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Honors Biological Principles

Exam Test Review: Chapter Name the following:

3ssue where photosynthesis occurs

mesophyll *ssue chloroplasts thylakoid

chemical factories in the plant cells transforms light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH. func3onal and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis.

photosystems photosystems NADPH

convert light energy to chemical energy acts as reducing power in photosystems most abundant protein on earth

RUBISCO (RUBP Carboxylase)

where calvin cycle takes place


hypothesized that plants split H20 as a source of electrons from hydrogen atoms, relasing 02 as a by-product

C. B. van Niel photons

packets of light radia3on that drives photosynthesis

visible light

arranged into 3ghtly packed sheaths around the veins of the leaf bundle-sheath cells
adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), forming the four carbon product oxaloacetate

PEP carboxylase

BSC1010: Honors Biological Principles

Give short answers to the following:

Some carotenoids have the func3on of photoprotec3on. What is photoprotec3on?

process of compounds absorbing and dissipa*ng excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or interact with oxygen, forming reac*ve oxida*ve which could be dangerous to the cell Why are metabolic steps of the Calvin Cycle some3mes referred to as the dark reac3ons? They are light-independent reac*ons because none of the steps requires light directly.
what does each light-harves3ng complex consist of?

various pigment molecules (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, or carotenoids) bound to proteins

In light reac3ons, what is the ini3al electron donor? Where do the electrons nally end up?

Water is the ini*al donor, NADP+ accepts the electrons at the end of the ETC, and becomes reduced to NADPH
what is the main dierence between ATP synthesis in chloroplasts versus mitochondria?

their original source of the electrons and energy used in the process
What color of light is least useful to photosynthesis?

Green light is the least useful to photosynthesis. The best evidence for this is that most plants appear green under white light. The green light is either reected from the plant or passes through, allowing us to see it. The other colors present in the white light are absorbed.
What Wavelength of Light Is Most Eec3ve in driving Photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is a chemical process driven by energy from photons of light. The op*mum wave length of light that drives the reac*on is 430 nanometers and 680 nanometers. These correspond to the blue and red por*ons of the spectrum respec*vely.
How do the reactant molecules of photosynthesis reach the chloroplasts in leaves?

CO2 enters via stomata, and water enters via roots and is carried to leaves through veins (xylem).
How did the oxygen isotope help clarify the chemistry of photosynthesis?

Using a heavy isotope of oxygen as a label it was shown that oxygen produced in photosynthesis originates from water (not carbon dioxide). When water was labeled with the heavy isotope, the oxygen produced in photosynthesis was also heavy.

BSC1010: Honors Biological Principles

State one signicant dierence, as men:oned in parenthesis, between the following:

absorp3on spectrum and ac3on spectrum (wavelengths)

absorp*on spectrum- indicates how much of each wavelength chlorophyll will absorb, for the pigment ac*on spectrum-can tell us which of those wavelengths are most eec*ve in photosynthesis, for the process
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b (color)

chlorophyll a- blue green chlorophyll b- olive green

PSI and PSII (wavelength)

PSI- best absorbs light of wavelength 700 PSII- best absorbs light of wavelength 680
Oxida3ve phosphoryla3on and photophosphoryla3on (occurrence)

Oxida*ve phosphoryla*on- mitochondria during respira*on photophosphoryla*on- chloroplast during photosynthesis

Stomata and stroma (func3on)

stomata- where carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits (gas exchange) results in transpira*on stroma- liquid in the chloroplast that is involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from CO2 and water

Make sure to review and know: * the linear electron ow and all the steps of the light reac*ons * abbrevia*ons ATP- Adenosine triphosphate NADP- Nico*namide Adenine Dinucleo*de Phosphate RUBP- Ribulose bisphosphate RUBISCO- Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase NAD+ - nico*namide adenine dinucleo*de *try to do all the mul*ple choice ques*ons at the end of the chapter

BSC1010: Honors Biological Principles

Draw and label the following:

a chloroplast and label 7 parts

a mitochondria and 7 parts