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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the present work reported in this Ph.D. thesis entitled Personality factors and Adjustment patterns of working and non-working women is the original work of Archana Singh , Research scholar, Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi and is based on the data collected and analyzed by her and checked by me from time to time. Archana Singh has conducted this research work under my supervision and guidance for the award of the Ph.D. degree in psychology and she was regularly in the contact to the department in her research period.

Supervisor Dr. Vibhuti Narayan MishraNihala Associate Professor Department of Psychology Mahatama Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-221002

Head Dr. Anand Kumar Professor Department of Psychology Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-221002

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Not a mere formality, but with all humility and reverence I take this opportunity to record my gratitude to a number of persons and institutions for the help in the completion of this work. I express deep sense of gratitude to my most respected supervisor Dr. Vibhuti Narayan Mishra Nihala Associate Professor Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi, whose irradiating critical suggestions, valuable guidance, encouragement and constructive criticism were the source of inspiration for me throughout the period of investigation. My words are too feeble to give vent to my inner feelings for him. I express my irredeemable debt of gratitude to Dr. Anand Kumar, Prof. and Head of the Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi, who took keen interest in my work and encouraged me from time to time and whose enthusiastic guidance, pertinent criticism and constant encouragement showed me a path of research, without which this investigation could not have been completed. I am very grateful to Prof. L.N. Singh, Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi for his even helping attitude, moral support and active co-operation. I would like to thank Dr. Arun Kumar Vaidya, Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidhypith , Varanasi for his help and providing suggestion during the course of present investigation . I carefully acknowledge the suggestions and encouragement provided me by Dr. R.P. Singh, Dr. S.N. Upadhyay, Dr. Rajendra Singh and all distinguished members of the Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith , Varanasi. I would also like to thank my sisters Smt. Sangeeta Singh and Smt. Preeti Singh. My brothers Mr. Arun Kumar Singh , Mr. Abhishek Kumar Singh. I would not forget the help provided by master Pratyush Kumar Singh and my sister in- law Smt. Sashi Prabha Singh and all family members for theirs encouragement and numerous act, kindness, who proved to be helpful during the days of my research.

It is beyond my expression to acknowledge the value of great affection and encouragement of my father Sri Raj Nath Singh and mother Smt. Shakuntala Singh . I express my deep sense of gratitude to esteemed my loving husband Dr. Himansu Kumar Singh. No words are sufficient to thank my loving kids Pari and Anjal for their patience for its completion. I can never forget the cooperation provided by the non-teaching staff of the Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi. A word of appreciation and my thank is due to all my friends and Dr. Shiv Pujan Verma , Pavan Kumar Trigunait, Dr. Rachana Sinha for their willing cooperation during my research work.

(ARCHANA SINGH)

Preface
To awaken the people, it is the women who must be awakened once she is on the now, the family moves , the village moves, the nation moves. Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru. The human society throughout the world is under the process of rapid cultural, economic and ideological change. Being an integral part of social world, the Indian society also could not remain unaffected from this social transformation. There is a continuous shift from idealistic to materialistic philosophy of life. This is as a result of changing social and economic system, due to scientific and technological advancement . The greatest effect of this change has been on the value system of our society. Infact the speed of shift in the way of life and in value system has been different and there is a large gap between ideologies of first and third generations, which has created serious problems of adjustment for individuals in the society. As a consequence of transformation in the social order, the family life has also undergone unexpected changes. The new system has thrown new responsibilities on individual members of the family; specially, the place of women within the family has become multidimensional. Her roles and responsibilities as daughter, wife, and mother have extended beyond boundaries. Her responsibilities are no more limited to looking offer domestic work, producing and bringing up children, and taking care of her husband. Now, she is expected to contribute to the economy of the family. So as to assist other earning members of the family in the phase or rising cost of life. At the same time, as an individual she wants to remain free, in thought and action because freedom is a psychological need. This conflict between personal, and psychological needs and desires, place her in a large number unusual situations. This kind of situational encounter may lead to frustration and maladjustment. The present investigator is a result of keen interest of investigation in the problems of women. Specially, the investigator decided to carry out an investigation entitled Personality factors and Adjustment Patterns of working and non-working women, because working women have to face more problems. A perspective of the changing status of women, the prevalent sex role expectations and sex role definitions along with certain theoretical frame work to understand the personality presented in chapter first, The Introduction . In chapter second, a review of the available literature related to personality aspects, adjustment and self-esteem of employed and unemployed women have been presented. Hardly any study directly related to the chosen topic of investigation were of women in employment have been

found. But the quoted studies, if only indirectly, do throw some light on the problem under investigation. In chapter third, Aims and Importance of the problem including description of purpose of study, with the statement of the problems and objective of the study. In chapter fourth Methodology including the description of hypothesis, sample, research tools and method of data collection. In chapter fifth, Result and discussion including the description of statistics used in investigation. Results have been presented in tabular form and have been analyzed and discussed in these chapters. In chapter sixth , Conclusion & Summary the resume of the total investigation has been presented and investigation and summarized. Today women are being provided, with various jobs in society. The numbers of working women is gradually increasing. It is noticed that working women have additional problems of making adjustment with their jobs demands and family demands. It is therefore relevant to study the personality, self esteem and adjustment of working and non-working women. The Objectives of the study are:_ 1. To assess the status of personality factors in working and the non- working women and to find out the differences on various dimensions of personality. 2. To assess the level of adjustment of working and the non-working women. 3. To assess the level of self- esteem of working and the non-working women. The study will provide us insight to the various aspects of psychological problems of women in general and working women in particular in our society. Such analysis may be helpful to suggest some majors for improving mental health personality and adjustment of women in different situations. The findings of the present study will be helpful to reduce the problems of working and non- working women.

List of Tables

Table 1

Description Mean, SD and t values for working and non-working women on neuroticism sub scale of big five factor of personality measure.

Page No.

Means SD and t values for working and non-working womens on extraversion subscale of big five factor of measure. personality

Mean, SD and t values for working and non-working women on agreeableness subscale of big fie factor measure. of personality

Mean, SD and t values for working and non-working women on openness subscale of give five factor of measure personality

Mean, SD and t values for working and non-working women on consciousness subscale of measure. big five factor personality

6 7 8 9

Mean, SD and t values for working and non-working women on adjustment inventory. Mean, SD and t values for working and non-working women on self-esteem questionnaire Interrelationship of sub-factor of big five factor of personality measure. Interscale relationship between self-esteem, adjustment and big five factor of personality measure.

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

First Progress Report

(October- 2007 to March 2008)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor

Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

During the first six month a number of libraries and websites was visited for the collection for authentic information and considerable the theoretical aspects of this research work. Predominantly the list of library are given below that 1. Central library of B.H.U. Varanasi 2. Departmental & central library of Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi. 3. Departmental & central library of T.D. College , Jaunpur This time were spent for review of various journals and psychological abstracts of the last ten years. The list of journals are given below: International Journal of Social Psychology Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Journal of Social Issues. Journal of Marriage and Family Social Work and Womens Studies Annual Reviews of Psychology American Journal of Sociology Journal of Applied Psychology Indian Psychological Review Psychological Report Journal of Divorce Journal of Biosocial Science American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Journal of Occupational Psychology. Journal of Family Issues Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies. Journal of Employment Counseling Journal of Science. Family Process Psychological Bulletin.

Following the review of literature, refinements in the research methodology of the research titled Personality factors and Adjustment patterns of working and nonworking women were incorporated . (ARCHANA SINGH )

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

Second Progress Report


(April- 2008 to September 2008)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor

Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

The second six month period of research was spent in studying the conceptual frame work of the main areas of focus of this study i.e. working and non-working women, self- esteem, adjustment & personality factors related to the topic and selection of the behavioural measures be incorporated in this study . In the light of the research proposal, the behavioural measure of (1) (2) (3) NEO-PI- R- personality test ( Me Crae & Paul T. Costa 1985). Self- esteem scale (Rosenberg 1965). Adjustment Inventory (Dr. H.S. Asthana 1968)

Were selected, and their relevance in consonance with the research objectives were ascertained . Here it deserves mention that few behavioural measures of the study are in English and the subjects of the project population are Hindi speaking , there fore the psychological test(s) were translated in Hindi and back translated in English by the native speakers of both the languages. This procedure was attempted as an effort for Hindi adaptation of the behavior measures in view of the theoretical and methodological concerns relating to the measurement of the theoretical constructs.

(ARCHANA SINGH )

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

Third Progress Report


(October- 2008 to March 2009)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

The period under report was spent for pilot studies by incorporating the Hindi versions of the specified behavioural measures of 1. NEO-PI-R personality test (Mc Crae & Paul T. Costa 1985). 2. Self- Esteem scale (Rosenberg 1965) for this purpose, 200 women (100 working women & 100 Non working women) from Varanasi city of Uttar Pradesh were sampled and simultaneously, the first and second chapter Introduction and Review of Literature was in writing process. The pilot study revealed that the Hindi version of the behavioural measures may well amicably be employed for the measurement purpose of the theoretical constructs(s) in the project population. (ARCHANA SINGH ) of the thesis

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

Fourth Progress Report


(April- 2009 to September 2009)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor

Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

During this six month , some review of the research reports on working and non-working women in the context of personality , self esteem and adjustment were studied in the control and other library of M. G. K. V. Varanasi & B.H. U. Varanasi for the setting relevant researches and considerable theoretical aspects of this research work. At the same time the third chapter of the thesis Aim and Importance of the Study was finished and in this period data collection was in the process for data collection Hindi versions of the specifically behavioural measures of 1. NEO-PI- R Personality Test (MC Crae & Paul T. Costa 1985). 2. Self Esteem scale (Rosenberg 1965) 3. Adjustment Inventory (Dr. H. S. Asthana 1968) Were used for this purpose 200 working and 200 non-working women were taken as the sample of the study from the Varanasi city. Subject was between 25-50 years and education was at least graduation level.

(ARCHANA SINGH )

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

Fifth Progress Report


(October- 2009 to March 2010)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor

Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

During this period, data collection on the behavioural measures was completed , and statistical analysis of obtain data of the behavioural measures of 1. NEO-PI- R Personality Test (MC Crae & Paul T. Costa 1985). 2. Self Esteem scale (Rosenberg 1965) 3. Adjustment Inventory (Dr. H. S. Asthana 1968) Were done. The individual score were calculated in the light of scoring procedure suggested by the authors of the respective test. Subject wise scores and each item of behavioural measures are done and tabulated. After that each data separately analysed on the basis of following statistical techniques. 1. Mean & Stander Deviation 2. Mean differences by t test. Furthers more, the interpretations of the first part of analysis or results are in progress. Besides, the write up of the fourth chapter of the thesis on Methodology was in the progress.

(ARCHANA SINGH )

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

Sixth Progress Report


(April- 2010 to September 2010)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor

Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

In this period of six month Methodology chapter was finished and write up of the fifth chapter Results and Discussion are in the progress. In the sometime library and website was visited and approximately five chapter of the thesis are finalized

(ARCHANA SINGH )

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

Seventh Progress Report


(October- 2010 to March 2011)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor

Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

During this period following paper were written and sent for publication. 1. Personality Pattern: A Study of Working and non- Working women. 2. A comparative study of Adjustment & Self- Esteem among working and nonworking women. In the same time last chapter of thesis on conclusion are in the writing process.

(ARCHANA SINGH )

PERSONALITY FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT PATTERNS OF WORKING AND NON- WORKING WOMEN

Eight Progress Report


(April- 2011 to Till Date)

Name of Research Scholar

Name of Supervisor

Archana Singh

Dr. V.N. Mishra


Associate Professor

Department of psychology faculty of social Sciences Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith Varanasi-2221002

The last six months was devoted for finalization of the Ph.D. Thesis for the presubmission seminar was organized on dated department granted for submission of the Ph.D. Thesis. and permission of the

(ARCHANA SINGH)