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Q : What is the real mean of DHCP?

A : Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) is a protocol used to by networked devices (clients) to obtain the IP address. Q : Whats the difference between user right and user permission? A : User rights is that user is authorized to used password. if his password/file/dir is expired he is not able to login User permission is the user is permitted to to use file/directory.that is authentication. If he is authentication for particular file or not. Q : What is the difference between working directory and home directory? A : Home directory is the default working directory when a user logs in. On the other hand, working directory is the users current directory. Q : What is the difference between internal and external commands? A : Internal commands are that are already loaded in the system. They will be executed any time and are independent. Q : What is the file server in Linux server? A : File server is used to for file sharing. It enables the processes required the fro sharing Q : How does the linux file system work? A : Linux file structure is a tree like structure. It begins from the root directory, represented by '/', and then expands into sub-directories. Q : What is a Bash Shell? A : A Bash is a free of shell for UNIX. It is the default shell for most UNIX systems. It has a combination of the C and Korn shell features. Q : What is a FIFO? A : A FIFO are otherwise called as 'named pipes'. FIFO (first-in-first-out) is a special file which is said to be data transient. Once data is read from named pipe, it cannot be read again. Also, data can be read only in the order written. It is used to the in inter process communication where a process writes to one end of the pipe (producer) and the other reads from the other end (consumer). Q : What is Linux Shell? What is Shell Script? A : Linux shell is a user interface used for executing the commands. But Shell is a program the user. Q : Discuss about the mount and unmount system calls ? A : The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system; The unmount system call detaches a file system. When you mount another file system on to your directory, you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. The first argument to mount call is the mount point, that is a directory in the current file naming system. The second argument is the file system to mount to that point. When you insert a CDROM to your UNIX system's drive, the file system is in the CDROM automatically mounts to /dev/CDROM in your system. Q : How can you set/get an environment variable from a program? A :. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()'. Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()'

Q : What is the complete name of the default configuration file for LILO? A : The default configuration file for the LILO is /etc/lilo.conf. You can use the another file by using the -C option along with the name of the file. Q : What command should you use to check your filesystem? A : The fsck command is used to check the integrity of the filesystem on your disk.

1.why we create swap partition ? Genrally we create twise of RAM. If we cerate 1.5 times of RAM then there is any performence affected on processor ? Answer sol.swap is a virtual memory of linux and it uses as storage.and the space of swar is added in to the RAM. No it will no affect the performanc of proceesor because the size of swap should more thean 1.5 to twise of the RAM generally we keep swap partition double of RAM size so that when we upgrade our RAM then system itself upgrade up to the conditions. 2.what is the password recovery command sol.there is no command in linux to recover the root passwd if you forgotten it.If you forgotten or if you want to change the root passwd.Restart the system and go to the single user mode there you can change the passwd for the root. 3.Which first-level segment of the file system contains a majority of system and server configuration files within its subdirectories? sol./etc 4.Which file do you edit to set partitions to mount at boot time? A) /etc/fstab 5.Which file do you edit to set up a printer? sol./etc/printtab 6. why we create swap partition ? Genrally we create twise of RAM. If we cerate 1.5
times of RAM then there is any performence affected on processor ? generally we keep swap partition double of RAM size so that when we upgrade our RAM then system itself upgrade up to the conditions 7. what is the password recovery command there is no command in linux to recover the root passwd if you forgotten it.If you forgotten or if you want to change the root passwd.Restart the system and go to the single user mode there you can change the passwd for the root. 8. How many data files can be specified in the DATAFILE clause when creating a database You can specify more than one data file, the files will be used for the SYSTEM tablespace. The files specified cannot exceed the number of data files specified in the MAXDATAFILES clause. no we can specify only one file

9. What would you type to send the last 20 lines of a text file to STDIN? A) end -n 20 filename B) last -n 20 filename C) head -20 filename D) end -20 filename E) tail -20 filename Answer: E - Use the command tail -20 filename to see the last 20 lines of a file. The answers for a and d both point to an invalid command. The answer for b points to a valid command. Typing this answer in with a valid file name will even give you some output. However, the last command tells you who is logged in, it does not actually list the contents of any file named in the command. The answer for c, the head command, is used to look at the beginning of a file, not the end 10. Which two commands can you use to delete directories? A) rm B) rm -rf C) rmdir D) rd E) rd rf Answer(s): B, C - You can use rmdir or rm -rf to delete a directory. Answer a is incorrect, because the rm command without any specific flags will not delete a directory, it will only delete files. Answers d and e point to a non-existent command. to dilete directory forcefully use command "rm -rf" 11. Which command do you use to change runlevels? A) initlevel B) runlevel C) level D) run E) init Answer: E - The command used to change runlevels is init. Answers a, c, and d point to invalid commands. Answer b is a valid command, but does not set the current runlevel. The runlevel command displays the current runlevel, and the one that was used directly before entering this one. init runlevel(0-6) init is used to change run level and by giving the space and giving the run level specification is also a valid. 12. What do you type to stop a hung process that resists the standard attempts to shut it down? [Choose all correct answers] A) kill PID B) quit C) kill -9 PID D) exit E) Ctrl+C Answer(s): A, C, E - The kill command by itself tries to allow a process to exit cleanly. You type kill -9 PID, on the other hand, to abruptly stop a process that will not quit by any other means. Also, pressing Ctrl+C works for many programs. Answers b and d are only valid in some contexts, and even in those contexts will not work on a hung process .

13. Which of the following commands can you use to cleanly restart a Linux
machine? [Choose all correct answers] A) reboot B) init 6 C) init 0 D) shutdown -r E) shutdown h Answer(s): A, B, D - The commands used to restart a Linux box are shutdown -r, reboot, and init 6. Answers c and e are incorrect. Both of these are used to shutdown a Linux box, not restart it. THE OPTION C & E SHUTDOWN YOUR LINUX MACHIN.AND THE OPTION A,B&D RESTART MACHIN. 14. What command would you use to create an empty file without opening it to edit it? A) open B) vi C) pico D) touch E) edit Answer: D - You use the touch command to create an empty file without needing to open it. Answers a and e point to invalid commands, though either of these might actually be aliased to point to a real command. Answers b and c utilize editors, and so do not satisfy the requirements of the question. THE OPTION D:-TOUCH COMMAND USED TO CREATE AN EMPTY FILE WITHOUT OPEN IT.THE OPTION B:-VI COMMAND USED TO CREATE AN EMPTY FILE BUT IT OPEND.THREFORE IT NOT SATISFIED THE ANS.THE OPTION A,C&E IN VALID 15. Which shell do you assign to a POP3 mail-only account? A) /bin/false B) /bin/sh C) /bin/bash D) /bin/pop E) /bin/pop3 Answer: A - You assign a POP3 only account to the /bin/false shell. Answers b and c both point to the same shell, the bash shell. However, assigning this shell to a POP3 only user gives him or her login access, which is what you are trying to avoid. Answers d and e are both invalid options in a standard setup. /bin/nologin can also be used 16. Which file do you edit to set up a printer? A) /etc/printtab.conf B) /etc/print.conf C) /etc/lp.conf D) /etc/printtab E) /etc/printers

Answer: D - The file /etc/printab contains printer configuration information. Answers a, b, c, and e point to files that do not exist I think the write answer is /etc/cups/printers.conf since by using cups utility we can configure the Printers in a Linux machine. 17. Which file do you edit to set partitions to mount at boot time A) /etc/fstab B) /etc/services C) /etc/smb.conf D) /etc/fstab.conf E) /etc/mount.conf Answer: A - The file /etc/fstab manages which partitions are automatically mounted on to the file system. Answers b and c refer to valid items, but they are not used to manage the file system. The file /etc/services maps networking services to the ports they utilize, and /etc/smb.conf is the configuration file for the Samba service. Answers d and e point to files that do not exist