt my IM client look for the users contacts IM client without the IM servers help?


Many users (including almost all home users) do not have permanent IP addresses. They are assigned temporary IP addresses by their ISP each time they connect to the Internet

The server-based IM scheme removes the need of having permanent IP numbers It also gives IM users true mobility, allowing them the use of IM from any Internet-connected computer 67

VoIP: Voice over IP

Voice delivered from one device to another using the Internet Protocol Voice is first converted into a digital form, is broken down into packets, and then transmitted over a TCP/IP network (e.g. Internet) Four modes:
C2C C2T T2C T2T (with a TCP/IP net somewhere in between) 68

Much cheaper than traditional phone service

Noticeably poor quality of voice as compared with land-line phone service, but not much worse than cell phone service

Todays Goal: Internet Services

We looked at several services provided by the Internet
FTP Telnet Web eMail Instant messaging VoIP

We also found out about the addressing 70 scheme used on the Internet

Next Lecture:
Next lecture (Lecture 31) - the third one in the four-lecture productivity SW sequence - will be on developing presentations

However, during lecture 33, we will become familiar with the role that graphics and animations play in computing