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CS101 Introduction to Computing

Lecture 30
Internet Services
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During the last lecture (Introduction to the Internet)


We looked at the role Internet plays in todays computing

We reviewed some of the history and evolution of the Internet

Internet: The Enabler


Enables attractively-priced workers located in Pakistan to provide services to overseas clients Enables users to easily share information with others located all over the world Enables users to easily, inexpensively communicate with others remote users Enables the users to operate and run programs on computers located all over the world 3

The Internet is unlike any previous human invention. It is a world-wide resource, accessible to all of the humankind.
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Key Characteristics (1)


Geographic Distribution Global - reaches around the world Robust Architecture

Adapts to damage and error Speed


Data can travels at near c on copper, fiber, airwaves 5

Key Characteristics (2)


Universal Access Same functionality to everyone Growth Rate The fastest growing technology ever Freedom of Speech Promotes freedom of speech The Digital Advantage Is digital: can correct errors

Internet: Network of Networks


A large number of networks, interconnected physically Capable of communicating and sharing data with each other

From the users point view, Internet a collection of interconnected networks looks like a single, unified network 7

TCP/IP (2)
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCP breaks down the message to be sent over the Internet into packets

IP routes these packets through the Internet to get them to their destination When the packets reach the destination computer, TCP reassembles them into the original message 8

1960's 1969 - DoD-ARPA creates an experimental network ARPANET as a test-bed for emerging networking technologies

ARPANET originally connected 4 universities & enabled scientists to share info & resources across long distances

1980's 1983 - The TCP/IP protocols becomes the only set of protocols used on the ARPANET This sets a standard for all networks, and generates the use of the term Internet as the net of nets

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1990's 1993 - CERN releases WWW, developed by Tim Berners-Lee It uses HTTP and hypertext, revolutionizing the way info is presented & accessed on Internet

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1990's 1993-1994 - Web browsers Mosaic & Netscape Navigator are introduced Their GUI makes WWW & Internet more appealing to the general public

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Todays Goal: Internet Services


To look at several services provided by the Internet
FTP Telnet Web eMail Instant messaging VoIP

But first, we need to find out about the addressing scheme used on the Internet
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Internet Addressing
Regular post cannot be delivered unless we write a destination address on the envelope Same is true for the Internet Regular post can be delivered at the intended address even if the given address is not precise. That is not the case for Internet addressing
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203.215.177.33
DNS address IP address

www.vu.edu.pk
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IP Address (1)
A unique identifier for a computer on a TCP/IP network Format: four 8-bit numbers separated by periods. Each 8-bit number can be 0 to 255 Example:
203.215.177.33 (IP address of the VU Web server)
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server

client
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IP Address (2)
Networks using TCP/IP route messages based on the IP address of the destination Any IP addresses (as long as they are unique) can be assigned within a PN However, connecting a PN to the Internet requires using unique, registered IP addresses
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Domain Names
IP addresses are fine for computers, but difficult to recognize and remember for humans A domain name is a meaningful, easy-toremember label for an IP address Examples: 203.215.177.33 216.239.33.101

www.vu.edu.pk www.google.com
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DNS: Domain Name System (1)


DNS is the way that Internet domain names are located & translated into IP addresses Maintaining a single, central table of domain name/IP address relationships is impractical
Billions of DNS-IP translations take place every day The DNS-IP tables get updated continuously

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DNS: Domain Name System (2)


Tables of DNs & IP addresses are distributed throughout the Internet on numerous servers There is a DNS server at most ISPs. It converts the domain names in our Internet requests to actual IP addresses

In case it does not have a particular domain name in its table, it makes a request to another DNS server on the Internet 21

Internet Services
There are many, but we will look at only the following: FTP Telnet Web eMail Instant messaging VoIP
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FTP: File Transfer Protocol


Used to transfer files between computers on a TCP/IP network (e.g Internet) Simple commands allow the user to:
List, change, create folders on a remote computer Upload and download files

Typical use: Transferring Web content from the developers PC to the Web server
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Telnet Protocol
Using Telnet, a user can remotely log on to a computer (connected to the users through a TCP/IP network, e.g. Internet) & have control over it like a local user, including control over running various programs In contrast, FTP allows file operations only Typical use: Configuring and testing of a remote Web server
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The Web
The greatest, shared resource of information created by humankind A user may access any item on the Web through a URL, e.g.
http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html

Before, going any further, let us dissect this URL


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http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html

Protocol Identifier

Server Address

Directory & File Name

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How does the Web work?

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User launches the browser on his/her computer


Users Computer

Browser

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User types in the URL into the browser


Users Computer

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The browser breaks down the URL


Users Computer

http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html
cs/index.html Directory & File Name

http Protocol Identifier

www.vu.edu.pk Servers Name

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Browser sends servers name to the DNS server


Users Computer Domain Name DNS Server IP Address

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Browser establishes a connection with the server


Users Computer

Internet

Web Server

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Browser sends a GET request for cs/index.html


Users Computer

Web Server

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Server sends the requested file to the browser


Users Computer

Web Server

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Browser displays index.html


Users Computer

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eMail
Computer-to-computer messaging Inexpensive, and quite quick, but not instant!

The most popular service on the Internet, even more than surfing, but soon to be overtaken by instant messaging
Billions are sent every day
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How does an eMail system work?

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But first, the components:


eMail client SMTP server POP3 server

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eMail Clients
Programs used for writing, sending, receiving, and displaying eMail messages Examples: Outlook, Communicator, Hotmail, YahooMail

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SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


A protocol used to send and receive eMail messages over a TCP/IP network

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POP3: Post Office Protocol


A protocol used for receiving eMail messages A POP3 server maintains text files (one file per user account) containing all messages received by a user eMail client interacts with the POP3 server for discovering and downloading new eMail messages
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The message is prepared using the eMail client


Senders Computer

eMail Client

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The eMail client sends it to the SMTP server


Senders Computer

SMTP Server

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If the receiver is local, it goes to the POP3 server


Senders Computer POP3 Server

SMTP Server

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The receiver picks it at his/her convenience


Senders Computer POP3 Server

SMTP Server

Receiver's Computer

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Otherwise, it is sent to receiver's SMTP server


Senders Computer

SMTP Server Internet

SMTP Server
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Which forwards it to the local POP3 server


Senders Computer

SMTP Server

POP3 Server

SMTP Server
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The receiver picks it at his/her convenience


Senders Computer

SMTP Server

Receiver's Computer

POP3 Server

SMTP Server
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The Trouble with eMail


Slow response times No way of knowing if the person we are sending eMail to is there to read it The process of having a conversation through eMail by exchanging several short messages is too cumbersome
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Instant Messaging
The IM services available on the Internet (e.g. ICQ, AIM, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger) allow us to maintain a list of people (contacts) that we interact with regularly We can send an instant messages to any of the contacts in our list as long as that contact is online

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Using Instant Messaging (1)


Whenever a contact in our list comes online, the IM client informs us through an alert message and by playing a sound

To send an instant message to a contact, just click on the contact in the IM client, and start typing the message

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Using Instant Messaging (2)


The selected contact will receive that message almost immediately after you press Enter When the contacts IM client receives the message, it alerts the contact with a blinking message and by playing a sound

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Using Instant Messaging (3)


That contact then can type a response to the received message, and send it instantly Several such conversations can be carried out simultaneously, each occupying a separate IM windows

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How instant messaging works?

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User launches the IM client

IM Client

Internet My Computer

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IM client finds the IM server & logs in

My Computer

IM Server

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It sends communication info (IP address, etc) to the IM server

Temporary File

My Computer

IM Server

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IM server finds users contacts & sends him/her the communication info for the ones online

My Computer

IM Server

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IM server also tells the contacts that the user is online; sends his/her communication info to them
Contacts Computer

My Computer

IM Server

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Now the users & the contacts IM clients are ready to communicate directly (P2P)
Contacts Computer

My Computer

IM Server

The IM server doesnt play any part in this 60 P2P communication

As new contacts come online, IM server informs them about the user being online & vice versa
Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer

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Multiple, simultaneous conversations are possible

Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer

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When the user logs-off, his/her IM client informs the IM server


Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer

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IM server erases the temporary file and informs the users contacts about his/her offline status
Contact As Computer

My Computer

IM Server

Contact Bs Computer

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Key Point
Once the IM server provides the communication info to the user and his/her contacts IM client, the two are able to communicate with each other without the IM servers assistance This server-less connection is termed as a P2P connection

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Question
Why do we require the server in the first place? Why doesnt my IM client look for the users contacts IM client without the IM servers help?

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Answer
Many users (including almost all home users) do not have permanent IP addresses. They are assigned temporary IP addresses by their ISP each time they connect to the Internet

The server-based IM scheme removes the need of having permanent IP numbers It also gives IM users true mobility, allowing them the use of IM from any Internet-connected computer 67

VoIP: Voice over IP


Voice delivered from one device to another using the Internet Protocol Voice is first converted into a digital form, is broken down into packets, and then transmitted over a TCP/IP network (e.g. Internet) Four modes:
C2C C2T T2C T2T (with a TCP/IP net somewhere in between) 68

Pro
Much cheaper than traditional phone service

Con
Noticeably poor quality of voice as compared with land-line phone service, but not much worse than cell phone service
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Todays Goal: Internet Services


We looked at several services provided by the Internet
FTP Telnet Web eMail Instant messaging VoIP

We also found out about the addressing 70 scheme used on the Internet

Next Lecture:
Next lecture (Lecture 31) - the third one in the four-lecture productivity SW sequence - will be on developing presentations

However, during lecture 33, we will become familiar with the role that graphics and animations play in computing

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