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(For classes held on 26 and 27 th Feb 07) By Dr. G.S.

Suresh, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, NIE, Mysore (Ph:9342188467, email: gss_nie@ yahoo.com) 1.1 Introduction to Structural drawing: Drawing is the language of engineers, which conveys the idea of the engineer about the shape, structural arrangement to builder. Structural drawings guide builders in the construction of apartment blocks, industrial buildings, highways, irrigation structures, bridges and other important structures. The guidelines given in IS 962 (Code of practice for architectural and buildings) and SP 34 (Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing) may be adopted while preparing structural drawings for Reinforced Concrete Structures and its elements. Structural drawings are prepared in different sizes and depend on the number of detailed drawings to be presented. In large projects, the structural drawings are of same size. The preferred size of drawing sheets are given in table 1.1 Table 1.1 Drawing Sheet Size Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Designation A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Trimmed Size in mm 841 x 1189 594 x 841 420 x 594 297 x 420 210 x 297 148 x 210 Un Trimmed Size (Min) in mm 880 x 1230 625 x 880 450 x 625 330 x 450 240 x 330 165 x 240

1. LAYOUT DRAWING

Margins and the divisions of drawings sheets into zones are given in Fig 1.1 a to f. The title block is an important feature in a drawing and should be placed at the bottom right-hand corner of the sheet, where it is readily seen when the prints are folded in the prescribed manner. The size of the title block recommended by SP 34 is 185 x 65 mm. Layout of drawings is not standardized in detailing of reinforced concrete structures. However in practice, the key plan is placed in the upper left hand corner of the sheet, with the elevations and details below and on to the right side of the plan. Schedules and bending details are place in the upper right corner of the drawing. Fig. 1.2 gives a broad outline of layout recommended. In large projects, the bending schedule can be given separately and omitted in the structural drawing. Scale for drawings is selected based on the convenience to include all the details within workable size. Some commonly used scales are :

Plan:- 1:100, 1:50 Elevation:- 1:5, 1:30 Sections:- 1:50, 1:30, 1:25, 1:20,1:15,1:10

Fig.1.1a A0 Size Sheet

Fig.1.1b A1 Size Sheet

Fig.1.1c A2 Size Sheet

Fig.1.1d A3 Size Sheet

Fig.1.1e A4 Size Sheet

Fig.1.1f A5 Size Sheet and Division of sheets

Fig.1.2 Typical Layout of a Drawing Notes containing specifications of the concrete and steel to be used, size of chamfers and fillets, concrete cover, live load, SBC of soil, lap lengths for different diameter of bars etc,. Symbols and abbreviations to be adopted in the drawings are given below: Symbols Relating to Cross-Sectional Shape and Size of Reinforcement a) plain round bar or diameter of plain round bar; b) plain, square bar or side of plain square bar; and c) # deformed bar (including square twisted bar) or nominal size (equivalent diameter or side) of the deformed bar . Symbols Relating to Shape of the Bar along its Lengths Alt Alternate bar Bt Bent bar B Bottom bar min Minimum max Maximum St Straight bar Stp Stirrup Sp Spiral Ct Column tie T Top bar Symbols Relating to Position and Direction EW Each way @ Spacing centre-to-centre Limit of area covered by bars Direction in which bars extend Symbols Relating to Various Structural Members Bm or B Beams Col Column(s) Fg Footing(s) GR Girders JT Joints(s) LL Lintel(s) LB Lintel beam(s) Sb or S Slab(s) WL Longitudinal wall Wx Cross wall C Centre line Graphical symbols given in Fig. 1.3 are recommended by SP34. Additional drawing conventions for use on drawings for reinforcement as suggested in ISO 3766-1977 is reproduced in Fig 1.4

Fig. 1.3 Graphical symbols

Fig. 1.4 Drawing conventions

Fig. 1.4 Drawing conventions (Contd.)

1.2 General Layout of Building: After the preparation of architectural plan of the buildings, the structural planning of the building frame is done. This involves determination of i) Positioning and orientation of columns, ii) Positioning of beams, iii) Spanning of slabs, iv) Layout of stairs, v) Selecting proper type of footing. Different structural members of a structure shall be marked using symbols, abbreviations and notations. A key framing plan shall be prepared to a convenient scale and the two axes marked one side with alphabets A, B, C etc, and the other with numbers. If the structural arrangement in all the floors is same then only one key plan is prepared titling it as typical plan. If the arrangement varies for different floors a separate key framing plan with grid arrangement and areas may be used for each of the floor. The floors shall be specified in accordance with the requirements of IS 2332-1973 (Specifications for nomenclature of floors and storeys) . According to this code BT symbol is used for Basement, MZ for Mezzanine, Floor 1, Floor 2 etc for first, second etc floors respectively. Columns and foundations shall be specified by grid arrangements giving reference to the floor. For example FG Col C2 with reference to Fig 1.5 indicates Footing for column C2, Col 2C2 indicates column C2 at floor 2.

Fig. 1.5 Typical Arrangement for the Key Framing Plan and marking Different Structural Members Beams, slabs and lintels and tie beams shall be consecutively numbered from lefthand top corner as shown in Fig. 1.5. Lay out building are generally drawn i) Drawing showing position of columns along with excavation plan for footing and ii) Key plan showing arrangements of beams and plans and called as form work drawing. Fig 1.6 and 1.7 shows a typical lay out drawing developed for a building.

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Fig. 1.6 Typical Drawing for a Multi-Storied Building showing column position and excavation plan.

Fig. 1.7 Typical Drawing for a Multi-Storied Building showing Slab and Beam alignment

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Problem1: Prepare a general layout showing the positions and sizes of columns and footing to a suitable scale for an industrial building: A clear dimension of factory floor is 11.75 m x 19.75 m Spacing of columns 4m c/c Size of columns 250 mm x 450 mm Span of steel truss is 12.25 m c/c At the ends to support the gable wall additional two RCC columns of size 250 mm x 450 mm are to be provided at 4m c/c measured from end columns All the walls all-round are 250 mm thick Height of columns = 3m Size of footing 1.4m x 1.8m Thickness of footing 300 mm uniform Depth of foundation 1.2m below ground level Also show the line of steel truss on the drawing Solution: External dimensions of the building: Along X-direction = 11.75 + 2 x 0.25 = 12.25 m Along Z-direction = 19.75 + 2 x 0.25 = 20.25 m Centre line dimensions of the building: Along X-direction = 12.25 0.45 = 11.80 m Along Z-direction = 20.25 -0.25 = 20.00 m Procedure for drawing the lay out plan Note: Use Millimeter units for linear dimensions 1. Draw the centerline of the building having 11,800mm along X-direction and 20,000 mm along Z-directions 2. Mark these centre lines as grid lines A and D for lines parallel to Z-directions & grid lines 1 and 6 for lines parallel to X-axis 3. Measure 4000mm from grid lines A and D to get grid line B and C 4. Measure 4000mm c/c along Z-axis starting from grid line 1 to get grid lines 2, 3, 4 and 5 5. Draw rectangular filled box of size 250mm x 450mm at the intersection of gird lines along A and D to indicate the position of column along these grid lines as shown in Fig. 1.8 6. Draw rectangular filled box of size 250mm x 450mm at the intersection of grid lines 1,6 with B and C respectively as shown in Fig. 1.8 7. Draw rectangles each of size 1400 mm x 1800mm symmetrically with respect to centre of column to indicate excavation marking for all columns. Here the 12

shorter side of this rectangle box is parallel to the shorter side of column as shown in Fig. 1.8 8. Sectional elevation and plan of the footing of column is drawn just to the right of the key plan drawn as shown in Fig. 1.8

Fig. 1.8a Layout Drawing

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Fig. 1.8b Footing Details

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Problem2: Prepare a general layout showing the positions and sizes of Beams and Slabs to a suitable scale for a Community Hall: Clear dimension of hall is 12.05 m x 19.8 m Three rows of columns are to be provided along the width with spacing of 6 m c/c Six rows of columns are to be provided along the length with spacing of 4 m c/c All the walls all-round are 200 mm thick Size of columns 200 mm x 450 mm Main beams are of size 200 mm x 600 mm Secondary beams are of size 200 mm x 300 mm Thickness of slab = 150 mm Solution: External dimensions of the building: Along X-direction = 12.05 + 2 x 0.2 = 12.45 m Along Z-direction = 19.8 + 2 x 0.2 = 20.2 m Centre line dimensions of the building: Along X-direction = 12.45 -0.45 = 12 m Along Z-direction = 20.2 -0.2 = 20.00 m Procedure for drawing the lay out plan Note: Use Millimeter units for linear dimensions 1. Draw the centerline of the building having 12,000 mm along X-direction and 20,000 mm along Z-directions 2. Mark these centre lines as grid lines A and C for lines parallel to Z-directions & grid lines 1 and 6 for lines parallel to X-axis 3. Measure 6000mm from grid lines A to get grid line B 4. Measure 4000mm c/c along Z-axis starting from grid line 1 to get grid lines 2, 3, 4 and 5 5. Draw rectangular filled box of size 200mm x 450mm at the intersection of gird lines along A and C to indicate the position of column along these grid lines as shown in Fig. 1.9 6. Draw parallel lines spaced at 200mm symmetrically about the grid lines 1 to 6 to indicate main beams having effective span of 6m as shown in Fig. 1.9 7. Draw parallel lines spaced 200 mm abutting to end columns to indicate secondary beams as shown in Fig. 1.9. Also draw 200 mm wide secondary beam along grid line B as shown in Fig.1.9 8. Mark all the main beams as B1 and Secondary beams as B2 9. Indicate the slab as one way slab as shown in Fig. 1.9 and mark the slabs as S1.

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Fig. 1.9 Layout Drawing

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Exercise Problems: 1. Prepare a general layout drawing including the details of columns and foundation for a shopping complex with four shops in the ground floor with the following details: Column size : 230 x 450 mm Spacing : 3.5 m c/c Span of the beam supported by columns = 6m c/c Depth of foundation : 1.2 m below GL Depth of Footing : 450 mm Also draw to a suitable scale the details of typical column and foundation 2. Prepare a general lay out drawing for the ground floor of a community centre in a land measuring 35m x 50 m for the following particulars: Plinth area to be limited to 450 m2 (15m x 30m) Height of each column : 3.5m Size of columns : 300 mm x 450 mm Effective span of each continuous beam 5m of size 300 mm x 500 mm Secondary beams to be provided for a span of 4m and of size 300 mm x 400 mm Plinth beam 300 mm x 400 mm all-round 0.6m above ground level Footing of size 1.2 m x 2.8 m for each column has its uniform thickness= 600mm 3. Prepare a key plan at foundation level of a community hall building. Building has an auditorium of clear dimensions 12m x 19.7 m. Corridor of 4 m wide on either side (Parallel to longer side) of auditorium have to be provided. The roofing for auditorium is AC sheets supported on steel trusses. The end gable walls are supported on wall foundations. Roofing for corridor is RCC slab at 3m above floor level. Other details are: Clear span of roof truss = 12m Size of all RCC columns = 300 mm x 600 mm BBM columns of size 300 mm x 300 mm at 4 m c/c is to be provided in corridors to support slab Assume suitable foundation for RCC columns and BBM columns

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