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Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, Campina Grande, v.8, n.1, p.

1-10, 2006 ISSN 1517-8595

DRYING CHARACTERISTICS AND KINETICS OF COFFEE BERRY Paulo Csar Corra1, Osvaldo Resende2, Deise Menezes Ribeiro3
ABSTRACT The objectives of this work were to verify the temperature effect on coffee berry drying and to determine the effective diffusivity coefficient of moisture transfer during their processing under different drying air conditions. The diffusivity coefficient was determined through the analytical solution according to Ficks second law. It can be concluded that the Verna and Page models represented better the coffee fruit drying phenomenon. The effective diffusivity coefficient for the coffee fruits found were 2.91 x 10-10; 3.57 x 10-10 and 4.96 x 10-10 m s-1 for the drying air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60C, respectively. Keywords: Coffee berry drying, mathematical models, moisture diffusivity

CARACTERSTICAS E CINTICA DE SECAGEM DO CAF CEREJA RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da temperatura na secagem do caf cereja e determinar a difusividade efetiva de transferncia de massa durante seu processo sob diferentes condies de secagem do ar. O coeficiente de difusividade foi determinado atravs da soluo analtica que est de acordo com a segunda lei de Fick. Pode-se concluir que os modelos de Verna e de Page representam melhor o fenmeno de secagem do caf cereja. O coeficiente de difusividade efetiva encontrado para o caf cereja foi de 2.91x10-10; 3.57 x 10-10 e 4.96 x10-10 m s-1 para as temperaturas do ar de secagem de 40, 50 e 60C, respectivamente. Palavras-chave: Secagem do caf cereja, modelos matemticos, difusividade

INTRODUCTION Drying operation is one of the most important steps in the coffee post harvesting processing. The use of natural sun drying process of coffee in terraces is still very common among the coffee producers However it requires high labor, it is a time requiring operation and on dependency on the climatic conditions. As the coffee production increases the sun drying operation in terraces happen to be problematic in terms of coffee production operation and the mechanical drying becomes a need due to the possibility of
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advancing the harvesting operation, allowing to harvest better coffee in terms of quality and quantity and make possible to destine usable areas for other activities. The agricultural product conservation through the drying process is based on the fact that the microorganisms or enzymes and all metabolic mechanism need water for their activities. Reducing the available water down to the safe storage level the water activities, the chemical reactions and the microorganism development are slowed down (Christensen and Kaufmann., 1974).

Protocolo 811 de 20/02/2006 1 Assoc.Prof., Agricultural Engineering Dept., Federal University of Viosa, UFV, Viosa, MG, Brazil, phone:55 31 3891 2Simal, et al., 19960, E-mail: copace@ufv.br 2 Doctorate grad student in Agricultural Engineering., Scholarship from CAPES, Federal University of Viosa, UFV, Viosa, MG, Brazil, E-mail: osvresende@yahoo.com.br 3 Doctorate grad student in Agricultural Engineering., Scholarship from CAPES, Federal University of Viosa, UFV, Viosa, MG, Brazil E-mail: deise_eng@yahoo.com.br

Drying characteristics and kinetics of coffee berry

Corra et. al.

Drying process can be defined as simultaneous process of heat and mass transfer between the product to the drying air that consists on excess moisture content removal from the product by means of evaporation process, generally caused by heated air convection forces with the objective for maintain the product quality during the storage. Several factors affect the coffee drying process such as: the drying method, the drying air temperature and the relative humidity, the drying air velocity and the drying time. The study of the drying system, its design, optimization, its feasibility for an application for commercial use could be obtained through the mathematical simulations. For simulation, which is based on principle of successive thin layer drying, it is used a mathematical model that represents satisfactory the water loss during the drying process (Berbert et al., 1995); although the coffee thin layer drying curves vary with the specie, variety, environmental conditions and post harvest processing methods among others. In the literature, different mathematical models to describe the thin layer drying are proposed by several authors for different products are reported. Frequently the semi theoretical models are much easier to use but their applications are restricted and valid only in the range of drying air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and moisture content of the product led during the experiment. Among the thin layer drying models the most frequently used are: Exponential, Henderson & Pabis, Two terms, Lewis, Page, Adapted Thompson, Wang and Sing (Mohapatra and Rao, 2005). Those models do not furnish indications of energy and water transport phenomena in the interior of the grains, however they generally are based on Cooling Newtons Law for heat transfer by convection, assuming that, during the drying the process conditions are maintained isotherm and the moisture transfer occurs strictly on the surface of the product (Incropera and Dewitt, 1992).

Recently several works have being done in order to describe the drying process of different agricultural products by the use of mathematical models, such as: edible black beans (Afonso Jnior e Corra, 1999), wheat (Sun and Woods, 1994), parboiled wheat (Mohapatra and Rao, 2005), rough rice (Basunia and Abe, 2001), grape (Yaldiz et al., 2001; Ramos et al., 2004; Ramos et al., 2005), peper ( KaymakErtekin, 2002; Akpinar et al. 2003), peach (Madamba, et al., 1996), among others. Some authors could obtain satisfactory the correlation of the models parameters adjusted to the drying air temperature and relative humidity during the modeling and the simulation of agricultural products drying (Madamba, et al., 1996; Afonso Jnior e Corra, 1999; Ozdemir and Devres, 1999.; Mohapatra and Rao, 2005). The moisture movement within the solid can be explained through specific mechanisms. Several authors have being proposed that the main mechanism of moisture movement is the liquid diffusion (Fortes and Okos, 1980; Geankoplis, 1983). The diffusion occurs in solids with thin structures, in the capillary, in the pores and in small orifices full of vapor. However the diffusion theory do not consider the shrinkage or the skin hardening and the sorption isotherms (Barbosa-Cnovas and Veja-Mercado, 2000). Therefore the objective of this work was to verify the temperature effect on coffee fruit drying, to obtain and to model the thin layer drying, also for determining the effective diffusivity coefficient and the activation energy during the coffee drying under different drying air temperature and relative humidity conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS This work was performed in the Laboratory of Physical Properties and Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Products of National Storage Training Center (CENTREINAR), located in the Federal University of Viosa campus, Viosa, MG, Brazil.

Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, Campina Grande, v.8, n.1, p.1-10, 2006

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Corra et. al.

It was used the Mundo Novo cultivar coffee fruits, harvested (hand picked) and pre-dried (sun drying) in concrete covered terraces until de moisture content came down to approximately 20% d.b. Then the coffee fruits were dried in a laboratory scale mechanical drier under the drying air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60C and corresponding Relative Humidity of 22%, 14% and 7%. For monitoring the drying process, samples of 30g were taken after 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 hours after the drying operation started. The moisture content was determined in air oven until constant weight was achieved. A Psicrometer was used for monitoring the Relative Humidity and the Drying Air Temperature calculated by the use the software Umigrapsi (Mello and Corra, 1993) through the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.

For determining the Moisture Ratio of the coffee fruit drying under different air conditions the following expression was used: X - Xe MR = (1) Xi - X e where:

MR : Moisture Ratio of the product, non dimensional; X : Moisture content of the product, decimal, (d.b.); Xi : Initial Moisture content, decimal, (d.b.); Xe : Equilibrium Moisture content, decimal, (d.b.) Coffee thin layer drying experimental data were adjusted to the most common mathematical models for representing the agricultural product drying (Afonso Jnior e Corra,1999; Akpinar et al., 2003; Ertekin and Yaldiz, 2004; Lahsasni, et al., 2004): Autor (Akpinar et al. 2003) (Barbosa-Cnovas and Veja-Mercado, 2000)

Designation of the model Exponential Page

Model

Adapted Thompson Newton Henderson & Pabis Verna

) 0,5 MR = exp -a- ( a 2 + 4 b t )


MR = exp k t N

MR = exp(k t)

MR = a exp ( k t )

MR = exp( k t )

2 b (Basunia and Abe, 2001) (Berbert et al., 1995)


(Brooker et al., 1992) (Christensen and Kaufmann., 1974)

MR = a exp( k t ) + (1 a )exp( k 1 t )

where: t: drying time, s; k and k1 : drying constant , s-1 ; a, b, N : model constants In order to adjust to the mathematical models a non-linear regression analysis was performed through Quasi-Newton method through a computational program named

Statistica 5.0. The degree of the adjustment of the model it was considered the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2), the magnitude of the relative mean error (P), the estimated mean error (SE) and by verification of the residues distribution behavior. The relative mean errors and the estimated errors, for each model, were

Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, Campina Grande, v.8, n.1, p.1-10, 2006

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Corra et. al.

calculated according to the following expressions:

100 Y-Y P= Y n
) ( Y-Y DF
2

Content of coffee fruits an analytical method was chosen for calculating the Equilibrium Moisture Content from the drying curves obtained in this experiment: For t = 2 hours: X2 - Xe = e 2k Xo - Xe For t = 8 hours: X8 - X e = e 8k Xo - Xe (12)

(8)

SE=

(9)

(11)

where: Y : experimental values observed : value estimated through the model; n : number of experimental observations; DF: degree of freedom (number of observations minus the number of the parameters of the model). The effective diffusivity coefficient generally increases as the drying air temperature increases (Ramesh, 2003) and it was determined by analytical method according to the Ficks Second Law assuming the coffee fruit geometric shape a sphere (Brooker et al., 1992), with eight terms approximation and the initial equivalent radius of the coffee grain adopted was 0.0115 m according to Afonso Jnior and Corra (1999) assuming it constant during the entire drying process. Also, the Arrhenius equation (Equation 10) was used for evaluating the temperature influence on the coefficient values.

Dividing Equation 11 by Equation 12, the result is:

X 2 Xe = e6k X8 X e For t = 4 hours: X 4 Xe = e4k Xo Xe For t = 10 hours: X10 X e = e10k Xo Xe

(13)

(14)

(15)

- Ea D = Do exp R Ta
where:

(10)

Dividing Equation 14 by Equation 15, the result is: X 4 Xe = e6k X10 X e (16)

Do : pre-exponential factor; Ea : Activation energy, kJ mol-1; R : Gas Constant, 0.008314 kJ mol-1 K-1; Ta : Absolute Temperature, K
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Making Equation 13 equal to Equation 16: X 2 X e X 4 Xe = X8 X e X10 X e Finally:


the

(17)

Analytical determination equilibrium moisture content

of

Due to the scarce information about equations and Equilibrium Moisture

X8 X 4 X 2 X10 (18) X8 + X 4 X 2 X10 Then, analytically, the Equilibrium Moisture Content values obtained were Xe =

Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, Campina Grande, v.8, n.1, p.1-10, 2006

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Corra et. al.

11.74, 8.Simal, et al., 1996 and 7.83 (% d.b.) for the drying air temperatures of de 40, 50 and 60C, respectively.
Drying curves

The effect of the three thin drying conditions on the coffee berry drying curves is presented in Figure 1. It can be observed that the constant drying rate period could not be detected under the tested conditions but only the increasing drying rate period was detected. This period occurs when the drying rate is not constant and it decreases due to the water activity reduction on the grain surface. So that, the drying rate is governed due to the intense internal water and vapor flow (Barbosa-Cnovas and Veja-Mercado, 2000).
Mathematical modeling

The values of Coefficient of Determination (R2), the mean relative error (P) and the estimated errors (SE) and the tendency of the residues distribution for the analyzed models, during the coffee berry drying, under different Temperature and Relative Humidity conditions, are presented in the Table 1 and 2, respectively.

In the Table 1, it can be observed that for the three combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity in thin drying coffee berry, the analyzed models presented low estimate mean errors (SE). The magnitude of the lower mean error (P) was close to 10% indicating that, according to (Mohapatra and Rao, 2005), a good experimental data adjustment. However only the Verna and Page models presented for all studied drying conditions, presented the Coefficient of Determination higher than 98% (Table 1), assumed satisfactory the phenomenon study according to (Mohapatra and Rao, 2005). Also it can be observed through the Table 2 that these models presented a random residues distribution for three drying conditions. So the selection and recommendation of the best model were based on its simplicity and the number of coefficients. Among these models, the Page model was selected for representing the coffee fruit thin-drying phenomenon due to its application simplicity and traditionally it is recommended and applied to predict the drying phenomenon of several agricultural products (Ramos et al., 1993/1994; Afonso Jnior e Corra, 1999).

1,0 Moisture Ratio (decimal) 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 0 2 4 6 Time (hours)

40C and 22% 50C and 14% 60C and 7%

10

Figure 1: Moisture ratio during the coffee berry drying under different conditions of Temperature and Relative Humidity.
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In the Table 3 are presented the Page model coefficients adjusted for different coffee fruit drying air temperatures. It can be observed in the Table 3 that the drying constant k decreases exponentially as the drying air temperature increases in which the influence of this variable in the coffee fruit drying process can be described according to the Equation 19.

through the following expression, within the drying temperature rage in this study.

n = 0.4008 + 0,0069 T
R2 = 99.96%

(20)

k = 0.0075 exp(-0.0489 T)
R = 99.09% where: T: drying air temperature, C.
2

(19)

Therefore, using the Page model with its coefficients in function of the temperature, the moisture content of the coffee fruit during the thin drying process can be estimated through the following expression: 0.4008+0.069T) Xt =Xe +( Xi - Xe ) exp 0.0075 exp( -0.0489 T) t( (21) where:

Also it can be verified that the coefficient n of the Page model increased linearly with the increase of the drying air temperature, which could be estimated

X t : Product moisture content at time t, (%


d.b.); t : drying time, s.

Table 1 - Coefficient of Determination (R2), relative mean error (P) and estimated mean error (SE), for the analyzed models during the coffee berry drying under different drying air temperatures Drying air temperature 40C 50C 60C Model R2 P P 2 2 SE R (%) SE P (%) SE R (%) (%) (%) (%) Exponencial 92,28 11,23 0,0751 97,46 8,51 0,0473 99,51 6,29 0,0244 Page 98,03 4,00 0,0410 99,52 5,00 0,0221 99,00 11,27 0,0375 Adapted 98,19 4,49 0,0392 99,25 5,13 0,027 99,56 3,90 0,0248 Thompson Newton 92,28 11,07 0,0812 97,46 8,51 0,0511 99,53 5,32 0,0255

Henderson & Pabis Verna

94,85 98,39

8,62 3,83

0,0663 0,0370

98,76 99,78

5,15 2,48

0,0357 0,0148

99,64 99,75

4,40 3,68

0,0222 0,0185

Table 2 Residues distribution behavior, tendeciousness or randomness for the analyzed models during the coffee berry drying process under different drying conditions Residues Distribution Models 40C 50C 60C Exponential Tendentious Tendentious Tendentious Page Random Random Random Adapted Thompson Random Tendentious Random Newton Tendentious Tendentious Random Henderson & Pabis Tendentious Tendentious Random Verna Random Random Random
Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, Campina Grande, v.8, n.1, p.1-10, 2006

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Table 3 Page model adjusted coefficients for coffee fruit thin drying under drying air temperatures of (40, 50 and 60C) Temperatura (C) 40 50 60 k 0.00109 0.00061 0.00041 n 0.67701 0.74873 0.81522

In the Figure 2 are presented the observed values of the moisture content and the estimated moisture contents
25 Moisture content (%d.b.) 20 15 10 5 0 2 4

calculated through the Page model (Equation 21) for coffee fruit thin drying under different conditions.

Experimental 40 C Experimental 50C Experimental 60C Estimated

10

12

Drying Time (hour)

Fig. 2 Observed moisture content and estimated moisture content calculated by Page model for coffee berry thin drying process for the temperatures of 40, 50 and 60C.

6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 30 40 50 Temperature C


Figure 3 Effective Diffusivity Coefficient of the coffee fruit during the thin drying under different drying air temperatures.

-10

(m s )

2 -1

D x 10

R = 0.96

60

70

Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, Campina Grande, v.8, n.1, p.1-10, 2006

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Corra et. al.

Determination of the effective diffusivity coefficient and the activation energy.

In the Figure 3 are presented the effective diffusivity coefficient values of the coffee fruits under different thin drying conditions obtained through the following expression:
MR = n 2 exp 2
n =1

6 1

n 2 2 D t 3 2 (22) 9 r

where: D : Effective Diffusivity Coefficient of the liquid, m2 s-1; r : initial equivalent radius, m; n : number of terms. Analyzing the results it can be observed that the Effective Diffusivity Coefficient for coffee fruit thin drying was 2.91 x 10-10; 3.57 x 10-10 e 4.96 x 10-10 m s-1 for the temperatures of 40, 50 and 60C, respectively. The calculated values of the Effective Diffusivity Coefficients are consistent to those found in the literature for agricultural product drying according to (Madamba, et al., 1996) which is in the magnitude of 10-11 to 10-9 m2 s-1. These values increased sensibly as the drying air temperature increased corroborating with the results obtained by (Doymaz, 2005b)) found for okra that varied between 4.Simal, et al., 1996 x 10-10 to 1.30 x 10-9 m s-1 in the temperature range of 50 to 70C.
-21,0

The dependency of the Effective Diffusivity Coefficient in relation to the drying air temperature is satisfactorily described by Arrhenius relationship (Ramesh, 2003; Doymaz, 2005a; Doymaz, 2005b), represented in the Figure 4. The linearity illustrated in the Figure 4 becomes evident the uniformity and constancy of the drying rate variation within the range of the experiment. The equation 23 represents the coefficients of the Arrhenius adjusted for the Effective Diffusivity Coefficient of the coffee fruits.
22.619 D = 2.041 106 exp R Ta

(23)

It can be observed that the activation energy for water diffusion in the coffee fruits during their drying process was 22.619 kJ mol-1 for temperature range of 40 to 60C. In the drying process, as low is the activation energy, higher will be the water diffusivity in the product. (Zogzas et. al., 1996.) reported that the activation energy for the agricultural products varied between 12.7 to 110 kJ.mol-1. In the Table 4 are presented the activation energy values found in the literature for different products. It can be observed that the activation energy for the water diffusion in the coffee fruits was lower than those found in the literature, in the range of the temperature worked.

R = 0.98 -21,5 ln D

-22,0

-22,5 29 30 31 4 -1 1/T x 10 (K ) 32 33

Figure 4 Arrhenius representation for the diffusion coefficient (D) during the coffee fruit thin drying.
Revista Brasileira de Produtos Agroindustriais, Campina Grande, v.8, n.1, p.1-10, 2006

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Table 4 Activation energy for different products Product Activation Energy (kJ mol-1) Green peas 28.40 Green bean 39.47 Green bean 35.43 Soybean 28.80 Carrot 28.36 CONCLUSIONS

Reference (Simal, et al., 2003) (Senadeera, et al., 2003) (9) (Kitic and Viollaz, 1984) (Doymaz, 2004)

Based on presented results it can be concluded that the Page and Verna models, within those tested, are that best represent the coffee fruit thin drying phenomenon but the traditional Page model was selected for describing the coffee fruit thin drying kinetics. The Effective diffusivity coefficients for coffee fruits are 2.91 x 10-10; 3.57 x 1010 and 4.96 x 10-10 m s-1, for the temperatures of 40, 50 and 60C respectively. The activation energy for the water diffusion in the coffee fruits during the drying process are 2.91 x 10-10; 3.57 x 10-10 and 4.96 x 10-10 m s-1, in the temperature range from 40 to 60C.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T. Moisture desorption isotherms of medium-grain rough rice. Journal of Stored Products Research, v.37, p. 205-219, 2001. Berbert, P.A.; Queiroz, D.M.; Silva, J.S.; Pinheiro Filho, J.B. Simulation of coffee drying in a fixed bed with periodic airflow reversal. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, London, v.60, n.3, p.167-173, 1995. Brooker, D.B.; Bakker-Arkema, F.W.; Hall, C.W. Drying and storage of grains and oilseeds. Westport: The AVI Publishing Company, 1992. 450 p. Christensen, C. M.; Kaufmann, H. H. Microflora. In: Christensen, C.M. Storage of cereal grain and their products. St. Paul: American Association of Cereal Chemists. p.158192, 1974. Doymaz, I. Convective air drying characteristics of thin layer carrots. Journal of Food Engineering, v.61, p.359-364, 2004. Doymaz, I. Drying behaviour of green beans. Journal of Food Engineering, v. 69, p.161-165, 2005a. Doymaz, I. Drying characteristics and kinects of okra. Journal of Food Engineering, v. 69, p.65-69. 2005b. Ertekin, C., and Yaldiz, O. Drying of eggplant and selection of a suitable thin layer drying model. Journal of Food Engineering, v.63, p.349-359, 2004. Fortes M.; Okos, M.R. Drying theories. In: Advances in Drying. Mujumdar, A.S. New York: Hemisphere Publishing, v.1. 1980. Geankoplis, C.J. Drying of process materials. In: Transport processes and unit operations. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, ed 2. 1983.

The authors thank the CAPES, CNPq and FAPEMIG for the financing support essential for conducting the present work.
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