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G U I D E TO E X P L O R I N G

African American Culture

C O L L E G E O F A G R I C U LT U R A L S C I E N C E S
Acknowledgments

Developers Contributors Visit Penn State’s College of


Nakesha Faison, research Shameera Simmons, past Agricultural Sciences on the Web:
associate I, the Institute for Social participant of Temple University’s www.cas.psu.edu
Research, University of Michigan Math and Science Upward
Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences
Marney Dorsey, master’s of Bound Program
research, extension, and resident education
science degree candidate in programs are funded in part by Pennsylvania
agricultural extension and Curriculum Reviewers/ counties, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,

education, Penn State Consultants and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Gary Abdullah, writer/editor, This publication is available from the Publications


Dr. Patreese Ingram, associate Distribution Center, The Pennsylvania State
professor of agricultural Information and Communication
University, 112 Agricultural Administration
extension and education, Penn Technologies Building, University Park, PA 16802. For
State Cindy Arblaster, 4-H youth information telephone 814-865-6713.

development agent, Where trade names appear, no discrimination is


Westmoreland County intended, and no endorsement by the Penn State
Special thanks to Candice Lyons, College of Agricultural Sciences is implied.
hair stylist, and Leslie Clements Brack Barr, 4-H youth
for their contributions to the development agent, Allegheny This publication is available in
hairstyle activities section. County
alternative media on request.
Models: Sheena Armstrong, Christy Bartley, youth program
The Pennsylvania State University is committed
Caitlin Dininni-Parker, coordinator to the policy that all persons shall have equal
Sonya Gomes, Cassandra Logan, Deno Deciantis, county access to programs, facilities, admission, and
Cierra Lyons, Frank Mathis, employment without regard to personal
extension director, Allegheny
characteristics not related to ability, performance,
Tsakani Ngomane, County or qualifications as determined by University
Tyana Singletary, Cherese
Sullivan, and Bridgette Turner. Bryan Dickinson, youth policy or by state or federal authorities. It is the

development agent, Lawrence policy of the University to maintain an academic


and work environment free of discrimination,
Designer: Gretl Collins County
including harassment. The Pennsylvania State
Photographer: Howard Dr. Catherine Lyons, assistant to University prohibits discrimination and
Nuernberger the dean for minority affairs in harassment against any person because of age,
ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national
the College of Agricultural
origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual
Sciences orientation, or veteran status. Discrimination or
Lynda Moss McDougall, program harassment against faculty, staff, or students will
not be tolerated at The Pennsylvania State
advisor, 4-H youth development,
University. Direct all inquiries regarding the
Mercer County
nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action
Mary Miller, 4-H youth Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 328
Boucke Building, University Park, PA 16802-
development agent, Montgomery
5901, Tel 814-865-4700/V, 814-863-1150/TTY.
County
© The Pennsylvania State University 2003
Dr. Claudia Mincemoyer, assistant
Produced by Information and Communication
professor of agricultural and Technologies in the College of Agricultural
extension education Sciences

Donald Tanner, 4-H youth CAT AGRS-92 1M12/03nvo ICT 4633


development agent, McKean
County
Contents

Leader’s Guide 2

Introduction to Activity Guide 7

What I Know about African American Culture 8

African American Skin and Hair: What Makes the Difference? 10

Swahili: The Continental Language of Africa 22

African American Arts and Crafts 24

African American Music 36

Selected Poetry by African Americans 41

African American Cuisine 50

Special African American Holidays 57

Notable African Americans 60

Reflections on What I Have Learned 74

How Can I Learn More? 76

Puzzle Solutions 77

References 81
Leader’s Guide

Introduction The Guide to Exploring African Leader’s Guide Side Note


American Culture was designed
Diversity means differences with both youth and adults of all Before you get started with the
among people. It includes all of races and both genders in mind. activities provided in the activity
us in our rich and infinite variety. The suggested age-group is 10 guide, it is important to reflect on
In recent years, diversity has years and older. This guide can your own comfort as a leader in
become a popular topic. As the also be adapted to adult learners presenting these activities to
demographics of the U.S. as well. youth. As a leader you have the
population become more diverse, opportunity to introduce new
the need to provide multicultural This leader’s guide serves as a ideas and satisfy the curiosity of
educational experiences in tool for leaders, assisting them in youth pertaining to the African
organized youth programs the process of using the activity American culture. Remember, if
increases. Additionally, today’s guide. This curriculum has several you are unsure or have questions
global market continues to grow, goals, all of which are described regarding the subjects in this
and technological advances make in the objectives. guide, there are many people
communication around the who are willing to share answers
world easier. The need to prepare with you. In fact, most African
youth to function in a diverse Objectives Americans are willing to discuss
society and world is becoming The activity guide was developed their heritage with you if asked.
more important. Both formal and with the goal in mind to One of your challenges as a
nonformal education programs encourage youth to: leader is to utilize resources.
are adding diversity-related topics African American friends and
to their curricula. 1. Develop an understanding of acquaintances can be good
African American culture and resources. Discussing topics with
Youth development leaders have its importance in U.S. society. them can also help better prepare
the opportunity to help our you to facilitate discussion with
youth understand, appreciate, and 2. Learn about the individual
contributions of selected your youth group. Try not to be
value the many different cultures too concerned about being
that make up America. Leaders African Americans to
American history. politically correct. The best way
can play an important role in to become comfortable with this
teaching youth to live together 3. Reflect on one’s own culture curriculum is to use it and share
and care for each other. Through and the similarities and it with others.
guidance and critical thinking, differences between cultures.
leaders can open up new worlds
for youth to discover. Leaders 4. Develop life skills that allow
play a role in helping youth youth the opportunity to value
become comfortable in our ever- diversity, think critically,
changing society. The Guide to process information, learn to
Exploring African American Culture learn, practice creativity,
is one tool that was developed to complete a project or task, and
assist 4-H and other youth more.
development leaders in achieving
this goal.

2
Overall Design of the How Each Section Is Organized be obtained through the public
library or the cooperative
Guide The lessons and activities in this extension office.
guide are designed to enhance
The Guide to Exploring African • The More You Know, the
youths’ knowledge of African
American Culture provides
American culture as well as build More You Grow—This
learning experiences for both
their life skills. Designed with section offers additional
traditional and nontraditional information on each topic in
both the leader and youth
audiences. It encourages
participant in mind, each section an easy-to-follow format for
educators to use creativity and
of the activity guide includes increased awareness on related
ingenuity to bring this topics.
various combinations of the
curriculum to life. The activities
are arranged in a given order, following:
Life Skills
however, the guide is developed • Life Skills—Each section
so that the leader has the opens with a brief This section will explain the
flexibility to select and choose introduction, which supplies many goals of the guide.
topics of interest to the background information Definitions are adapted from
participants. Activities do not needed to complete the Targeting Life Skills by Patricia A.
have to be completed in any section. Life skills are those Hendricks, Iowa State Extension
specific order. This guide can be skills that youth will gain by youth development specialist.
used as a “stand alone” participating in activities. • Value Diversity—recognizing
curriculum, or it may be used as and welcoming factors that
• Activities—Next are the
a resource to supplement other separate or distinguish one
activities that correspond with
multicultural education programs person from another. It also
the list of life skills. Refer to
and activities. involves being aware of the
the Chart of Skills Gained
You need not be an expert on (Figure 1) at the end of the many similarities and
the subject matter in order to leader’s guide for a quick differences among people and
teach the activities in the guide. reference that matches each life their cultures. In valuing
However, it is essential that you skill to the corresponding diversity, one must be willing
enjoy working with young activity. to accept that differences are
people. It is also good to keep an okay and learn to value one’s
• Reflection—Located at the own uniqueness.
open mind and to think of
end of each section is the
yourself as a change agent who • Think Critically—talking
reflection component.There,
will be sharing experiences that things over with oneself in
questions are provided to
may be new for many youth. one’s mind, deciding what to
extend learning. This
The activity guide provides ideas component also encourages think or do, improving the
and information to help make youth to relate what they have quality of decision making. The
the process of valuing diversity learned to their own or others’ critical thinking process can be
fun for both the leader and cultures. stated as a set of questions one
youth. Use your own creativity asks and answers oneself.
• More Challenges—This
and unique talents as a leader to — Observe the situation
section follows the activities
deliver the curriculum and carefully: “Do I agree with
and offers participants a way to
provide an environment that will what is being said or done?”
learn more about the subject
build on youth’s curiosity.
through exploring other — Examine your reaction:
Questions regarding the activities
resources. This component may “How do I really feel about
and content should be directed
suggest visiting the library to what is being said or done?”
the Penn State Cooperative
search for specific books, or it
Extension office in your county. — Consider alternative
may suggest topics to spark
further discussion among responses and opposing
youth. This area may also viewpoints: “Based on what
include videos on the topic as I know, is the statement
well as other supplemental true?”
educational materials that can

3
— Decide among the 3. Think of alternative • Caring for Others—showing
alternatives: “What solutions. understanding, kindness, and
implication does this concern toward others; giving
4. Compare and select the best
decision have for my future attention to the well-being of
alternatives
and me? Am I willing to use others.
this information in making 5. Plan a strategy, set a goal,
— Sensitive to other’s situations
decisions?” and determine ways to
and their well-being
reach it.
• Learning to Learn—
— Sympathy—capacity for
acquiring, evaluating, and using 6. Carry out the plan—apply
sharing or understanding
information; understanding the the solution to the problem.
the feelings of another;
methods and skills for learning. • Planning and Organizing— compassion
— Observing or using the a method for doing something
— Involving oneself in helping
senses to gain new that has been thought out
others—demonstrating
information or find new ahead of time; how the parts
concern
ways to use information can be put together.
— Being able to accept
— Understanding the meaning 1. Consider the total situation.
expressions of concern from
of the information 2. Identify the parts, steps, and others
— Questioning to gain more necessary sequence or order.
• Working in a Team—work
information
3. Assign a person to be done by two or more people
— Using the learned responsible, design a time- each doing parts of the whole
information in new line, and identify resources task. Teamwork involves:
situations, to solve problems, required to accomplish the
— Communicating effectively
or to change one’s behavior parts or steps (if needed).
— Identifying a common task
— Being able to break down 4. Assemble the parts into a
information into parts structure according to the — Dividing a task by
desired purpose. identifying contributions by
— Integrating parts of
each person (roles)
information to form a • Cooperation—to work or act
whole together for a common — Accepting responsibility for
purpose or mutual benefit. This one’s part of the task
— Judging the value of
includes the following skills:
information for a given — Coordinating the
purpose — Communicating effectively interaction (working
together) to complete the
— Being able to communicate — Setting group goals
task
information to someone else — Using social skills
— Sharing accomplishments
— Supporting the efforts of
— Interacting effectively with
others to learn • Making Decisions—choosing
others
among several alternatives. A
• Problem Solving—clearly — Building and maintaining decision-making process
identifying a problem and a
trust involves the following:
plan of action for resolution of
the problem. The problem- — Providing leadership — Specify goals and constraints
solving process is made up of — Engaging in discussion and (limits).
the following: controversy that produces — Generate alternatives.
1. Identify/clearly define the results
— Consider risks and appraise
problem situation. — Managing conflict alternatives.
2. Gather information; — Accepting responsibility — Choose an alternative to
consider priorities, implement.
resources, needs, and
interests.

4
• Communication—exchange Resources Videos
of thoughts, information, or African American Heritage Video
messages between individuals; A resource kit for use in
conjunction with the guide is Kwanzaa Video (describes
sending and receiving
available for leaders with interest holiday)
information using speech,
writing, and gestures. Messages in supplemental materials. This “Trying to Get Home” (history
must be sent and received for kit is located in each cooperative of African American music)
communication to have taken extension regional office. In this
place. Some examples are: kit you will find educational and CDs
recreational materials that will Ella Jenkins: “Jambo and Other
— Reading—considering ideas, enhance your activities and Call and Response Songs and
thoughts, information, or lessons. Materials such as Chants.”
messages that have been videotapes and books are
written included. In order to borrow this Books
— Speaking—talking or verbal kit, contact your county Langston Hughes: The Dream
communication; extension office. Each resource Keeper and Other Poems
conversation; planning, kit includes:
Virginia Hamilton: The People
organizing, and presenting a • Plastic storage container w/lid Could Fly (African American
speech (approximately 18 gallons) folktales)
— Listening—hearing and • African-print fabric Johnnierenee Nelson: Values of the
interpreting verbal (spoken) (approximately 2 yards per kit) African American Family (poems)
communications
• African-inspired patterns Assorted storybooks
— Giving feedback— (clothing, hats, accessories)
responding to
• “Skin tone” crayons, markers, Lending Library Resources
communication
clay, poster paint, and play The following materials may be
— Observing—being attentive dough borrowed upon request of a
to and interpreting cooperative extension educator.
nonverbal communication, • Kwanzaa kit (activity kit and Contact your county 4-H/youth
such as body language and books) development or family consumer
gestures • African bead assortment science agent.
• African American art deck Books
• African American Flag Human Diversity: Perspectives on
(3 feet x 5 feet) People in Context
Diversity in Action: Using Adventure
Activities to Explore Issues of
Diversity with Middle School and
High School Age Youth

Videos
“Small Differences” (People with
disabilities)
“Valuing Diversity: Multicultural
Communication”

5
6
Figure 1. Chart of skills gained.

Valuing Caring Working Planning Completing


Valuing Making Thinking Processing Learn to Practicing Social for Interacting in a Cooper- Solving Commun- and a Project or
Activity Diversity Decisions Reasoning Critically Information Learn Creativity Justice Others Socially Team ating Problems icating Organizing Task

What I know about


African American Culture • • •

Introduction to Diversity • • • •

African American Skin and Hair • • • • •

Notable African Americans • • • • • • • • • • • •

African American Arts


and Crafts • • •

African American Music • • • • •

Selected Poetry by
African Americans • • • • • • • •

African American Cuisine • • • • •

Special African American


Holidays • • •

Swahili: The Continental


Language of Africa • • •

Reflections on What I Have


Learned • • • • •
Introduction to Activity Guide

Diversity means “differences,” and This activity guide will help you
diversity comes in many forms. learn more about African
Because our world is becoming American culture. The goals of
more diverse every day, having a this guide are:
good understanding of diversity
• To increase how much you
will help you value the
know about African American
similarities and differences of
culture.
many kinds of people.
• To help you appreciate
diversity.

NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY USED IN Learning about African American


THIS GUIDE culture isn’t all you’ll be doing.
This activity guide will also help
In this activity guide, black people you learn about yourself.You will
will be called Africans or African have the chance to practice skills
Americans because black you’ll use all your life such as:
people—wherever they are— • Valuing Diversity
have ancestors who came from
• Thinking Critically
the land called Africa. African
Americans have been called by • Processing Information
many different names including • Learning to Learn
colored, Negro, and black. Most
• Practicing Creativity
people are known by the land their
ancestors lived in or came from. • Completing a Project or Task
Mexicans are called Mexicans Each section of the activity guide
because there is a land called has a different theme. Complete
Mexico. Chinese are called as many activities as you would
Chinese because there is a land like for each theme.
called China. Germans are called
Germans because there is a land
named Germany. There is no land
called Colorland, Negroland, or
Blackland. There is a land called
Africa, which is where African
Americans come from.

7
What I Know about African American Culture

Begin exploring African PART I. Match the following African Americans with their
American culture by testing accomplishments by putting the correct letter on the space following
yourself. How much do you each number.
already know about African
Americans? You can retest 1. ___ Harriet Tubman a. “The Father of Blues”
yourself at the end of the guide
and compare your answers to see 2. ___ Phillis Wheatley b. Traveled throughout the country
how much you have learned. speaking against slavery and for
3. ___ Carter G. Woodson women’s rights
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
Making Decisions 4. ___ Sojourner Truth c. Discovered the process for
Reasoning separating plasma from blood and
Today’s Date _________________ 5. ___ Charles Richard Drew
storing it until needed
6. ___ W. C. Handy
d. Would not give up her seat to a

7. ___ George Washington Carver European American man on a


Montgomery bus in 1955
8. ___ Malcolm X
e. “The Father of Black History”
9. ___ Mary McLeod Bethune
f. Founded a school in 1904 that still
10. ___ Rosa Parks exists today

g. First African American to publish a


book

h. Helped runaway slaves by use of


the Underground Railroad

i. Agricultural scientist who


produced over 300 products from
the peanut

j. Changed from an early life of


crime to a Muslim preacher

8
PART II. How would you PART III. Circle the correct
define the following? answer.

Juneteenth: 1. A dashiki is a: 4. Which form of music was started


a) hairstyle by African Americans?
b) special dessert a) country
c) loose-fitting garment b) opera
d) musical instrument c) jazz
d) barber shop quartet
Kwanzaa: 2. The term cornrow describes a:
a) style of clothing 5. Which language is spoken in over
b) Christmas ornament 800 countries of Africa?
c) dish for dinner a) Swahili
d) hairstyle b) Tagalog
c) French
Melanin: 3. Which of the following foods was d) Dutch
brought to the Americas by
Africans?
a) apples
b) rice
c) corn
The Underground Railroad: d) peanuts

Gumbo:

9
African American Skin and Hair:
What Makes the Difference?
African Americans have a variety Why Is African American The amount of melanin in
of skin tones—ranging from light people’s skin depends on where
to dark—and different hair
Skin Darker Than their ancestors first came from
types—from straight to very European American Skin? and what the climate was like.
tightly curled. Why is the skin People from very hot places were
color and hair texture of African Everyone’s skin consists of three exposed to a lot of strong
Americans different from that of parts: the outer, middle, and sunlight. They needed larger
other people? You will learn the bottom layers. amounts of melanin to protect
answers to these questions in this • The outer layer is transparent. their skin from burning. People
section. who came from colder areas with
• The middle layer contains less sunlight did not need as
melanin. much melanin to protect their
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity skin. Therefore, people whose
• The bottom layer contains
Processing Information nerves and other important ancestors came from colder parts
Learning to Learn body parts. of the world (such as European
Thinking Critically countries like Switzerland and
What is melanin? Melanin is a Russia) have very light skin.
Practicing Creativity
black coloring so tiny that it can People who came from hotter
only be seen through a places (such as Middle Eastern
microscope. Melanin determines countries like India) have darker
what your skin color is and skin. People who came from very
protects your skin by soaking up hot places closer to the equator
ultraviolet rays from the sun. The (such as some countries in Africa)
more melanin in your skin, the have the darkest skin.
more your skin is protected from
the sun.

Reflection
Does melanin have anything to do
with the way a person acts?
Why is melanin in the skin?
What determines how much melanin
each of us has?
Does the amount of melanin people
have make them better or worse than
anyone else?

10
Why Is African American If hair strands look the same for and then in the other direction.
everyone, why do some people The result is a curl. The amount
Hair Different from have poker-straight hair and of curl depends on how fast the
European American Hair? others have tight, frizzy curls? It uneven rate of cell division shifts
The basic structure of hair is the depends on the cuticle of the hair from one side of the papilla to
same for all people. Look at the strands. The cuticle is made up of the other. What makes African
illustration below of a hair strand. overlapping scales similar to the hair unique is its degree of
All strands of hair are made up of slates on a roof (see illustration curliness.
three different layers of keratin. below). In European American
The amount of melanin in your
hair, the scales lie flat and reflect a
• Keratin is a protein (your hair and in the iris of your eyes
lot of light, causing a shiny
fingernails and toenails are also determines whether you have
appearance. In African hair, the
made of keratin). blond hair (little melanin) or
scales are not as flat and do not
black hair (lots of melanin) and
• The outside layer is called the reflect as much light, causing a
whether you have blue eyes (little
cuticle. It contains the hair’s duller appearance.
melanin) or black eyes (lots of
pigment or color. Each hair grows from a follicle— melanin).
• The middle or core is called the pore from which the hair
the medulla. emerges. The root of the hair is
called the derma papilla. This is Reflection
where the cell division occurs In what ways are people’s hair the
and hair grows. In European same?
Anatomy of Hair American hair, there is an even
Why is African American hair different
rate of cell division on both sides
of the papilla. In African hair, the from European American hair?
Keratin
cells divide at an uneven rate—
faster on one side and then faster
on the other side. This uneven
Medulla rate of cell division causes the
hair to bend first in one direction

Cuticle
Types of Hair

Wavy hair: oval shaft, Curly African hair: flat or oval Straight hair: rounded
grows in a slanted shaft that grows more on one shaft
direction side than the other creating a
curve. It slants backward,
folding over in a tight or loose
spiral

11
The More You Know, the Madame Walker developed the African American Hair
Wonderful Hair Grower, a
More You Grow product for women experiencing
Tips and Concepts
Sarah (Madame C. J.) Walker hair loss due to improper care, Hair Products
(1867–1919) and began her own African
American women’s hair care African American hair varies in
Entrepreneur its structure and texture. Since
products business. To sell her
product she traveled through the African American hair takes time
South for over a year, giving to produce natural oils, many
demonstrations in churches, African Americans apply products
lodges, and door-to-door. to provide nutrients that are
otherwise washed away during
Madame Walker became the first shampooing. Hair products called
woman to sell products by mail “hair grease” are simply leave-in
order and the first woman to conditioners that supply the hair
open her own beauty school, The with oils and other needed
Walker College of Hair Culture. supplements to make it healthy
With the help of her daughter, and shinny.
she established a chain of beauty
parlors and schools throughout Just as you have seen many
the United States, the Caribbean, African American hairstyles that
and South America. By 1914, her focus on natural or braided
company earned over $1 million. concepts, there are other styles
By 1919, she had 25,000 women for people who prefer to relax
working as sales representatives their hair. Hair relaxers, also
Sarah Breedlove grew up in called Walker agents. She is known as perms, are a common
Louisiana, working in the cotton therefore regarded as the first method for African American
fields with her parents from self-made woman millionaire in women to straighten their hair.
sunup to sundown. She did not the United States. In her will, This process is often done in hair
attend school but learned to read Madame Walker requested that salons or at home with an over-
and write as an adult. She women must always head her the-counter relaxer kit. Relaxers
married at age fourteen to escape company. Since her death in May use a chemical process that
cruel living conditions and then of 1919, Madame Walker’s female relaxes the natural curl in African
worked as a maid after her descendants have managed and American hair, thus leaving it
husband’s untimely death in maintained the business that she straight. These items can be
1887. She began experiencing began. found in the beauty sections at
baldness due to the improper hair many convince stores, grocers, or
techniques she used. Using her beauty supply stores such as
own secret ingredients, she Reflection Sally’s Beauty Supply Store.
stopped her hair loss and What do you find most interesting
invented a hair growth cream. In about Madame Walker’s story?
1906 she married Charles Joseph
Walker and changed her name to If you could start your own business,
Madame C. J. Walker. In those what kind would it be?
days, most European Americans
called all African American What are some of the challenges you
women by their first names would face in starting this business?
regardless of their status. Many
women, including Madame
Walker, kept their first name a
secret. This is why Sarah
Breedlove Walker referred to
herself as Madame C. J. Walker.

12
Wearing a Head Wrap Activities: Hairstyles Hairstyle: Braids
While many African American Level of Difficulty: Easy
women may choose to style their Life Skills: Valuing Diversity Hair braiding is a technique that
hair with braids or relaxers, many Practicing Creativity can be learned with patience and
also prefer to cover their hair Project Skill: Creating and practice. It involves detailed hand
using a head wrap. In fact, wearing movement that maneuvers hair
Practicing New
a head wrap is not only popular into neat designs secured close to
among women in the United Hairstyles
the scalp. This section features
States but in Kenya as well. many hairstyles that are worn by
Although many years ago African American hairstyles are a African American men and
traditional women of Kenya rarely part of the African contribution women, and girls and boys. Some
covered their hair, today it is to U.S. style and culture. Many of styles may have their origin in
common. In years past, women these styles have been translated Africa.
cut their hair and wore beaded from African origins.
decorations across their heads. In
recent times, head wraps such as On the following pages are
the Cele are worn as a symbol of illustrations of African American
beauty and respect. Many woman hairstyles. After reviewing the
of African decent prefer to wear a pictures, select one (or a few) and
head wrap because it mystifies try to design an African
them as well as keeps their hair American hairstyle. Use the
neatly protected beneath the head pictures as a guide and use
wrap cloth. yourself or a friend as your
model.

When Africans were first brought


to the Americas, braiding was
among the arts they continued to
Natural Hairstyle. In the 1960s, the practice. In fact, the Senegalese
“natural” hairstyle was a statement people of Africa are noted masters
expressing African American pride. of braiding. Here in the United
States, many people continue this
African tradition.

13
You can practice creating a basic Step 2 Hairstyle: Individual Cornrows
braid by following these
instructions and using the Level of Difficulty: Moderate
diagrams below. Use yourself or a
friend as a model.

Instructions
1. Divide a ponytail into three
sections and hold as shown.
2. Roll the right hand so that it
is palm down. This will cross
the right strand over the
center.
Step 3
3. Now move the center strand
over to the left hand, holding
the hair as shown.
4. Roll the left hand so that it is
palm down. This will cross
the left strand over the
center.
5. Move the center strand back
to your right hand and start Instructions
over again from step 2.
1. Wash and condition hair.

Step 1 Step 4
2. Dry hair.
3. Comb and brush through
completely.
4. Part hair into 2-inch sections
going straight back as seen in
the illustration.
5. Starting at the front of the
head, separate the parted hair
into three sections and begin
crossing each one over top of
each other; this is called
braiding. (Some people use
Step 5
the same technique but cross
the strands under instead of
over each other. Either way
will work fine.)
6. As you cross each section
under the other, pick up a
piece of the loose hair to
include in the braid. A braid
will form close to the scalp;
this is called a cornrow.
7. When you reach the back of
the neck, continue braiding
as you would a regular braid.

14
8. Once the cornrow is Level of Difficulty: Moderate to
complete, use a rubber band Complicated
at the end of the braid to This style shows a type of cornrow,
keep it from unraveling itself. the zigzag style, which can be worn
9. Repeat these steps for the by all lengths of hair. Creativity
remaining parted hair allows you to make this style your
sections. own.
10. If maintained, this style can Instructions
last one to two weeks.
1. Wash and condition hair.
2. Dry hair.
Hairstyle: Zigzag Cornrow Braids
3. Comb and brush through
completely.
4. Starting above one ear, begin
parting the hair in zigzag
diagonals about 3 inches thick,
as seen in the illustration.
5. Pull the back section up into a
ponytail or use a clip to hold
hair in place.
6. Starting at the front of the
head, separate the parted hair
into three sections and begin
crossing each one over top of
each other; this is called
braiding. (Some people use the
same technique but cross the
strands under instead of over
each other. Either way will
work fine.)
7. As you cross each section under
the other, pick up a piece of
the loose hair to include in the
braid. A braid will form close
to the scalp; this is called a
cornrow.
8. When you reach the back of
the neck, continue braiding as
you would a regular braid.
9. Once the cornrow is complete,
use a rubber band at the end of
the braid to keep it from
unraveling itself.
10. Repeat these steps for the
remaining parted hair sections.
11. To maintain this style, wrap
head with a silk or satin scarf at
night, this should allow the
style to last up to two weeks.

15
Hairstyle: Multicolor Hair Braids
with Extensions by Stylist
Candace Lyons
Level of Difficulty: Complicated
For this example, extensions are
used. Hair extensions are
synthetic or human hairs that are
added in the braiding process to
extend the length of the hair.
Extensions not only make braids
thicker and longer, but they allow
the style to last longer.You can
purchase them at many local
beauty supply stores. Multiple
colors can be used. In this style,
red and blond synthetic hair
extensions are used.
This style is contemporary but
classic. These multicolored braids
with extensions take time and
skill to create. This very popular
style resembles a style worn by Instructions
women in Senegal. To maintain 1. Depending on the desired
these braids, the ends must be thickness of cornrow, grab a
secured. One way of doing this is swatch of hair. Add more hair
to place rubber bands on each for thick cornrows and less
end to keep them from hair for thinner ones.
unraveling. Synthetic extensions
will help keep them looking 2. Part hair in the desired
good for up to one month before pattern and separate the
needing redone. portion of hair which you
plan to cornrow. Use a clip to
Adding synthetic hair to your hold the remaining hair out
cornrows of the way.
Think of the process of adding 3. Take the swatch of synthetic
synthetic hair to your braids as hair and fold it in half. Place
similar to the process explained the middle point of the
earlier. However, the detailed synthetic hair against the root
process of learning to cornrow of your hair that is to be
with added hair may take time to cornrowed.
master. So, be patient and 4. Take and separate all hair
remember to practice, practice, into three sections. Each
practice! section should have both
your hair and the synthetic
hair in it.
5. Begin crossing each section
of hair over top of each
other.

16
6. As you cross each section Hairstyle: The Wrap Instructions
under the other, pick up a 1. Wash and condition hair.
piece of your loose hair
combined with synthetic hair 2. Spray hair with setting
to include in the cornrow. A lotion.
cornrow braid will form 3. Part hair on the side or back.
close to the scalp.
4. Section hair off starting from
7. When you reach the back of the back and comb each
the neck, continue braiding section thoroughly.
as you would a regular braid.
5. Proceed to brush hair in a
8. Once the cornrow is clockwise or
complete, use a rubber band counterclockwise direction,
at the end of the braid to leaving no strands behind.
keep it from unraveling itself. Using a setting lotion should
9. Repeat these steps for the help keep the hair wrapped
remaining parted hair closely to your head.
sections. 6. Sit under a hair dryer until
hair is completely dry.
7. To wear, comb hair down in
direction of the wrap.
8. If smoothness is needed, flat
iron hair from roots to ends
using an inward motion.
9. Style and go.
10. For nighttime care, tie hair
up with a satin scarf. This will
help to maintain this style for
up to one week.

17
Hairstyle: Curly Ponytail Instructions 8. Once the hair has dried,
1. Wash and blow-dry hair. unbraid each section with
your fingers and style as
2. Add styling gel. desired.
3. Brush all hair into a smooth 9. The style should last for
ponytail. approximately 3–4 days if
4. Add small rollers to 1⁄ 4 inch maintained by rebraiding
pieces of hair from the when necessary.
ponytail. Wrap sections of
hair around rollers and
secure with a hair clip.
5. Sit under hair dryer for as
long as needed to dry
completely.
6. Add oil sheen for shine.
7. Remove rollers.
8. Separate each curl with your
fingers to add fullness and
body.
9. You are ready to go.

Hairstyle: Crimped Hair


Instructions
1. Wash, shampoo, and
condition hair.
2. Towel-dry hair.
3. Spray hair with setting
lotion.
4. Part hair into equal sections
(approx. ten 2 x 2 inch
squares).
5. Braid each section separately
and completely to the ends
of the hair so that it will not
come undone.
6. Pull all completed braids
toward the back of your
head and wrap your head in
a satin scarf.
7. Allow the hair to dry
completely overnight or
under a hair dryer.

18
Hairstyle: Funky UpDo Twist Hairstyle: Loose Braids
Instructions
1. Wash and condition and dry
hair.
2. Part hair into sections.
3. Braid hair and secure ends.
4. Pull hair up into a ponytail at
the top center of the head.

Instructions
1. Wash and condition hair.
2. Blow-dry hair straight.
3. Using a curling iron, press
hair straight and give it big
curls.
4. Comb hair in an upsweeping
motion using a slight twist of
your wrists.
5. Using a clip, secure hair.
6. Separate curls with fingers to
give a sprouted effect.
7. If you have bangs, style them
with a curling iron.

19
Hairstyle: Dreadlocks without combing or brushing. 3. After the hair is sectioned,
There are advantages and use a comb to comb/twist
disadvantages to creating this the hair. Do this by inserting
style. Some advantages are you a small-toothed comb at the
can control the size and shape of end of the section and twist
the lock, making them thin or the hair until it coils.
thick, smooth or untamed. One
4. Continue twisting the hair,
of the best aspects of locks is that
making the coil as tight as
it’s an all-natural method that will
possible.
work on all hair lengths 3 inches
and longer.The disadvantage, 5. When you reach the ends
however, is that this process will secure the lock with a rubber
not occur overnight. Although band if needed. Another
locks are permanent, there is a rubber band on the roots will
form of locks that can be worn as help the lock stay tight at its
a temporary style. Coils or baby base. (All hair bands can be
Dreadlocks are formed by a locks can be worn short term or removed after dreads have
process that involves twisting the as a means of starting locks. had a chance to mature.)
hair. They look very much like Starting locks is very labor
dreads right after you create 6. Once locks have formed,
intensive and will take several maintain them by frequently
them. However, they will tighten hours.You will need the help of a
and smooth out a great deal as twisting the new growth
good friend to assist in the
they mature. Well-maintained areas close to your scalp with
process. your thumb and index
locks can actually reach maturity
in as little as 3–4 months! fingers. Rolling the hair
between the two fingers will
What Are Locks? allow the hair to stay locked.
Locks are typically a 7. Wash and condition your
misunderstood hairstyle. They are locks as you normally would.
formed by a process that requires
8. Depending on your hair type,
hair strands be gradually and
you may need to use wax.
naturally interlocked. There are
two types of natural locks—those For fine hair, after the hair
bands are applied to each
that are required by religion and
lock they should be waxed
those that are worn for style.
Although more and more people with a dread wax that does
not contain petroleum. A
of all races and ethnic
Instructions (palm-rolled or good dread wax will tame
backgrounds are wearing this
style for their own personal comb-twisted technique) loose hairs and help the hair
1. Start with clean, residue-free, lock much faster.
reasons, some people are required
to wear dreads. In fact, if you are dry hair; this makes the
Rastafarian or are in some sects process go much faster. This Alternatives for Locking Fine/
of Middle Eastern religions, you process also works best with Straight Hair
must not interfere with the hair that has natural curl. Getting started may be difficult if
growth of your hair, thus hair will your hair is straight. Do not
2. Begin by sectioning the hair worry; there is a way to begin
naturally form locks. It is unlikely into 1-inch squares. Square
that you have seen truly natural locks that requires a different
sections make round locks.
locks because these religions also approach. Locks can be difficult
Between 1-inch and 2-inch to form by simply using the
require that no one, not even a squares work well for most
spouse in some cases, see their twisting method. Try the
people. Smaller sections make
locks. backcombing technique if
thinner locks. Secure the needed. To do so follow these
Once hair is twisted, locks form sections temporarily with
detailed instructions:
when the hair is left in this state rubber bands.

20
1. Start with clean, residue-free, Tips for Creating This Style
dry hair; this makes the Now that you know what it takes Did You Know?
process go much faster. to start locks, here are some Locks have been around in various
Remember, any residue in things to keep in mind during forms for a very long time. Locks are
the hair will cause the hair to this phase of development. a style that shows the coiled nature
slip out of knots as you
• Using a good soap and wax is of African hair and maximizes its
backcomb.
the key to the development of growth. The Himba women in
2. Section hair into 1- to 2- the locks.Your hair will Namibia twist their hair with sheep’s
inch squares, recalling that continue to dread as it grows— wool and coat it with a reddish
smaller sections make thinner in some cases by itself, but in claylike mixture. The men of the
dreads. Secure the sections most cases it will need a little
temporarily with rubber Pokot of Kenya lock their hair into
help.You can wear a hair band
bands. what they call “Ancestor Hair.”
on the root of stubborn locks
3. After the hair is sectioned, to help them lock up. Rubbing
use a dread comb to comb the root of the newly formed
the hair backwards. Start lock clockwise against the scalp
combing close to the scalp, also helps.
not more than an inch away. • Have you hit a barrier? If you
More Challenges
4. Comb hair repeatedly toward are interested in creating • Visit an African American hair
the scalp; this is called dreadlocks but do not have any salon or beauty shop for help
backcombing. Eventually hair friends who feel comfortable with the more detailed
will start to pack up at the doing this for you, contact hairstyles.
roots. Remember, it is not various hair salons. Most salons
have at least one adventurous • Create a collage of African
necessary to twist the hair, American hairstyles. Cut
but it is helpful to roll the stylist who will be willing to
try this style for a cost that is pictures from magazines and
hair you are holding between newspapers that show examples
your fingers a little while you estimated somewhere between
$20 and $30 per hour. It is a of different African American
are backcombing. hairstyles. Paste them on a
good idea to bring with you
5. Continue backcombing, the products you want to use sheet of paper. Share your
slowly working toward the and the instructions to avoid collage with your family and
ends of the hair, making the being disappointed. friends.
dread as tight as possible as
you go. • Several all-natural dreadlock
products can be found on the Suggested Books
6. When you reach the ends, Internet for starting locks. A
secure the dread with a simple search for “Dreadlocks” Bundles, A. 1991. Madame C. J.
rubber band. Another rubber will produce many interesting Walker—Entrepreneur. New
band on the roots will help Web sites. York: Chelsea House
the dread stay tight at its base. Publishers.
(All hair bands can be Greenfield, E., and L. Little. 1979.
removed after dreads have Childtimes: A Three-Generation
had a chance to mature.) Memoir. New York, Crowell.
7. After the hair bands are Lasky, K. 2000. Vision of Beauty.
applied to each dread, the Cambridge, Mass.: Candlewick
dreads should be waxed with Press.
a dread wax that does not
contain petroleum. A good
dread wax will tame loose Suggested Video
hairs and help the hair dread
much faster. “Madame C.J.Walker:
Entrepreneur.” 1992.
Schlessinger Video Productions.

21
Swahili: The Continental Language of Africa

One way to become familiar Common Vocabulary Words


with another culture is by
learning the language spoken by Swahili word English translation
the people of that culture.
Learning a new language opens Asante sana Thank you very much
new ideas and an understanding Baba Father
of the people and environment
that created the language. Swahili Chakula Food
is spoken more than any other Kifagio Broom
language in Africa, even though
Jambo Hello
over 800 languages are spoken in
Africa. Swahili is also the Karibu Welcome
language used in Kwanzaa Mama Mother
celebrations. Swahili is easy to
speak, and you may have spoken Mtoto Child
Swahili without knowing it. In Mwalimu Teacher
the movie The Lion King, simba Ndada Sister
and rafiki are two Swahili words
used. Simba is Swahili for lion, Ndugu Brother
and rafiki is Swahili for friend. Rafiki Friend
You can start learning Swahili
Shule School
today!
Tafadhali Please
Watoto Children
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
Communicating Nambari Numbers
Learning to Learn Moja One
Mbili Two
Tatu Three

Phonics Nne Four


Tano Five
To help you speak Swahili, below
are the correct pronunciations for Sita Six
the five vowels. Saba Seven
A short a as in “father” Nane Eight
E long a as in “egg”
Tisa Nine
I long e as in “even”
Kumi Ten
O long o as in “oval”
U long u or oo as in “food”

22
The More You Know, the More You Grow Nambari Rhyme

MOJA MBILI
TAKE CARE OF OUR COMMUNITY

TATU NNE
RESPECT OUR ELDERS EVERY DAY
TANO SITA

JAMBO, NICE TO MEET YA!


SABA NANE
A FEW NAMBARI LEFT TO SAY

TISA KUMI
STRIVE FOR AFRICAN UNITY

More Challenges
• Practice speaking Swahili using
the audiocassette or CD
“Jambo and Other Call and
Response Songs and Chants”
by Ella Jenkins (1990).

How many countries on the African continent can you name?


Suggested Books
Feelings, M. 1971. Moja Means
One. New York: Dial Press.
Quick Facts about Africa Activity: Nambari Feeling, M. 1974. Jambo Means
• Africa is the second largest (Numbers) Rhyme Hello. New York: Dial Press.
continent in the world. Only Warren, H. 1993. Africa’s Struggle
Asia is bigger. to Survive. New York:
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity Crestwood House;Toronto:
• Africa is four times the size of
Communicating Maxwell Macmillan Canada;
the United States.
Learning to Learn
New York: Maxwell Macmillan
• Africa is credited as the place International.
Project Skill: Learning a Language
where human civilization
began about 5 million years
ago. The best way to learn a language
• Africa’s people have more is by practicing it as often as
physical variations than on any possible. Learn this rhyme as a
other continent in the world. way to help you remember the
For example, Africa has some nambari (numbers). Put the words
of the shortest and tallest to your favorite tune to make a
people in the world. new song!

23
African American Arts and Crafts

In this section you will see the The More You Know, the life, and shapes of human-made
beauty and richness of African objects. These are graphically
American culture by learning
More You Grow rendered in stylized geometric
about arts and crafts, many of African-Inspired Symbols with shapes. Meanings of motifs may
which are connected to African Meaning be categorized as either
culture. Continue exploring aesthetics, ethics, human relations,
African American culture by Adinkra is considered one of the or religious concepts. In total,
using your creativity to design highly valued hand-printed and adinkra symbolism visually
your own versions of the arts and hand-embroidered cloths. Its represents social thought as it
crafts described here. origin is traced to the Asante relates to the history, philosophy,
people of Ghana and the Gyaman and religious beliefs of the Asante
people of Côte d’lvoire (Ivory people of Ghana and the Côte
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity Coast). Around the 19th century, d’lvoire. Several proverbs are
Practicing Creativity the Asante people began presented below in Twi, the
Completing a Project or developing their unique art of language of the Akan people
Task adinkra printing. Adinkra clothes (descendants of the Asanti
were made exclusively for royalty people). These proverbs have
and spiritual leaders. The motifs been translated into English for
are believed to have deeply you to learn and share.
rooted religious ties. In fact the
meaning of adinkra is “goodbye,”
and, originally, the cloth was
worn only by spiritual leaders
during funerals and sacred
ceremonies.
In recent times, adinkra clothes
are used for a wide range of
social activities. In addition to its
sacred usage, it is also used to
SYMBOL NAME: Gye Nyame
make clothing for special
occasions such as festivals, MEANING OF NAME: Except God
church-goings, weddings, naming
ceremonies, and initiation rites. PROVERB: Abode santan yi firi tete; obi nte ase a
Today, designers use adinkra onim n’ahyase na obi ntena ase nkosi n’awie, Gye
symbols in creating various Nyame.
products including clothing ENGLISH TRANSLATION: This great panorama of
accessories, interior decoration, creation dates back to time immemorial. No one has
packages, and book covers. seen its beginning and no one will see its end except
Each of the motifs that make up God.
the many adinkra symbols has a It is the symbol of the omnipotence and immortality
name and meaning derived from of God.
proverbs, historical events, human
attitudes, animal behaviors, plant

24
SYMBOL NAME: Sankofa SYMBOL NAME: Sankofa (one of many symbols for SYMBOL NAME: Nyame Biribi Wo Sor
Sankofa)
MEANING OF NAME: Go back to fetch it MEANING: “God, there is something in the heavens!”
MEANING: Return and fetch it. It symbolizes hope and inspiration.
PROVERB: Se wo were fi na wo sankofa a yenki.
PROVERB: SE wo werE fin a wosankofa a yenkyi.
ENGLISH TRANSLATION: It is not taboo to go back
and retrieve if you forget. ENGLISH TRANSLATION: It is not taboo to return and
fetch it when you forget. You can always undo your
This symbol represents the wisdom in learning from mistakes.
the past to build the future.

SYMBOL NAME: Denkyem


MEANING: Crocodile
PROVERB: Da nsuo mu nso ohome nsuo ne mframa.
SYMBOL NAME: Dwanimen
SYMBOL NAME: Fihankra ENGLISH TRANSLATION: “The crocodile lives in water
MEANING: Ram’s Horns yet it breathes air, not water.”
MEANING: The circular house of complete house. It is
also known as good fortune. This signifies safety or PROVERB: Dwonnin ye asise a ode n’akorana na
security in a home. ennye ne mben.
ENGLISH TRANSLATION: “It is the heart and not the
horns that leads a ram to bully.”

SYMBOL NAME: Obi Nka Bi

SYMBOL NAME: Akyinkyin MEANING: Unity

MEANING: Changing oneself; playing many parts. ENGLISH PROVERB: “Bite not one another.” This
proverb urges people to avoid conflicts.
SYMBOL NAME: Hyewonyhe
Meaning: The one who burns you be not burned. It
symbolizes forgiveness and reminds you to turn the
other cheek.

25
Here are some African-inspired
symbols you can trace or draw to
decorate the arts and crafts you
design.

Animals
Bushman Antelope
Bushman Ox
SYMBOL NAME: Nsaa SYMBOL NAME: Owuo Atwedie Baako Nfo Bushman Elephant
Bushman Warthog
MEANING: Blanket PROVERB: “Obiara bewu.” Bushman Giraffe
ENGLISH TRANSLATION: A kind of blanket. ENGLISH TRANSLATION: All men climb the ladder of Bushman Monkey
death. Bushman Ostrich
Charging Rhino
Cheetah
Guinea Fowl
Eland
Grazing Hippo
Lizard
Zebra
Leopard

Symbol Name: Osrane SYMBOL NAME: Hwehwemuda


Meaning: Moon MEANING: “A measuring rod.” This is a symbol of
excellence, superior quality, perfection, knowledge,
PROVERB: Osrane nnfiti preko ntware man. and critical examination.
ENGLISH TRANSLATION: It takes the moon sometime
to go ’round the nation.

SYMBOL NAME: Odo Nyera Fie Kwan


MEANING: Symbol of love, devotion, and
faithfulness.

ENGLISH TRANSLATION: Love does not get lost on its


way home.

26
Masks Miscellaneous Items
Benin Mask Animal Box
Guardian Figure Benin Fertility Doll
Bowl
Comb
Cup
Pipe

27
Activities Activities
The Dashiki Create Your Own Dashiki
A dashiki is a loose-
fitting garment
made from Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
brightly colored, Practicing Creativity
patterned fabric. Completing a Project or
Wearing bright Task
colors is a cultural Project Skill: Making Clothing
expression of Africans
communicating their
desire to bring vitality to
everyday living. African Materials (easy pattern)
men commonly wear the 12 x 36 inch piece of fabric
dashiki. The short dashiki is worn Adapted from Cultural Awareness for Children; edited by Judy Allen, Measuring tape
for regular occasions, and the Earldene McNeill, Velma Schmidt. ©1992 by Dale Seymour
Publications. Pair of large scissors
long dashiki is displayed for
Needle and thread
special occasions. In the United
States during the 1960s, the
Instructions (easy pattern)
dashiki was a popular fashion Reflection
among African Americans.Today, What are your favorite colors to 1. Fold the fabric in half and draw
the dashiki continues to be wear? What do they represent to you? the pattern on the fabric, following
fashionable among American
the diagram below.
men, women, and children. What clothing items and colors do
you wear for special occasions? 2. Cut a neck opening large enough
The material for dashikis can
to fit over your head.
come from a variety of sources. What is the significance of wearing
Kente cloth is a fine grade of West 3. Stitch under the arms and down
them on those occasions?
African cloth weaved from the sides.
different types of yarn including Do you wear any special clothing
4. You can embroider around the
cotton, wool, silk, and rayon. items because you belong to a certain
Kente is traditionally reserved for neck opening and add pockets if
group?
royalty in Africa, while it is a you wish.
symbol of pride for African What is the meaning of wearing those
Americans in the United States. clothes?
Colors that make up Kente have
When and where do you wear them?
special meanings:
• Gold denotes warmth,
longevity, and success. Fold

• Silver, white, and blue signify


purity and joy.
• Red signifies death and sadness.

28
5. Use your imagination to decorate 2. Obtain fabric using measurements Make Your Own African Bead
your dashiki with crayons, one and two as guides. Necklace
markers, buttons, feathers, or 3. Cut a rectangle from the fabric the
fabric printed with African designs same size as measurement two.
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
and colors sold at fabric stores. 4. Fold the rectangle in half, as Practicing Creativity
6. To make a long dashiki, use fabric shown in Figure 1. Completing a Project or
twice the measurement from your 5. Cut out the side portion below the Task
shoulders to the floor. sleeves as shown in Figure 1 and Project Skill: Making Jewelry
stitch the sides.
Materials (advanced pattern) Beads are an important part of
6. To finish the rough edge of the
Sewing machine the cultural heritage of Africa.
neck opening, make a facing by
Fabric Their designs, patterns, and colors
tracing around the neck opening signify positions in society,
Pair of large scissors
Measuring tape (Figure 2). religion, politics, and style.
7. Make a strip of cloth Trading beads were used at one
Instructions (advanced pattern) time in many parts of Africa as
approximately three inches wide
money (often valued more than
This dashiki requires two seams and sew the right sides of the gold) in exchange for other
and a neck facing. Be sure to goods. Beads can be made from
facing and neck together
have an adult assist you! many different things such as
(Figure 3).
1. Raise your arms out from the stones, clay, roots, nuts that rattle,
8. Turn the facing to the inside. You shells, and wood.
shoulders and measure across can embroider around the neck
from mid-arm to mid-arm. This is opening and add pockets if you Materials
measurement one. Take another wish. Clay (make your own clay, recipe
measurement from your shoulders 9. Use your imagination to decorate below)
down to where your jacket usually your dashiki with crayons, Knitting needle, pencil, or toothpick
ends. This is measurement two. markers, buttons, feathers, or (to poke holes in beads)
fabric printed with African designs Cookie sheet
and colors sold at fabric stores. Potholders
Tempera, poster, or acrylic paints
Fold
Paintbrushes
24-inch piece of yarn, string, or
thread

Figure 2
Instructions
Fold

1. Form 20–25 small beads out of


the clay, about one-half to one
Figure 1 inch around. Experiment by
making different shapes. Make a

Figure 3

29
hole through the center of each 4. Arrange the beads in the order
bead. desired before putting the
2. Set the oven to 325˚F. Place the necklace together. The beads
beads on a cookie sheet at least don’t have to go all the way
one inch apart. Bake beads 15–20 around the thread.
minutes, until lightly brown. 5. String beads onto a piece of yarn,
Frequently check the oven to string, or thread and tie a double
make sure the beads aren’t knot when they are the right
burning along the edges. length on you. The necklace
3. Using a potholder to protect your should easily fit over your head.
hands, remove the cookie sheet
from the oven. Cool the beads for
at least 30 minutes and remove
from cookie sheet. After beads are
completely cooled, decorate them
with the paint. Experiment making
different designs. Let the paint dry
completely.

30
Make Your Own Clay Wearing a Gele Try another style, following these
instructions:

Life Skills: Valuing Diversity Life Skills: Valuing Diversity Instructions—Style 2


Practicing Creativity Practicing Creativity 1. Reverse the above instructions by
Completing a Project or Completing a Project or beginning with the cloth centered
Task Task at the base of your head.
Project Skill: Making Clay Project Skill: Practicing an African
2. Bring the ends forward and cross
Custom
them in front.
If you don’t have access to clay, or 3. Bring the ends around to the back
you want another challenge A gele is a wide strip of
when making your African bead of your head and tie the ends or
rectangular cloth commonly
necklace, make your own clay worn by African and African tuck in at the back.
using the recipe below. American women. The material
for a gele can come from a
Materials variety of sources similar to the
2 cups flour dashiki. The trick to wearing a
gele is to drape it around your
1 cup salt
head in a comfortable manner.
1 cup water
1-cup measuring cup Instructions
Large bowl 1. Obtain a piece of cloth 72 x 12
Mixing spoon inches. (A long scarf about this
length can be used.)
Step 1
Instructions 2. Following the diagram, center the
1. Mix the flour and salt together in a cloth over your head and cross the
large bowl. ends behind your head.
2. Add the water a little at a time, 3. Bring the ends back up to the
mixing it in with the spoon. front and cross them again.
3. When all the water is used up, mix 4. Tuck in the ends at the back.
the dough well with your hands.
This is called “kneading.”
Continue to knead the dough until
it is smooth.
Step 2

Step 3

31
Make Your Own Paper Kufi Materials Instructions
Dark-colored construction paper for 1. Decorate the construction paper
the headband (24 inches long x 2 with crayons, markers, glitter, or
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
inches wide) however you like.
Practicing Creativity
Completing a Project or Six strips of construction paper 2. Fit the headband snugly around
Task (12 inches long x 1 inch wide) as your head and staple together
Project Skill: Making a Hat follows: (Figure 1).
Two red, two yellow, two green, or 3. Arrange the six strips of colored
Many Africans and African any other colors you like paper so they overlay to form a
Americans who have Islamic Pair of scissors wheel (Figure 2). Staple at the
beliefs wear a round hat called a
Stapler center.
kufi (KOO-fee). It is a traditional
skullcap worn by Muslims all 4. To connect the headband, place
over the world as a symbol of one strip along the outside edge
their Islamic faith. Kufis are a part of the headband. Staple this
of the Islamic attire and many
people wear them to distinguish down, and then do the same all
themselves as Muslims. Create the way around (Figure 3).
your own one-of-a-kind paper
kufi. Be sure to get an adult assist
you.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

32
Create Your Own Mankala Game Game Board the right of the empty cup,
Mankala game boards come in and continuing
many shapes and sizes. Many are counterclockwise around the
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity carved from hardwood into the game board (do not include
shape of objects in the area such storage bank cups).
Practicing Creativity
Completing a Project or as boats or fish. The traditional 3. The second player moves in
Task
Mankala game board is a the same manner, with
rectangular piece of wood with players taking alternate turns.
Project Skill: Making and Playing a
12 or 14 shallow cups carved into
Game it. (There are 2 rows of 6 cups Note:You may count stones in
each in all game boards, but some any cup at any time, but once
game boards also have another stones have been distributed you
cup at both ends of the boards.) cannot change a move.
About the Game
The board is usually mounted on 4. If a player is distributing 12
Mankala is an ancient strategy
a base with a hollowed-out or more stones, he/she will
game that has been played for
storage place for the marbles. make a complete circuit of
thousands of years in many parts
Wood sculptors carve numerous the game board.Therefore,
of Africa. It is one of the oldest
designs including animals, human the player is to skip the cup
games in the world. Because it
figures, and geometric shapes to that the stones were taken
has existed for so long, no one
decorate the base of the Mankala from and continue past it.
knows for sure how it was
boards.
invented. Historians think 5. Captures are made when the
versions of Mankala were played last stone is dropped into an
Stones
in Egypt, Nubia, Sumeria, opponent’s cup, and the total
Cyprus, and other parts of Mankala is played using 48 small number of stones (including
northern Africa and the Middle stones. Four stones are placed in the one just dropped into the
East over 3,000 years ago. Many each of the 12 shallow cups. The cup) equals 2, 3, or 4 stones.
think the game may have started 2 remaining empty cups are The captured stones are
as a system of accounting and storage cups for captured stones. placed in the player’s storage
record keeping similar to an Often, bean-like seeds, beans, bank cup.
abacus. The game is usually palm nuts, stones, marbles, or
named after the seeds, stones, or cowrie shells are used for game Note: Before beginning the
board in the local language. In pieces. game, decide which number of
East Africa, the name of the game stones will be allowed for capture.
is Mankala or Mancala, which How to Play the Game You can choose one number
comes from the Arabic word Mankala is played with 2 between 2, 3, and 4, or allow
naqala meaning “to move opponents facing each other captures of 2, 3, or 4 stones.
something around.” across the game board. Each Because there are many variations
player has 6 cups on his/her side, to playing Mankala, you can
Object of the Game with each cup containing 4 decide which version you want
The object of Mankala is to stones. If the game board has 14 to play.
capture the most stones. At the cups, each player also has an
empty storage bank cup on the end Note:You may not capture stones
end of the game, the winner is if it will leave your opponent
the player who has captured the of the game board to the player’s
right. The storage bank cup is with no stones. (See “Ending the
most stones. Game” section below.)
where players collect captured
Game Pieces stones. 6. When you make a capture, if
There are two main components 1. Choose a player to go first. the cup(s) immediately to the
to a Mankala game: the game right (player’s right) of the
2. The first player picks up all captured cup also have 2, 3,
board, and the stones.
the stones from any cup on or 4 stones, you may capture
his/her side and distributes these as well. Again, place all
them one by one, beginning captured stones in the storage
with the cup immediately to bank cup.

33
Ending the Game Game Variations Or, the player who scores the
1. When an opponent’s cups are Here are some other variations to most points after 10 rounds is the
empty, the other player must how Mankala is played. Use these winner.
distribute stones into the variations to create your preferred Variation 5: This variation affects
cups to allow the opponent style of playing Mankala. the number of game pieces.
to make a move. If the player Mankala can be played using 36,
Variation 1: This variation gives
does not have enough stones 48, 60, or 72 stones. These
the first player the longest first
to do this, the game is over; numbers correspond to either 3, 4,
turn in the game. When the first
remaining stones are placed 5, or 6 stones per cup.
move is made, 4 stones from one
in the storage bank cup of
cup are distributed around the
the player who already had Materials Needed for Easy
game board (as described in step
stones. Mankala Game
2, How to Play the Game). The
2. If the only move a player can player then picks up all of the Molded egg carton or any holder with
make will leave the opponent stones from the cup into which
12 cups
with no stones, this move the last stone was dropped and
cannot be made, and the continues distributing them Scissors
game is over. Remaining around the board. The player’s Markers, colored pencils, crayons,
stones on each player’s side turn ends when the last stone is paints
are placed in their respective dropped into an empty cup.
Tape, glue, or a stapler
storage bank cups.
Variation 2: This variation allows 48 small stones, seeds, beans, or
3. If each player only has one players to capture stones more
stone, the game is over. The quickly than described above. marbles
remaining stone on each When a player drops a fourth
player’s side is placed in their stone (and it is not the last stone Instructions for Creating an
respective storage bank cups. in his/her hand) into a cup Easy Mankala Game
during a move, the stones in that 1. Remove the top of the egg carton
Game Strategy cup immediately go to the
using the scissors.
Mankala requires concentration, opponent’s storage bank cup. This
does not change the rule that if 2. Level the center dividers of the
counting, anticipation, and
planning. The winner of a the last stone is dropped into a bottom of the egg carton by cutting
Mankala game is not determined cup with 2, 3, or 4 stones, the off excess using the scissors.
by chance. Mankala is a strategy player captures those stones for
their own storage bank cup. 3. Cut the top of the egg carton in
game, like chess, that takes a long
time to master. To play Mankala half, and attach to each end of the
Variation 3: This variation affects
well, pay close attention to how the end of the game. The player game board using tape, glue, or a
many stones are in each of your who captures the next-to-last 4 stapler. This will create storage
opponents’ cups. Also, be aware at stones earns the last 4 stones as a bank cups for each player.
all times of which of your own bonus.
cups are threatened. To anticipate 4. Paint and decorate the game
the opponents’ moves, it is often Variation 4: This variation allows board. You may want to cut out 6
helpful to look at the game from players to play several rounds of
Mankala, keeping score of each pictures of small African sculpture
the opposing side. Good players
can predict and plan several round. At the end of each round, heads to attach on each end of the
moves in advance. each player receives a score board, using tape or glue.
according to the number of
In Africa, players distract and rush 5. Gather 48 stones, seeds, beans, or
stones captured. Players can
their opponents by shouting at decide ahead of time how many marbles, and distribute 4 to each
them, telling them to hurry up, rounds, or points, will be played cup, except for the storage bank
or moving quickly themselves. A to determine the ultimate cups.
player can create a collection of winner. For example, it may be
stones that, if used carefully, can decided that the first player to
make multiple captures at once. score 100 points is the winner.

34
Materials Needed for Advanced software. The transfer designs information regarding
Mankala Game can be ironed onto fabric. The transfer designs:
process is not easy so it is best
22 x 8 x 2 inch piece of soft wood www.keysource.net/
to get an adult to assist you.
Carving tools instructions.shtml
How does the process work?
Sandpaper Here are the basic steps to www.keysource.net/shop/
Wood polish transform the symbols from the product/?67
pages of this activity guide into www.geoknight.com/
48 small stones, seeds, beans, or iron-on transfer designs:
intro.html
marbles
1. An image from the paper of
www.proworldinc.com
activity guide is printed
Instructions for Creating an
onto a special kind of paper
Advanced Mankala Game called transfer paper. Transfer
1. Mark six circles (about 2 inches in paper has special inks that
Suggested Books
diameter) on each side of the allow an image to transfer Bernstein, R. S., T. England, and J.
itself and stick to fabric Evert. 1994. Addy’s Craft Book:
board, and one in the center at
when heated. A Look at Crafts from the Past
each end of the board. with Projects You Can Make
2. The image on transfer paper
2. Carve and hollow out the circles, is applied to the fabric by Today. Middleton,Wis.: Pleasant
making them about 1 inch deep. the combination of pressure Company Publications.
3. Sandpaper the cups thoroughly and heat from the iron. The Everett, G. 1991. Li’l Sis and
heat and pressure transfer Uncle Willie: A Story Based on
and polish the board.
the ink from the transfer the Life and Paintings of William
4. For a more elaborate board, add a paper to the fabric. A shiny H. Johnson. Washington, D.C.:
carved base or place the board on finish results when the National Museum of American
legs. transfer is peeled from fabric Art, Smithsonian Institution;
when cool. A matte, or dull, New York: Rizzoli
5. Gather 48 stones, seeds, beans, or
finish results when the International.
marbles, and distribute 4 to each transfer is peeled from fabric
when hot. Lyons, M. 1993. Starting Home:
cup, except for the storage bank
The Story of Horace Pippin,
cups. 3. Not all colors and fabrics Painter. New York: Scribner;
can be used for this process. Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan
There are many kinds of Canada; New York: Maxwell
More Challenges transfer paper as well. Some Macmillan International.
types of transfer paper will
• Visit an African American art not work using a household Wood, M. 1995. Going Back
museum. Look in the Yellow iron. A professional heat press Home: An Artist Returns to the
Pages directory for the African machine, often used by South. San Francisco, Calif.:
American museum nearest you, people who make T-shirts, Children’s Books Press.
or call your local art museum needs to be used with some
for information on African types of transfer paper.
American exhibits. Usually businesses use heat Suggested Videos
• Design African-inspired press machines because they “Betye and Alison Saar: Conjure
clothing.Visit are very expensive. Women of the Arts.” 1996
vintagesewingpatterns.com or Currently, heat presses (L & S Video, Inc.).
your local fabric store for machines range from
approximately $650 to over “Griots of Imagery: Romare
pattern ideas.
$1,500. Bearden and Charles White.”
• Create “iron-on transfer 1993 (Arts America Inc.).
designs” from the African- If you would like to try this
inspired symbols in this section. challenge, refer to the
Iron-on transfer designs are following Web sites below
created using computer for specific details and

35
African American Music

Music is an important part of The More You Know, the Spirituals


African and African American
cultures. In some cultures, music
More You Grow Spirituals are religious folk songs
based on African music styles.
is used mostly for entertainment. The Development of African Most spirituals were created by
In African cultures, music is a American Music: A Brief Summary enslaved Africans. This music
part of every aspect of life. Music form, or genre, is the only kind of
is used for work, play, music originally created in the
entertainment, teaching, telling TIMELINE
United States. Most spirituals are
history, communicating, being Roots: West African music improvisational. This means they
happy, or even being sad. African are made up at the same time
American music can be traced to 1600s: work songs, field songs,
they are being sung. Enslaved
its roots in West Africa. Gospel, calls, protest songs, game Africans often improvised
spirituals, jazz, rhythm & blues, songs, social songs spirituals to help them deal with
soul, rap, and hip-hop are the their harsh situation. Often
1700s: spirituals
musical forms, or genres, most spirituals were sung to send secret
frequently associated with African 1880s: blues
messages that the plantation
American music. 1890s: New Orleans jazz owners could not understand.
1900s: ragtime Examples of spirituals include
1920s: big bands, swing bands work and field songs, protest
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
songs, and call-and-response
Learning to Learn 1940s: rhythm & blues, bebop, chants.
Practicing Creativity modern jazz
Communicating Blues
1950s: rock ‘n’ roll
Solving Problems The words, or lyrics, of blues
1960s: civil rights songs, soul
songs talk about many different
1970s: contemporary gospel, disco,
subjects. Most blues songs are
rap, funk, jazz-fusion about love and sadness. The blues
1980s: hip-hop is a music genre that reflects the
history and culture of African
Americans. Most blues musicians
taught themselves how to play
their instruments. The blues
influenced many later music
genres including rhythm & blues
and rock ‘n’ roll. Although the
blues is often connected to jazz,
when it first started blues was not
related to jazz. W. C. Handy is
referred to as the father of blues.
Many people consider B. B. King
to be the king of blues.

36
Jazz Ragtime Rhythm & Blues or Soul Music
Jazz is another music genre that Ragtime is usually thought of as Rhythm & blues, also known as
grew from African rhythms. Jazz piano music, although vocal “R&B,” has been the general
is characterized by improvisation ensembles and instrumental term for African American
and a rhythmic approach called groups also performed ragtime. popular music since the 1940s. It
swing. Jazz is also known for the Until 1920, ragtime and jazz were developed from blues, jazz,
importance of each musician terms used interchangeably. gospel, and harmony signing.
playing a unique sound that can Swing refers to the popular jazz Notable pioneer artists include
be identified while many style of the 1930s often played by Ray Charles, Nat King Cole,
musicians are playing at once. big bands of 12 or more Chuck Berry, Sam Cooke, The
New Orleans is where jazz music members. Notable pioneer Platters, and The Drifters.
first emerged. It evolved from bandleaders include Duke
show bands, an earlier form of Ellington, Cab Calloway, and Hip-Hop and Rap
music. Jazz musicians have played Count Basie. Hip-hop and rap music have
leading roles in challenging racial become a big part of popular
discrimination. Notable pioneer Bebop culture. One of the most unique
jazz musicians include Louis Bebop is characterized by faster characteristics of hip-hop and rap
Armstrong, Charlie Parker, Dizzy tempos than jazz. It is not music is that it combines all of
Gillespie, Miles Davis, John considered music for dancing. the previously mentioned music
Coltrane, and Wynton Marsalis. Notable pioneer bebop musicians genres. The influence of hip-hop
Notable jazz and blues vocalists include Charlie Parker, Dizzie and rap can be seen in the
include Bessie Smith, Billie Gillespie, Art Blakely, and Max language, clothing, and values of
Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Sarah Roach. young people all over the world.
Vaughn. Rap music has maintained a
history of controversy due to the
lyrics associated with some artists.
However, over the past 20 years,
rap music has evolved into a
more respected cultural art form.
It is an art form that combines
poetry and rhythmic melodies.
Most rap lyrics portray the real
life and sometimes harsh
experiences of the artist. Notable
pioneer rap and hip-hop artists
include Sugar Hill Gang, Run
DMC, Grand Master Flash and
the Furious 5, Curtis Blow,
Notorious B.I.G., and Tupak
Sakur.

Reflection
Which genres of African American
music have you heard?

Which do you like and dislike? Why?


How do you think African American
music has influenced today’s U.S.
culture? Where can we see the
influence?

37
Activities “LIFT EVERY VOICE AND SING: THE NEGRO NATIONAL ANTHEM”

Singing the African American Words by James Weldon Johnson (1921). Music by J. Rosamond Johnson
National Anthem (1921)

Lift every voice and sing, till earth and heaven ring,
Ring with the harmonies of liberty.
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
Practicing Creativity Let our rejoicing rise high as the listening skies,
Communicating Let it resound loud as the rolling sea.
Project Skill: Learning to Sing a Song Sing a song full of the faith that the dark past has taught us,
Sing a song full of the hope that the present has brought us.
In 1921, brothers James Weldon Facing the rising sun of our new day begun,
Johnson and J. Rosamond Let us march on till victory is won.
Johnson created “Lift Every Voice
Stony the road we trod, bitter the chastening rod,
and Sing: The Negro National
Anthem.” Today, this song is still Felt in the days when hope unborn had died.
considered an anthem for African Yet with a steady beat, have not our weary feet,
Americans. To the right are the Come to the place for which our fathers sighed?
words to this powerful expression
of African American hope and We have come over a way that with tears have been watered,
pride. We have come, treading our path through the blood of the slaughtered.
Out of the gloomy past, till now we stand at last,
Where the white gleam of our bright star is cast.
God of our weary years, God of our silent tears,
Thou who has brought us thus far on the way.
Thou who has by thy might led us into the light,
Keep us forever in the path, we pray.
Lest our feet stray from the places, our God where we met thee,
Lest our hearts drunk with the wine of the world, we forget thee.
Shadowed beneath thy hand, may we forever stand,
True to our God, true to our native land.

38
African American Musical Word Creating Your Own Drum
Scramble

Life Skills: Valuing Diversity Life Skills: Valuing Diversity


Solving Problems Practicing Creativity
Project Skill: Solving a Puzzle Completing a Project or
Task
See if you can unscramble these Project Skill: Making a Musical
musical forms influenced by Instrument
African Americans.
Drums are the most important
LOUS instruments in many parts of
Africa. Drums are also one of the
NLKROORLC oldest musical instruments in the
world. Drums are sometimes used
to make music for dances,
PSEGLO ceremonies, and celebrations.
Other times drums are called
ZAJZ “talking drums” and used to send
messages.
POIHPH 5. Once the paper dries, the
Materials drumhead will be nice and
• A round container (examples: tight.
SCODI
terracotta flowerpot, empty round 6. Use your hands or a short
oatmeal box) stick (as a drumstick) to make
ELBSU sounds.
• A paper grocery bag
• Paper tape (the kind that is
ISLAITUSPR
moistened with water to make it

UFKN stick)

Instructions
OPBBE
1. Decorate the container with
paints, markers, glitter, or
whatever you would like.
2. Cut a circle from the paper
bag about 4 inches (10
centimeters) larger than the
container’s open end.
3. Dampen the circle and tape
it in place (see illustration on
the right), making pleats or
folds to ease in fullness.
4. Wrap the tape all the way
around the drum for extra
strength.

39
Creating Your Own Rain Stick Materials More Challenges
• A paper towel tube Using your local library or music
• Two handfuls of uncooked rice teacher, find the music to “Lift
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
• 2 pieces of heavy paper Every Voice and Sing.” Practice
Practicing Creativity singing the song. Teach it to your
Completing a Project or • Masking tape
friends and family.
Task • Glue
Project Skill: Making a Musical • 23 nails or toothpicks slightly
Instrument shorter than the width of the tube Suggested Books
Collier, J. L. 1987. Duke Ellington.
Many types of instruments are Instructions New York: Collier Books.
played in Africa. The rain stick is 1. Starting at the top of the Haskins, J. 1987. Black Music in
an instrument used for dances, tube, poke the nails through America: A History through Its
ceremonies, and celebrations. The the tube in a spiral (see People. New York:
rain stick gets its name from the diagram below).Younger HarperCollins.
sound it makes. When you hold a children should have an adult
rain stick by either end and tilt it complete this step. Jones, H. 1995. Big Star Fallin’
slightly, the sound created is Mama: Five Women in Black
2. Tape a piece of paper to Music. New York:Viking.
similar to the sound of rain
cover one end of the tube.
falling from the sky. Create your Mattox, C. W. 1989. Shake It to the
own one-of-a-kind rain stick. Be 3. Pour the rice in the tube. One That You Love the Best, Play
sure to have an adult assist you. 4. Cover and tape the other end Songs and Lullabies from Black
of the tube shut. Musical Traditions. El Sobrante,
Calif.: Warren-Mattox
5. Wrap the entire tube with Productions.
masking tape.
Stanley, L. 1994. Be a Friend: The
6. Glue a piece of paper on and Story of African American Music
around the outside of the in Song,Words, and Pictures.
tube. Decorate it with Middleton, Wis.: Zino Press
drawings, paint, markers, Children’s Books.
crayons, glitter, ribbons, or
whatever you like.
7. Now tilt your rain stick and Suggested Videos
listen to the sound it makes. “The American Experience 1:
Is the sound similar to falling That Rhythm,Those Blues.”
rain? (PBS Video)
“Romare Bearden:Visual Jazz.”
1995 (Arts America Inc.).
“Trying to Get Home.” (Heebie
Jeebie Music)

40
Selected Poetry by African Americans

A poem is an arrangement of The More You Know, the African American to publish a
words that have rhythm much book and the second woman to
like a song. Most poetry has
More You Grow publish poetry with Poems on
words that rhyme, but a poem Phillis Wheatley Peters Various Subjects, Religious and
does not have to include rhyming (1753?–1784) Moral, also in 1770. She traveled
words. In this section you will be to London where the book was
introduced to the poetry of African Poet and Author published and became a freed
African Americans. Many African African soon after this trip.
American poems express the
In 1778 she married John Peters,
author’s emotions and feelings
an African grocer. On December
about the African American
5, 1784, Phillis Wheatley died
experience. Explore these poems.
giving birth to her third child.
As you read each poem try to
During her lifetime her admirers
understand how it relates to the
included Benjamin Franklin and
African American experience,
George Washington. Today she is
and what message the author is
considered by many to be the
trying to communicate.
founder of the African American
literary tradition.
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
Learning to Learn Reflection
Phillis Wheatley was born in
Thinking Critically Senegal, West Africa. She was How would you feel if someone
Practicing Creativity kidnapped at age seven and stopped you from reading and
Communicating brought to the United States to writing?
Interacting Socially work as a slave. The daughter of
Working in a Team the family she worked for tutored How would you feel if your cultural
Cooperating her in Latin, English, and the group wasn’t allowed to read and
Bible. Soon Phillis began writing write?
poetry, although enslaved Africans
were not allowed to read or What would you like to write a poem
write. She was very proud of her about?
African heritage. One of the
main themes of her poetry was
her desire for freedom from
slavery.
Her first poem published in 1770
was “On the Death of the
Reverend George Whitefield.” In
1773 her famous poem, “On
Being Brought from Africa to
America,” was published. Phillis
Wheatley became the first

41
Paul Laurence Dunbar containing poetry from these two James Langston Hughes
(1872–1906) volumes, Lyrics of Lowly Life, was (1902–1967)
published the next year and
African American Poet became his best-selling volume. African American Author
He wrote a total of 11 volumes
of poetry in his lifetime.
As Paul Laurence Dunbar
became known for writing
poetry, he began making public
appearances, reading his poems to
audiences in both the United
States and England. He also
wrote plays, songs, and essays. He
published four collections of
short stories and four novels. His
last novel, The Sport of the Gods,
about an African American
Paul Laurence Dunbar was born family in the urban North was
on June 27, 1872, in Dayton, published in 1902. Many people
Ohio. His parents were former consider this to be his best novel.
slaves—his father escaped to James Langston Hughes was born
He was considered a lyric writer
freedom in Canada, but returned on February 1, 1902, in Joplin,
because his poetry combined
to the United States to fight in Missouri. He started writing
music and rural African American
the Civil War. Because they were poetry in eighth grade and was
dialect, or speech. When he was
slaves, Paul’s parents never learned selected “class poet.” In high
only 34 years old, Paul Laurence
to read or write, so they taught school he wrote for the school
Dunbar died of tuberculosis. He
themselves after they were magazine and was the editor of
is considered the first African
married. The Bible was one book the yearbook. After graduating
American to gain national
they used. When Paul was born, from high school, he spent a year
recognition as a poet.
his father decided to call him in Mexico and a year at
Paul because he had read in the Columbia University in New
Bible that Paul was a good man. Reflection York. His father paid his tuition
Paul’s mother taught him to read If you could become known for being so that James could become an
when he was only four years old. engineer. He enjoyed writing
first at something, what would it be?
Paul was the only African more, and left school to travel
American student at his high Paul Laurence Dunbar was willing to through Africa and Europe. After
school, but he was also popular. work very hard to get his poetry returning to the United States, he
He was president of the Literary published. Have you worked hard, or moved to Harlem, New York, in
Society and editor of the school 1924 and started calling himself
are you working hard to accomplish a
newspaper. Paul also wrote his Langston. His first published
goal or dream? What has or what will
senior class graduation song and poem, “The Negro Speaks of
was elected senior class president. make you successful? Are there other Rivers,” became one of his most
people helping you reach those famous. His first book of poetry,
Paul published poems as fast as he
accomplishments? Who are they? The Weary Blues, was published in
could write them. His first
1926. In the same year he
volume of poetry, Oak and Ivy,
published an essay entitled “The
was published in 1893. To cover
Negro Artist and the Racial
printing expenses, Paul worked as
Mountain.” He received a
an elevator operator and sold
scholarship to Lincoln University
copies of his poetry to the
and graduated in 1929. Many
elevator passengers. His second
referred to him as “the Poet
volume, Majors and Minors, was
Laureate of Harlem.”
published in 1895. A book

42
During the next 40 years
Reflection
Activities
Langston Hughes continued to
write in many literary forms: he Langston Hughes followed his dream Write Your Own Poem
wrote sixteen books of poems, of becoming a writer even though his
two novels, three collections of father did not support his decision.
short stories, four volumes of Have you ever wanted to do Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
fiction, twenty plays, children’s something that others did not Communicating
poetry, musicals and operas, three Practicing Creativity
understand? How did you handle the
autobiographies, a dozen radio
situation? Were you ever successful Project Skill: Creative Writing
and television scripts, and dozens
of magazine articles. He was in helping anyone to understand?
influenced by many people Who are your favorite writers? Do Read the following poems by
including Paul Laurence Dunbar African Americans.You will
they write poetry, short stories, plays,
and Walt Whitman. His writing notice that some poems rhyme at
novels? What writing styles do they
style was characterized by his the end of each line, while others
portrayals of African American use? What do you like about their don’t rhyme at all. Try writing
life from the 1920s through the writing styles? your own poem. Writing poetry
1960s. Unlike other African is a great way to express yourself.
American poets of his time, You may want to focus your
Langston Hughes’s work did not poem on a memorable or special
separate his personal experiences experience. Because every poem
from the common experience of is unique, you can write about
African Americans. He wrote so whatever you want and use
that the reader could draw their whatever style you would like.
own conclusions from his stories. No one way is right or wrong.
Have fun and use your
Some of his notable poems
imagination.
include “The Dream Keeper,”
published in 1932, “Freedom’s
Plow,” published in 1943,
“Montage of a Dream Deferred,”
Poems by African American Poets
published in 1951, and “two friends”
“Shakespeare in Harlem,”
published in 1942. Until his lydia and shirley have
death from cancer in the spring two pierced ears and
of 1967, Langston Hughes two bare ones
devoted his life to lecturing and five pigtails
writing. He is one of the most two pairs of sneakers
honored authors in the United
States. two barets
two smiles
one necklace
one bracelet
lots of stripes and
one good friendship

—NIKKI GIOVANNI
Copyright© from Vacation Time, by Nikki
Giovanni. Reprinted with permission from
Nikki Giovanni.

43
COVERS Rainbows dreams
Glass covers windows If I could climb the mountains in my younger years
to keep the cold away And rest on clouds that float before i learned
Clouds cover the sky I’d swim across the clear blue air black people aren’t
to make a rainy day To reach my rainbow boat supposed to dream
Nighttime covers all the things i wanted to be
that creep My rainbow boat is oh so big a raelet
Blankets cover me when I’m And I could be so tall and say “dr o wn d in my youn
asleep. As I sit in my captain’s chair tears”
The master of it all or “tal kin bout tal kin bout”
—NIKKI GIOVANNI
or marjorie hendricks and grind
Copyright© from Vacation Time, by Nikki
Giovanni. Reprinted with permission from But I am just a little boy all up against the mic
Nikki Giovanni.
who’s standing on the ground and scream
And others steer the rainbow past “baaaaaby nightandday
Prickled Pickles Don’t Smile While I just hang around baaaaaby nightandday”
Never tickle then as i grew and matured
a prickled pickle I sit on the ground and see i became more sensible
’cause prickled pickles don’t smile The rainbows steering right past and decided i would
me settle down
Never goad I sit on the ground and wonder and just become
a loaded toad why a sweet inspiration
when he has to walk a whole mile —NIKKI GIOVANNI —NIKKI GIOVANNI
Copyright© from Vacation Time, by Nikki Copyright© from Vacation Time, by Nikki
Froggies go courting Giovanni. Reprinted with permission from Giovanni. Reprinted with permission from
Nikki Giovanni. Nikki Giovanni.
with weather reporting
that indicates there are no snows
the funeral of martin luther king, jr.
But always remember His headstone said
the month of December FREE AT LAST, FREE AT LAST
is very hard on your nose. But death is a slave’s freedom
We seek the freedom of a world
—NIKKI GIOVANNI
Where Martin Luther King could
Copyright© from Vacation Time, by Nikki
Giovanni. Reprinted with permission from have lived
Nikki Giovanni. And preached non-violence

—NIKKI GIOVANNI
Copyright© from Vacation Time, by Nikki
Giovanni. Reprinted with permission from
Nikki Giovanni.

44
Do Like Malcolm On Being Brought from Africa to America Life
Daddy loves ‘Twas mercy brought me from my A CRUST of bread and a corner to
to quote Malcolm. pagan land, sleep in,
Speechifyin’ Taught my benighted soul to A minute to smile and an hour to
Mama calls it. understand weep in,
Today at breakfast That there’s a God—that there’s a A pint of joy to a peck of trouble,
he gave a lecture
Saviour too; And never a laugh but the moans
on L-O-V-E
Once I redemption neither sought come double;
and pointed out
nor knew. And that is life!
how Malcolm said
real love was Some view our sable race with
for every day scornful eye— A crust and a corner that love
and not just “Their color is a diabolic dye.” makes precious,
the special one Remember, Christians, Negroes With the smile to warm and the
marked on black as Cain tears to re-fresh us;
the calendar May be refined, and join the And joy seems sweeter when cares
in February. angelic train. come after,
Then Daddy said, And a moan is the finest of foils
“Who needs roses —PHILLIS WHEATLEY
for laughter;
and love notes anyway?” And that is life!
Mama was quiet We Wear the Mask
but I never am —PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR
We wear the mask that grins and
so I said, “Daddy
I read this book lies,
in school It hides our cheeks and shades our
on Malcolm X eyes,—
and I think This debt we pay to human guile;
you should do With torn and bleeding hearts we
like Malcolm did smile,
for Mrs. Malcolm. And mouth with myriad subtleties.
Write Mama some
mushy love poems Why should the world be overwise,
and hide them In counting all our tears and
in a dresser drawer. sighs?
But make sure
Nay, let them only see us, while
she can find them.”
We wear the mask.
And Mama looked up
from her coffee cup
and gave Daddy We smile, but, O great Christ, our
the biggest smile cries
which told me To thee from tortured souls arise.
them poems must be We sing, but oh the clay is vile
a pretty good idea. Beneath our feet, and long the
mile;
—NIKKI GIOVANNI
But let the world dream otherwise,
Copyright© From Vacation Time, by Nikki
Giovanni. Reprinted with permission from We wear the mask!
Nikki Giovanni.
—PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR

45
The Old Apple-Tree It was on its sturdy branches An Easy Goin’ Feller
There’s a memory keeps a-runnin’ That in summers long ago Ther’ ain’t no use in all this strife,
Through my weary head to-night, I would tie my swing an’ dangle An’ hurryin’, pell-mell, right thro’
An’ I see a picture dancin’ In contentment to an’ fro, life.
In the fire-flames’ ruddy light; Idly dreamin’ childish fancies, I don’t believe in goin’ too fast
‘T is the picture of an orchard Buildin’ castles in the air, To see what kind o’ road you’ve
Wrapped in autumn’s purple haze, Makin’ o’ myself a hero passed.
With the tender light about it Of romances rich an’ rare. It ain’t no mortal kind o’ good,
That I loved in other days. I kin shet my eyes an’ see it ‘N’ I wouldn’t hurry ef I could.
An’ a-standin’ in a corner Jest as plain as plain kin be, I like to jest go joggin’ ’long,
Once again I seem to see That same old swing a-danglin’ To limber up my soul with song;
The verdant leaves an’ branches To the old apple-tree. To stop awhile ‘n’ chat the men,
Of an old apple-tree. ‘N’ drink some cider now an’ then.
There’s a rustic seat beneath it Do’ want no boss a-standin’ by
You perhaps would call it ugly, That I never kin forget. To see me work; I allus try
An’ I don’t know but it’s so, It’s the place where me an’ Hallie— To do my dooty right straight up,
When you look the tree all over Little sweetheart—used to set, An’ earn what fills my plate an’
Unadorned by memory’s glow; When we’d wander to the orchard cup.
So’s no listenin’ ones could hear An’ ez fur boss, I’ll be my own,
For its boughs are gnarled an’ As I whispered sugared nonsense I like to jest be let alone,
crooked, Into her little willin’ ear. To plough my strip an’ tend my
An’ its leaves are gettin’ thin, Now my gray old wife is Hallie, bees,
An’ the apples of its bearin’ An’ I’m grayer still than she, An’ do jest like I doggoned please.
Would n’t fill so large a bin But I’ll not forget our courtin’ My head’s all right, an’ my heart’s
As they used to. But I tell you, ’Neath the old apple-tree. meller,
When it comes to pleasin’ me, But I’m a easy-goin’ feller.
It’s the dearest in the orchard,— Life for us ain’t all been summer,
—PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR
Is that old apple-tree. But I guess we’ve had our share
Of its flittin’ joys an’ pleasures,
I would hide within its shelter, An’ a sprinklin’ of its care. Sympathy
Settlin’ in some cosy nook, Oft the skies have smiled upon us; I know what the caged bird feels,
Where no calls nor threats could Then again we’ve seen ’em frown, alas!
stir me Though our load was ne’er so When the sun is bright on the
From the pages o’ my book. heavy upland slopes;
Oh, that quiet, sweet seclusion That we longed to lay it down. When the wind stirs soft through
In its fulness passeth words! But when death does come a- the springing grass,
It was deeper than the deepest callin’, And the river flows like a stream of
That my sanctum now affords. This my last request shall be,— glass;
Why, the jaybirds an’ the robins, That they’ll bury me an’ Hallie When the first bird sings and the
They was hand in glove with me, ’Neath the old apple-tree. first bud opens,
As they winked at me an’ warbled And the faint perfume from its
—PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR
In that old apple-tree. chalice steals—
I know what the caged bird feels!

46
I know why the caged bird beats Soon either with smiles or with The Southern Refugee
his wing tears, What sudden ill the world await,
Till its blood is red on the cruel Will the end of our course be From my dear residence I roam;
bars; completed. I must deplore the bitter fate,
For he must fly back to his perch The progress of long fleeting To straggle from my native home.
and cling years, The verdant willow droops her
When he fain would be on the Triumphant or sadly regretted. head,
bough a-swing; And seems to bid a fare thee well;
And a pain still throbs in the old, In whom shall the vassal confide, The flowers with tears their
old scars On a passage so treacherous and fragrance shed,
And they pulse again with a narrow, Alas! their parting tale to tell.
keener sting— What tongue shall the question
I know why he beats his wing! decide, ‘Tis like the loss of Paradise,
The end which awaits us to- Or Eden’s garden left in gloom,
I know why the caged bird sings, morrow? Where grief affords us no device;
ah me, O! to-morrow, to-morrow! Such is thy lot, my native home.
When his wing is bruised and his What tongue shall the question
bosom sore,— decide, I never, never shall forget
When he beats his bars and he The end which awaits us to- My sad departure far away,
would be free; morrow? Until the sun of life is set,
It is not a carol of joy or glee, And leaves behind no beam of day.
But a prayer that he sends from his The sun seems with doubt to look How can I from my seat remove
heart’s deep core, down, And leave my ever devoted home,
But a plea, that upward to Heaven As he rides on his chariot of glory, And the dear garden which I love,
he flings— A king with a torch and a crown, The beauty of my native home?
I know why the caged bird sings! But fears to exhibit his story.
Alas! sequestered, set aside,
—PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR
What pen the condition makes It is a mournful tale to tell;
known, ‘Tis like a lone deserted bride
A Slave’s Reflections the Eve before His Sale O! prophet thy light would I That bade her bridegroom fare
O, comrades! to-morrow we try, borrow, thee well.
The fate of an exit unknowing— To steer through the desert alone,
Tears trickled from every eye— And gaze on the fate of to-morrow; I trust I soon shall dry the tear
‘Tis going, ‘tis going, ‘tis going! O! to-morrow, to-morrow! And leave forever hence to roam,
To steer through the desert alone, Far from a residence so dear,
Who shall the dark problem then And gaze on the fate of to-morrow. The place of beauty—my native
solve, home.
—GEORGE MOSES HORTON
An evening of gladness or sorrow,
Thick clouds of emotion evolve, —GEORGE MOSES HORTON

The sun which awaits us to-


morrow,
O! to-morrow! to-morrow!
Thick clouds of emotion evolve,
The sun which awaits us to-
morrow.

47
Skit A Conversation with Langston Rinaldi, A. 1996. Hang a Thousand
Hughes, featuring Langston Trees with Ribbons:The Story of
Hughes Phillis Wheatley. San Diego,
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity Calif.: Harcourt Brace &
Company.
Communicating
Interacting Socially
More Challenges Slier, D. 1996. Make a Joyful
Practicing Creativity • Write a short story, essay, or Sound: Poems for Children by
Working in a Team play. Use a memorable African American Poets. New
experience or an issue York: Scholastic, Inc.
Cooperating
Project Skill: Performing a Skit important to you as your topic. Strickland, D., and M. Strickland.
Before you begin, think about 1994. Families: Poems Celebrating
the message you would like to the African American Experience.
The following books have skits communicate. Also, think about Honesdale, Pa.: Wordsong/
that are designed to help you what you would like others to Boyds Mills Press (distributed
reflect on the lives of the notable learn or understand from by St. Martin’s Press, New
African Americans you have been reading what you write. York).
reading about. After reading their
life stories, act out the skit that Wheatley. P. 1995. Poems of Phillis
captures the essence of their great Suggested Books Wheatley: A Native African and a
accomplishments. Use your Slave. Bedford, Mass.:
imagination to make the skit as Clinton, C. 1998. I, Too, Sing Applewood Books.
America: Three Centuries of
simple or as elaborate as you
African American Poetry. Boston:
wish.
Houghton Mifflin. Suggested Videos
You can find the following skits
Curry, B., and J. Brodie. 1996. “Furious Flowers: Conversations
in the book Take A Walk in Their
Sweet Words So Brave: The Story with African American Poets,
Shoes, by Glennet Tilley Turner,
(New York: Cobblehill Books, of African American Literature. 4—Initiates.” 1998 (California
1989): Madison, Wis.: Zino Press Newsreel).
Children’s Books.
The Douglass “Station” of the
Giovanni, N. 1996. The Sun Is So
Underground Railroad,
featuring Frederick Douglass Quiet. New York: Henry Holt.
Grimes, N. 1999. Hopscotch Love:
Let Them Have Their Schools,
A Family Treasury of Love Poems.
featuring Mary McLeod
Bethune New York: Lothrop, Lee &
Shepard Books.
Who Was Charles Drew?,
Hamilton,V. 1993. The People
featuring Dr. Charles Drew
Could Fly. New York: Knopf;
The Unexpected Heroine, distributed by Random House.
featuring Rosa Parks
Hughes, L. 1994. The Dream
You can find the following skits Keeper and Other Poems. New
in the book Follow in Their York: Knopf.
Footsteps, by Glennet Tilley
Hughes, L. 1995. The Block: Poems.
Turner (New York: Cobblehill
Books, 1997): New York:Viking.
Jones, M. L. 1996. The Color of
Where there’s a Will, there’s a
Culture. Seattle,Wash.:
Way, based on Malcolm X
IMPACT Communications.
A Walking History Lesson,
Petit, J. 1996. Maya Angelou:
featuring Dr. Carter G.
Journey of the Heart. New York:
Woodson
Lodestar Books.

48
Suggested Poems Listed by
Authors
Here is a list of poems written by
many famous African American
poets. These poems can be found
within some books listed above,
as well as in other books by these
poets.
Poet: Countee Cullen
“Incident”
Poet: Dakari Kamau Hru
“Crown”
Poet: Eloise Greenfield
“Harriet Tubman”
Poet: Gwendolyn Brooks
“Rudolf Is Tired of the City”
Poet: Langston Hughes
“Note on Commercial
Theater”
“Late Last Night”
“Aunt Sue’s Stories”
“I Too, Sing America”
“My People”
“Merry-Go-Round”
Poet: Lindamichellebaron
“Go Away!”
Poet: Maya Angelou
“Still I Rise”
Poet: Mona Lakes Jones
“Vanished”
“Chicken & Dumplins”
Poet: Nikki Grimes
“Pineapple Surprise”
“Do Like Malcolm”
“Medgar & Myrile”
“No Excuse”
Poet: Useni Eugene Perkins
“Little Soul Sister”
“Nationhood”

49
African American Cuisine

There is a special connection The More You Know, the Yams: In the United States, “yam”
between West African and African refers to a sweet potato. West
American cooking. Many
More You Grow African yams are more similar
ingredients used in African Foods Commonly Used in African to potatoes than sweet potatoes.
American cuisine have African American Cuisine The word Africans use for
roots. Enslaved Africans—most of sweet potato comes from words
whom came from West Africa— Africans introduced various foods like name or nyami.
introduced okra, peanuts, sesame, to the Americans. African
and black-eyed peas into the American cuisine combines many
North American diet. The uses of of these foods along with special
deep-frying and spicy seasonings ways of preparing them. The Reflection
are both important in West following are foods commonly Have you eaten any of these foods?
African and African American used in African American dishes: Which do you like and dislike?
cuisine. In this section you will Black-eyed peas: Light-tan, dried
learn about African American Which special foods and dishes are
peas with a black “eye” on their
cuisine and how to prepare some inner curve. Native to Africa, part of your culture? How do you
popular dishes. where they are called cowpeas, prepare them? Are there special
black-eyed peas are an occasions when you eat them?
important source of protein.
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
Planning and Organizing Greens: Some common greens in
Practicing Creativity West Africa include okra and
Completing a Project or akatewa (a kind of spinach).
Fresh or frozen greens such as
Task
collards, mustard, turnip, and
Learning to Learn kale are popular in the U.S.
Gumbo: A spicy stew that
originated in New Orleans,
Louisiana.The word “gumbo”
comes from the African word
for the vegetable okra, ngombo.
Peanuts: Peanuts in North
America are the same as
groundnuts in Africa. They are
grown in Ghana, Nigeria, and
many other West African
countries.

50
George Washington Carver • Cheese
• Linoleum Reflection
(1864?–1943)
• Paper Have you ever discovered anything?
African American Scientist and • Ink How did you make your discovery?
Inventor • Shaving cream
• Plastic If you could be known for making a
• Metal polish great discovery, what discovery
• Soap would you want it to be?
• Shampoo
• Vegetable milk
He also extracted many items
from the soybean including flour,
cereal, and milk. In addition, he
discovered 75 products from the
pecan.
George Washington Carver was
born a slave in Missouri. He was
forced to work and live on his
own after slave raiders kidnapped
him and his mother when he was
an infant. He became the first
African American student
George Washington Carver’s enrolled at Simpson College in
scientific work improved the Iowa. He then put himself
quality of life for millions of through Iowa Agricultural
people and improved agriculture College working as a janitor. In
in the South. He discovered over 1894, George Washington Carver
100 products from the sweet became the first African
potato, including: American to graduate from Iowa
• Flour State College; he earned a degree
in agricultural science.
• Candy
• Vinegar Dr. Carver joined the faculty of
• Shoe polish Tuskegee Institute (now
• Types of rubber University) in 1896, where he
• Molasses directed the agricultural research
• Starch department and developed a
• Imitation ginger program of research in soil
• Library paste conservation and crop
• Wood filler diversification. He introduced the
• Rope concept of rotating crops to
• Instant coffee replenish the soil. Although he
He produced over 300 products was offered a large salary and
expensive laboratory equipment
from the peanut, including:
to work for the Ford Motor
Company, Dr. Carver refused,
saying he would rather continue
his research at Tuskegee Institute.
He stayed at Tuskegee until his
death on January 5, 1943.

51
Activities Peanut Butter Soup/Stew
Directions
1. Pull or cut off most of the
Try-It-at-Home Recipes Peanut Butter Soup/Stew is skin from the chicken, then
called Groundnut Stew in many rinse the chicken with water.
parts of West Africa. The (The chicken skins may be
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity difference between the stew and left on, but a better flavor and
Planning and Organizing the soup is that the stew is less oil are obtained by
thicker than the soup. For the removing them.)
Practicing Creativity
stew, add three cups of water. For
Completing a Project or 2. Cut up the chicken on the
the soup, add six cups of water.
Task cutting board into small
Project Skill: Preparing a Food Recipe Ingredients pieces and season well with
1 chicken cut up (breasts, legs,
salt, pepper, garlic powder,
and onion powder, then put
The following seven recipes use thighs) the chicken into the soup
foods and cooking methods pot.
unique to African Americans. Try Salt, pepper, garlic powder, onion
one or all of them! powder 3. Add the chopped onions
along with 3 cups (for stew)
Before you start cooking: 1 cup chopped onions or 6 cups (for soup) of water
1. Make sure there is an adult 3 or 6 cups water to the pot.
assisting you. 4. Put the pot on the stove and
1⁄ 2 cup creamy or chunky-style
2. Read the entire recipe. turn the burner to high.
peanut butter (natural-style with When the water boils, turn
3. Get out all the ingredients the heat to low and cover the
no sugar added)
and utensils that you will
pot.
need. 1 (8-ounce) can tomato sauce or
5. Add the tomato sauce or
4. Wash your hands. 1 (6-ounce) can tomato paste or
paste to the stew/soup. Stir
5. Wear a clean apron or pin a 2 fresh tomatoes with a wooden spoon to
clean towel around your 1⁄ 8 teaspoon ground red pepper (for
mix.
waist.
taste) 6. Put the peanut butter in a
small saucepan. Carefully
ladle about 2 cups of the
Utensils soup broth into the saucepan.
Large soup pot (5 quarts or Slowly stir the broth and
larger) peanut butter mixture until it
Cutting knife is creamy.
Cutting board 7. Now, slowly stir the peanut
Measuring cups butter mixture into the soup,
Measuring spoons being careful not to splatter.
Wooden spoon
Small 1-quart saucepan 8. Add the red pepper, stir
Soup ladle or big serving spoon again, and cover the pot. Let
the stew/soup cook gently
on low heat for about half an
hour. Add a little more water
if necessary.
9. Serve over cooked rice.
Source: Osseo-Assare, F. 1993. A Good Soup
Attracts Chairs. Gretna, La: Pelican Publishing
Company

52
5. Add in the eggs, milk, sugar,
Sweet Potato Pie margarine, vanilla, cinnamon, Collard, Mustard or Turnip Greens
nutmeg, and allspice. Ingredients
Ingredients
Continue mixing until batter
is smooth. There will 2 large smoked ham hocks or 1
2 large yams
probably be some lumps, package of smoked turkey necks
2 teaspoons cinnamon don’t worry! or smoked neck bones
1⁄ 2 teaspoon nutmeg 6. Slowly pour the batter into 3 bunches of green (all collard, all
the piecrusts using a large
2 eggs mustard, all turnip, or any
mixing spoon. Try to divide
1⁄ 3 cup milk the batter evenly between the combination of the three)
piecrusts to make two pies. 1⁄ 2
1 cup sugar teaspoon salt
7. Bake the pies on a cookie 1⁄ 2
1⁄ 2 cup butter or margarine sheet (use two cookie sheets medium chopped onion
if necessary) in the oven for 3 to 4 cups water
1 1⁄ 2 teaspoons vanilla (optional)
30 minutes.
1 1⁄ 2 teaspoon allspice 8. Check the pies to make sure
Utensils
2 ready-made piecrusts they are not burning. The top
of the pies should appear Large pot
firmer than when first put in Directions
Utensils the oven. The crust should be 1. Fill a large pot halfway with
Cookie sheet turning golden brown. water. Add the meat.
Large mixing bowl 9. Let the pies bake for 10–15
Masher 2. Put the pot on the stove and
more minutes and then turn the burner to medium.
Mixer (electric or hand held) remove them from the oven.
Measuring cups 3. Wash the greens thoroughly.
Large mixing spoon 10. Cool for 15 minutes then Be sure all dirt and grit are
place in the refrigerator for removed. Remove any stems.
Directions an additional 30 minutes
1. Preheat oven to 400°F. After before serving. 4. Add the greens and onion to
washing the yams, bake them the pot.
in the oven on a cookie sheet 5. Cook the greens at a low to
for 1 1⁄ 2 hours. medium temperature until
2. Remove yams from the oven they are tender (at least one
and let cool 15 minutes. Turn hour).
the oven down to 350°F.
3. Once cool, peel the skin off
the yams. Be careful, the
yams may still be very warm!
4. Mash the yams in a large
mixing bowl, using a masher
or mixer. If you use an
electric mixer, do not mix
the yams for more than a few
minutes or they will fall
apart.

53
8. Cool cornbread for 10 Season to taste with a dash of salt
Cornbread minutes before removing
and pepper
Ingredients from baking pan.
5 cups of water
1⁄ 4 cup oil, shortening, or baking fat
Gumbo 1⁄ 3 cup of vegetable or canola oil
1 1⁄ 2 cup cornmeal Gumbo is made in a variety of
ways. Common ingredients
1 cup flour Utensils
include okra, powdered dried
1⁄ 2 teaspoon salt sassafras leaves, onions, celery, and Cutting utensils
bell peppers. Gumbo recipes Cutting board
1 tablespoon sugar usually vary because of Frying pan
preferences for chicken, oysters, Stew pot with lid
1 tablespoon baking power
ham, sausage, shrimp, and crabs. Spatula
1 cup milk Hot red peppers make gumbo Tongs
spicy. Gumbo is typically served Spoon
1 egg (beaten) with rice. Directions
Seafood Gumbo: Submitted by Myron 1. Cut chicken up into small
Utensils McClure; a White Family recipe. pieces or leave as whole parts.
8–9 inch square baking pan Serving size: approximately 4–5 2. In a large frying pan, brown
Small saucepan Preparation time: estimate 15 chicken lightly using 1⁄ 3 cup
Large bowl minutes cooking vegetable or canola
Measuring spoons oil.
Cook time: 30–40 minutes
Measuring cups
Mixing spoon Ingredients 3. Add the chopped onion, bell
Toothpicks pepper, celery, parsley, and
8–10 pieces of chicken (season using garlic to the frying pan.
Directions
your favorite spices before 4. Add 1 cup of water and stir
1. Preheat oven to 425°F.
cooking) thoroughly.
2. Coat the bottom of an 8–9
1 1⁄ 2 lbs shrimp (50–75 count) 5. Cut smoked sausage, hot
inch square baking pan with
links, or both into small
1 tablespoon of margarine.
1–2 links of smoked sausage and/or pieces and add to frying pan.
3. Optional step: Pour oil or hot links (turkey sausage can be 6. Add 1 cup of water and stir.
bacon drippings into a small
saucepan. Put the saucepan used as a substitute) 7. Reduce heat and let simmer,
on the stove and turn the 2 lbs crab legs allowing the chicken,
burner to medium. Heat for vegetables, and sausage to
5 minutes. Remove from 2 teaspoons of filet gumbo powder cook for at least 10 minutes.
heat. 8. Transfer mixture into a
10 ounce package of okra
4. Mix cornmeal, flour, salt, stewing pot.
sugar, and baking powder 1–2 bell peppers (chopped)
9. Add shrimp and okra
together in a large bowl. 1–2 stalks of chopped celery (optional).
5. Add milk, eggs, and oil. Mix 10. Add 1 cup of water and stir.
well with a mixing spoon. 1 cup finely chopped parsley
11. Allow gumbo to gently
6. Pour into baking pan and 1 medium onion chopped
simmer for 5–10 minutes,
bake for 20–25 minutes. stirring periodically.
2 teaspoons of minced garlic
7. Remove pan from oven 12. Add crab legs and 1 cup of
when done. Cornbread is 1 tablespoon of flour
water.
done when a toothpick (thickness of sauce may require
inserted into the center 13. Allow crab legs to cook
2 tablespoons)
comes out clean. thoroughly in the mixture.

54
14. Turn off burner and add the called the “eyes” of the
filet gumbo powder and 1 coconut. Hold the ice pick or Papaya with Lime
cup of water, stirring to screwdriver against one of Papaya, a native fruit of Hawaii
ensure an even distribution the eyes of the coconut and and Mexico, also thrives in Africa
of seasoning in mixture. hit it several times with the because they like the warm
hammer, until it goes into climate as an ideal growing
15. Cover and let stand for 15 condition. In many places in
the coconut and makes a
minutes. Africa, you can enjoy fresh papaya
hole. Be very careful not to
16. Serve over rice, pasta, or hit your fingers! Pull out the by picking the fruit right off the
alone as a soup. ice pick and do the same tree. In Pennsylvania, papaya can
thing at another eye. be purchased from the market.
Since this fruit is imported, it may
Fresh Coconut 3. Remove the ice pick, set the
cost more. A good way to enjoy
Children in Ghana enjoy coconut tea strainer over a glass, and
papaya is with lime as a light
as a snack. This very rich fruit is then turn the coconut upside
dessert or on special occasions.
considered a special treat for down over the glass. The
You will find the combination of
most. There are two kinds of strainer will collect the
lime and ripe papaya to be a
coconut—the green fresh ones brown flakes and keep them
delicious treat.
and the brown hard ones we find separate from the liquid. If
in our grocery stores. Both taste you want the liquid to flow Ingredients (serves 2 people)

good without any sugar added. faster, make a third hole at


the third eye of the coconut. 1 ripe papaya
You can drink the refreshing
1⁄ 2 small lime
liquid right from the coconut and 4. Enjoy the fresh beverage or
then eat the milky inside with a place the glass in the
spoon. refrigerator to chill.
Utensils
Ingredients 5. Now you are ready to crack
Cutting board
the coconut. For safety
Fresh coconut(s) Knife
reasons, have everyone else
Spoon
stand away from the person
2 small serving plates
cracking the coconut. Hit the
Utensils center of the coconut several Directions
Newspaper times with a hammer until it 1. Gently wash the papaya and
Hammer cracks open. lime, being careful not to
Ice pick, chisel, or small 6. Hit smaller pieces of the shell bruise the papaya.
screwdriver with the white coconut meat 2. Cut the papaya in half
Glass or cup facing the newspaper. Then lengthwise on a cutting board.
Vegetable peeler pry the meat off with a knife.
Table knife 3. With a spoon, carefully scoop
Plate 7. After separating the coconut out all the seeds in the papaya.
Tea strainer meat from the shell, cut away
the brown skin on the meat 4. Cut the lime in half, and then
(It also helps to have strong
with a vegetable peeler or cut one half into 2 smaller
arms!)
knife. Be careful peeling pieces. Save the other half for
Directions because the coconut is oily use at another time.
1. When getting started, it’s best and can be slippery. 5. Serve the papaya on a plate
to crack coconuts open on a with a piece of lime next to
8. Rinse coconut with cool
hard surface such as a cement it.
water and cut into small
or linoleum floor.
chunks. Serve on a plate and 6. Squeeze the lime over the
2. Spread several newspapers on enjoy! papaya.
the floor under the coconut.
Examine the coconut and 7. Enjoy the papaya with lime
locate the three darks spots using a spoon the way you
near one end. These spots are would eat a melon.

55
More Challenges Suggested Books
• Go to your local grocery store Adler, D. 1999. A Picture Book of
or supermarket and see how George Washington Carver. New
many foods commonly used in York: Holiday House.
African American cuisine you Aliki. 1988. A Weed Is a Flower:
can find. Try to identify the The Life of George Washington
foods from the beginning of Carver. New York: Simon &
this section. Examine the Schuster Books for Young
different colors and textures. Readers.
You may need to ask if the
store carries these foods. Evert, J. 1994. Addy’s Cook Book.
Middleton, Wis.: Pleasant
• Grow your own peanuts. Company Publications.
• For detailed information on Rogers, T. 1992. George
growing peanuts, send for Dr. Washington Carver: Nature’s
Carver’s “Bulletin 31—How to Trailblazer. Frederick, Md.:
Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways Twenty-First Century Books.
to Prepare It for Human
Consumption” (cost
approximately $2.00). Write to:
Eastern National Park and
Monument Association
P.O. Drawer # 10
Tuskegee Institute, Alabama
36088-0010

56
Special African American Holidays

Every cultural group has special was chosen for the celebration in June 18 and lasts until the next
days and ceremonies that honor of Frederick Douglass’s night. The celebration includes
represent events important to that birthday. The “week” has grown lots of food, storytelling, games,
culture. In this section you will to a month-long celebration music, and African art exhibits.
learn about some of the known as Black History Month.
ceremonies and events important The purpose of this occasion is
to African American culture. to promote the contributions of Kwanzaa
African Americans to U.S. history.
Black History Month is observed December 26–January 1
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity in many ways including plays, Each year, over thirteen million
Learning to Learn special recreational programs, and African Americans celebrate
Valuing Social Justice assemblies. Kwanzaa. Kwanzaa is an African
American holiday created by Dr.
Maulana Karenga in 1966. The
Juneteenth purpose of Kwanzaa is to
Martin Luther King’s celebrate the heritage of African
June 19
Americans. Kwanzaa is a Swahili
Birthday Juneteenth is considered by many term meaning “first fruits of the
Third Monday in January to be the oldest African American harvest.” The symbols and
holiday. The Emancipation customs of Kwanzaa come from
This holiday honors Nobel Peace Proclamation, a statement by African harvest celebrations of
Prize winner Dr. Martin Luther President Lincoln freeing the first fruits of the year.
King Jr. Dr. King was a minister enslaved Africans, was issued
and civil rights activist who January 1, 1863. However, June Celebrating Kwanzaa
organized nonviolent protests 19, 1865, is the date that the
including boycotts and marches. During the seven days of
message of freedom reached the
This federal holiday is celebrated Kwanzaa, a mkeka (unity mat) is
enslaved Africans in Texas and
with speeches and community most slaves in the South. When used as a centerpiece. A kinara
gatherings. It is a time to (candleholder) representing the
they finally heard the news, there
remember the importance of the ancestors is placed on top of the
were many celebrations.
Civil Rights Movement in the Therefore, Juneteenth is mkeka. Seven mishumma
United States. (candles) are held by the kinara.
celebrated as the Independence
Each candle represents a principle
Day for African Americans. In
1997, the U.S. Senate recognized of Kwanzaa:
Black History Month June 19 as Juneteenth • Three green candles represent
Independence Day.Today, hope for the future and the
February Juneteenth is a large celebration rich, fertile land of Africa.
Carter G. Woodson, an educator held in many parts of the United
• Three red candles represent the
and historian known as “the States. Juneteenth today
struggle of African peoples.
father of black history,” founded celebrates African American
Negro History Week in 1926. freedom and encourages self- • One black candle represents
The second week of February development and respect for all the strength of African
cultures. It begins on the night of Americans.

57
Each day of the celebration a The More You Know, the Activities
candle is lit, starting with the
black, then red, then green.
More You Grow Create Your Own African
The African American Flag American Holiday Word Find
Each day of Kwanzaa focuses on
one of seven principles called the
Nguzo Saba.
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
December 26 Umoja Thinking Critically
(Unity)
Solving Problems
We help each other.
Completing a Project or
December 27 Kujichagulia Task
(Self-Determination) The African American flag has Project Skill: Creating a Puzzle
We decide things for ourselves. existed for over 80 years. It is
known by many names including
December 28 Ujima
The Bendera Flag, The Flag of Instructions
(Collective Work and
Our People, The International 1. Make a list of 10–15 words
Responsibility)
African Flag,The African Flag, from the information in this
We work together to make life
The Liberation Flag, and The section, Special African
better.
Black Flag. American Holidays.
December 29 Ujaama
The flag was created in the early 2. Create a puzzle grid, or use
(Cooperative Economics)
1900s by Marcus Garvey, and Dr. the one on the facing page.
We build and support our own
Karenga adopted the flag as a Write your words in the
businesses.
symbol for Kwanzaa.Today, boxes. Fill in blank boxes
December 30 Nia African Americans usually hang with various letters of the
(Purpose) this flag during Kwanzaa. alphabet.
We have a reason for living. However, many African
Americans hang the flag year- 3. For easier puzzles, write all of
December 31 Kuumba your words left to right, but
round as a symbol of cultural
(Creativity) vary their placement on the
pride.
We use our minds and hands to lines. For more difficult
make things. • Red symbolizes the blood of puzzles, write some of your
African Americans that has words backwards, from top to
January 1 Imani
been shed in struggles for bottom, from bottom to top,
(Faith)
freedom and fairness. It is and diagonally across the
We believe in our ancestors,
placed at the top of the flag as a grid.
our future, and ourselves.
bold reminder of history.
On December 31, there is a
• Black symbolizes the face and
great feast called karamu.
unity of African Americans.
Everyone who participates in
the Kwanzaa celebration drinks • Green symbolizes hope for the
from the kikombe cha umoja future and the fertile lands of
(unity cup). This symbolizes the Africa.
value of family unity in the
African American community.
The ultimate goal of Kwanzaa Reflections
is that the Nguzo Saba What special events and ceremonies
principles are practiced are important in your culture? How
throughout the year by African are they celebrated?
Americans.
If you could create a new holiday, what
would it be? What would it represent?
How would we celebrate it?

58
AFRICAN
AMERICAN
H O L I D AY
WORD FIND
PUZZLE

Kwanzaa Word Scramble More Challenges Grier, E. 1997. Seven Days of


Kwanzaa: A Holiday Step Book.
• Prepare to celebrate one of the New York:Viking.
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity African American holidays
discussed in this section. King, C. 1993. My Life with
Solving Problems
Martin Luther King, Jr. New
Project Skill: Solving a Puzzle • What will you need to York: Henry Holt.
celebrate the holiday? What
symbols are representative of McDonnel, J. 1994. Martin Luther
Try to unscramble the seven King Day. Chicago: Children’s
principles of the Nguzo Saba. the holiday?
Press.
Which is your favorite principle, • Celebrate Kwanzaa with your
and why? family or school this Porter, C. 1993. Addy’s Surprise:
December. A Christmas Story. Middleton,
ANI Wis.: Pleasant Company
Publications.
JAOMU Suggested Books Strazzabosco, J. 1996. Learning
Banks,V. 1990. Flags of the African about Dignity from the Life of
MIJAU Martin Luther King, Jr. New
People: Benderas of the African
Diaspora. Los Angeles, Calif.: York: Rosen Pub. Group’s
UUKBMA PowerKids Press.
Sala Enterprises.
GUKUCHAJILIA Copage, E. 1995. A Kwanzaa Williams, N. 1995. A Kwanzaa
Fable. New York:William Celebration.
AAAMJU Morrow and Company. Woodson, J. 1990. Martin Luther
King Jr. and His Birthday.
IAMIN

59
Notable African Americans

African Americans have played an The More You Know, the Slavery in the Americas
important role in the growth and
development of the United States
More You Grow Once in the Americas, Africans
were sold to plantation owners
and the world. This section From Africa to America: A Brief and forced to work as slaves. A
includes the stories of a few of History of African Americans plantation is a large farm. Work on
these people—some well known, the plantation was divided
and some not so well known— As you read the following brief
between the house and field.
who have made an impact on history of African Americans,
Some worked in the home of the
society. The purpose is to think about the history of your
owner by cooking, cleaning, and
introduce you to some of the family and stories you may have
caring for the owner’s children.
outstanding contributions made heard about how they arrived in
Others labored as blacksmiths,
by African Americans. the United States.You may find
carpenters, and shoemakers.
there are similarities as well as
differences in the experiences of Most enslaved Africans worked
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity your ancestors compared to the long hours in the fields planting,
Valuing Social Justice ancestors of many African tending, and harvesting crops,
Caring for Others Americans. earning profits for the plantation
Learning to Learn owner. American and Caribbean
Processing Information
From Africa to the Americas plantations depended on free
Unlike the ancestors of many slave labor to manage labor-
Communicating
groups who came to North intensive crops including cotton,
Interacting Socially sugar cane, spices, rice, and
America in search of a better life,
Practicing Creativity tobacco.
slave traders kidnapped the
Working in a Team ancestors of African Americans Slaves had no rights. A few of the
Cooperating from their countries. These many things they were not
Solving Problems captured Africans were farmers, permitted to do included:
Completing a Project orTask herders, traders, priests,
craftspeople, and teachers. Some • meeting in groups of more
ruled as queens and kings in their than five,
lands. • speaking their native languages,
A Dutch warship brought the • practicing their religion and
first twenty enslaved Africans to customs,
Virginia in 1619. Over the next
200 years, millions of African • getting married,
men, women, and children were • learning to read and write,
torn from their families and
communities, crammed onto • buying and selling goods,
ships, and brought to the • owning property, and
Americas. Many died during the
journey from illness and • beating drums.
mistreatment. Some resisted by
committing suicide.

60
Resisting Slavery on work done in factories. There important contributions to
Very few, if any, Africans willingly were more factories in the North American culture and have
accepted their fate. Being a slave than in the South. Cheap labor created a unique culture of their
was unacceptable. Many Africans was available in the North own of which many African
took great risks in helping to without the use of as many slaves. Americans are proud. Many
bring about their freedom. It is As the country became divided features of African American
estimated that 100 million over this issue, some of the culture reflect the influence of
Africans died resisting slavery. Southern states decided to break cultural traditions originating in
Enslaved Africans resisted in away from the United States and Africa, while other features
many ways including: form a new country. The reflect the uniqueness of the
remaining states were under the African American experience in
• staging sit-down strikes, leadership of President Abraham the United States in speech, dress,
• destroying buildings and fields, Lincoln. music, and family arrangement.
• breaking tools, The Civil War
Reflection
• trampling crops, In 1861, President Lincoln sent
the army and navy to prevent the Picture your family as one of the
• refusing to eat or drink, hoping enslaved African families:
breakup of the country. The war
to die,
that resulted between the North How would you fight against your
• escaping, and and South became known as the situation?
• revolting. Civil War or “The War between
the States.” The war ended when How would you feel if you found out
the South surrendered in 1865. that your ancestors were slaves?
Ending Slavery
In this same year, the Thirteenth What other people in history and
European Americans who were Amendment was added to the
opposed to slavery and actively other parts of the world have been
Constitution, legally ending
worked to end it were called subjected to slavery?
slavery.
abolitionists. Abolitionists traveled What can be done to preserve the
around the country speaking out The Great Migration memory of Africans and African
against slavery. Abolitionists,
The Great Migration, starting in Americans who have made important
Quakers, and free Africans and
African Americans helped 1918, drove millions of African contributions to American culture?
enslaved Africans from the South Americans from the South to the
escape to the North through the North in search of jobs and a
Underground Railroad. The better life. Before the Civil War,
Underground Railroad was a 90 percent of African Americans
series of paths and roads that led lived in the South. Today, about
to the North. The North Star was 50 percent of African Americans
their most dependable guide at live in the South. This migration
night. The stations on the is one of the major migrations of
Underground Railroad were people in U.S. history. Also, most
homes of volunteers that African Americans once lived
provided safe hiding places for primarily in rural areas. However,
runaway Africans along their due to the Great Migration, by
escape route. The conductors on 1950 75 percent of African
the Underground Railroad were Americans lived in cities.
those people who helped lead the
slaves to freedom. African Americans Today
According to the U.S. Census
With the free labor of slaves, Bureau, there are approximately
Southern plantation owners 35 million African Americans,
became wealthy and the comprising almost 13 percent of
economy of the South grew. The the total U.S. population. African
economy of the North was based Americans have made many

61
Biographies including the antislavery Harriet Ross Tubman
newspaper The North Star. Others (1820–1913)
Frederick Augustus Douglass included Frederick Douglass’ Paper,
(1817?–1895) Douglass’ Monthly, and New Conductor of the Underground
National Era. His talent earned Railroad
Abolitionist, Author, and Orator him employment as a lecturer by
the Anti-Slavery Society. He
spoke about the evils of slavery
and the need for its abolition. He
convinced President Lincoln to
accept African American soldiers
into the Union Army. After the
Civil War, Douglass continued to
speak out for education, land
ownership, and civil rights for the
newly freed African men and
women.
In 1888, Frederick Douglass was Araminta Ross was born a slave in
Frederick Augustus Bailey was the first African American 1820 in Bucktown, Maryland. She
born in Talbot County, Maryland, nominated as a presidential was denied any real childhood or
in 1817. He was an unruly slave candidate at the Republican formal education and labored in
who was often beaten because of convention. He received one physically demanding jobs as a
his attitude and was sent to work vote. Until his death in 1895, he woodcutter, a field hand, and in
on the Baltimore docks. With the remained a fearless leader of lifting and loading barrels of flour.
help of his friends and disguised African Americans. Although she had heard of kind
as a sailor, he escaped and fled masters, she never experienced
north to freedom. He changed one. She vowed at an early age that
his name to Frederick Douglass Reflection she would strive to emancipate her
and wrote and published his If you could write and publish your people. Araminta decided to call
experiences as a slave in three own newspaper, what would you herself by her mother’s name,
autobiographies.The first, The Harriet. In 1844, at age 24, she
call it?
Narrative of the Life of Frederick married John Tubman, a freeman,
Douglass, published in 1845, was What would be the theme of your
and in the summer of 1849, she
revised and enlarged under the paper? decided to make her escape from
title The Life and Times of Frederick What type of articles would you slavery. At the last minute, her
Douglass, in 1892. My Bondage and husband refused to leave with her,
write?
My Freedom was published in so she set out by herself with only
1855. What else would you include in your
the North Star as her guide. She
paper besides articles?
In 1853, he wrote the first short made her way to freedom in
story published by an African If you could give a speech to an Philadelphia.
American, “The Heroic Slave.” audience of famous and important
Harriet Tubman was not content
This book is based on the true people, what would you talk about? with her own freedom; she wanted
story of Madison Washington, a Have you ever received help from a freedom for all enslaved Africans. A
recaptured fugitive slave who year later she returned to
friend?
took the lead in seizing the ship Baltimore to rescue her sisters and
on which he was being sent to be How did they help you?
then began guiding others to
sold from Virginia to Louisiana. Have you ever given help to a friend? freedom. Eventually she freed her
Washington regained his freedom entire family, including her parents.
by sailing the ship to Nassau. What did you do?
Although there was a $40,000
Frederick Douglass became a reward for her capture, she led
brilliant abolitionist speaker. He more than 600 people to freedom
published several newspapers through the Underground

62
Railroad, using the North Star as Bessie Coleman for a test flight. Once aloft, the
her only guide. Her dedication (1892–1926) plane malfunctioned and the
earned her the nickname mechanic, who was piloting the
“Moses.” Like Moses in the Bible First Black Pilot plane from the front seat, lost
who led the Israelites from control of the plane. Bessie fell
slavery in ancient Egypt, Harriet from the open cockpit several
led her people from slavery in hundred feet to her death.
Maryland and other parts of the
Her dream of a flying school for
country.
African Americans became a
During the Civil War, Harriet reality when William J. Powell
Tubman served as a nurse, scout, established the Bessie Coleman
and spy for the Union Army. She Aero Club in Los Angeles,
led a raid against the California, in 1929. As a result of
Confederates, freeing 800 being affiliated, educated, and
Africans. After the war she inspired directly or indirectly by
returned to Auburn, New York, Bessie Coleman was born into a the Bessie Coleman Aero Club,
and established The Harriet large family in Atlanta, Texas, on fliers like the Five Blackbirds, the
Tubman Home for Aged and January 26, 1892, the tenth of Flying Hobos (James Banning
Indigent Colored People in 1908. thirteen children. In 1910 she and Thomas Allen), the Tuskegee
She became involved in other saved her money and enrolled in Airmen, Cornelius Coffey, John
causes including the women’s the Colored Agricultural and Robison, Willa Brown, and
suffrage movement. Harriet Normal University in Langston, Harold Hurd continued to make
Tubman worked tirelessly for the Oklahoma. Bessie completed Bessie Coleman’s dream a reality.
rights of her people until her only one term before she ran out
death from pneumonia on March of money and was forced to
10, 1913. On February 1, 1978, return home. Reflection
Harriet Tubman became the first When Bessie Coleman ran out of
Taking her cue from her brother
African American woman John’s teasing remarks about money to pay for school she didn’t
honored on a postage stamp. French women flying and having give up. Instead she followed her
careers, Bessie decided she would dream by going to school in a new
Reflection
become a flier. Having secured place.
funding from several sources and Do you think it is it important to try
What would be your biggest concerns
received a passport with English
and fears traveling on The Under- new things?
and French visas, Bessie departed
ground Railroad? Would you be for France in November of 1919. What types of new things do you
courageous enough to assist others She received her license from the think she learned by attending flight
to freedom? renowned Federation school in France?
Can you think of modern-day examples Aeronautique Internationale
What is Bessie Coleman’s legacy?
(FAI) on June 15, 1921. This
of people who are fighting for their What kind of legacy do you want to
made her the first black woman
freedom in other parts of the world? to ever earn a license from the leave behind?
Have you ever helped someone even prestigious FAI and the only
when you might have been hurt while woman of the sixty-two
helping him or her? What motivated candidates to earn FAI licenses
you to help? during that six-month period.
Later, Bessie spent time lecturing
Has anyone ever helped you even in a series of black theaters in
when they might have been hurt Georgia and Florida.
while helping you? What do you think
At the end of April in 1926,
motivated them to help you?
Bessie arrived in Jacksonville. On
the evening of April 30, she and
her mechanic took her plane up

63
Sojourner Truth Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave, Mary Jane McLeod Bethune
(1797–1883) written by the abolitionist Olive (1875–1955)
Gilbert and published in 1850.
Abolitionist, Feminist, and Educator and Government
Sojourner Truth became famous
Religious Leader Official
as an orator, although she could
neither read nor write. She spoke
at abolitionist meetings, pleading
for freedom for enslaved Africans.
She also spoke for women’s rights
and was present at the first
National Women’s Rights
Convention in 1850. During the
Civil War, she worked tirelessly
nursing the wounded and finding
homes and jobs in northern states
for freed African men and
Sojourner Truth was born women. In 1864, she was invited
Isabella Baumfree to slave parents to Washington, D.C., to meet Mary Jane McLeod was born on
in Hurley, New York. Bell, as she President Lincoln at the White July 10, 1875, in Mayesville,
was called, was sold and resold, House. After the war, Sojourner South Carolina. She was born
denied her choice of husband, Truth continued to travel, after slavery was abolished, unlike
and treated cruelly by her speaking on behalf of African most of her sixteen brothers and
masters. She escaped in 1826 and Americans, until she retired to sisters. When she was ten years
moved to New York City. She Battle Creek, Michigan, in 1875. old, the Trinity Presbyterian
later took the name Sojourner After years of painful illnesses, Mission School was started five
Truth because in a vision she said Sojourner Truth died on miles away from her home. Mary
God told her to leave the city November 26, 1883. Jane wanted to learn so badly
and take the name Sojourner. that for three years she walked to
Sojourner means a person who this school. She received a
stays in one place for a brief time Reflection scholarship to attend Scotia
before moving on to the next If you could change your name to Seminary in Concord, North
place. reflect a personal belief or value, how Carolina. After graduating in
would you change it, and why? What 1895, she taught in Georgia, then
Sojourner Truth believed God
does the name represent? South Carolina where she met
wanted her to preach against
and later married Albert
slavery. So she left New York on What do you think was the most Bethune.
June 1, 1843, walking in a important thing Sojourner Truth
northeasterly direction with only wanted others to learn from her Mary McLeod Bethune devoted
25 cents in her pocket. The only her life to education. She
speeches?
time she rested was when she established three schools in the
found lodging. She would talk to What would be included in your early 1900s. The most successful
whoever was close enough to message if you preached against school, The Daytona Educational
hear her. At first she attended slavery? and Industrial School for Negro
religious meetings and then she Girls, was started in 1904 with six
began holding meetings of her students and no furniture. Within
own. She preached that people two years the school had 250
should show their love for God students. When hospitals only
by showing love and concern for serving European Americans
others. As she traveled her fame denied service to African
grew and her reputation American patients and training
preceded her. Sojourner Truth’s for African American residents
popularity grew with her and nurses, she founded the
biography, The Narrative of McLeod Hospital to serve the

64
community and to provide Dr. Charles Richard Drew
training for African American Reflection
(1904–1950)
physicians and nurses. By 1922, What hardships have you had to go
the school had over 300 students through to get something you wanted Doctor and Scientist
and a staff of 25. The school has very much?
now become the Bethune-
What motivated Mary McLeod
Cookman University.
Bethune to start her own school?
She was the first African
What are some reasons why someone
American woman to head a
federal office. Appointed by might start their own school today?
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Today, many schools focus on special
she served as director of the subjects. Have you ever wanted to
Division of Negro Affairs of the learn something that is not taught in
New Deal’s National Youth your school?
Administration (NYA) in 1936.
The NYA was founded to What kind of school would you need
provide job training and part- to attend or create? Charles Richard Drew was born
time work for unemployed on June 3, 1904, and raised in
youth. During her lifetime, Mary Washington, D.C. He was a
McLeod Bethune served many talented athlete in many sports
organizations. In 1935 she including swimming, baseball,
founded the National Council of and track. However, he was most
Negro Women and served as interested in science. He received
president for fourteen years. She his M.D. from McGill University
was vice president of the in 1933 and became a talented
Commission on Interracial physician and surgeon. His
Cooperation. She also served as research at Columbia Medical
president for two terms in the Center in New York City led to
National Association of Colored the discovery that blood plasma
Women, advising two presidential could replace whole blood
administrations on African transfusions through a process
American issues. She retired from that separates plasma from blood
public life on her seventy-fifth and stores it until needed.
birthday in 1950, settling in her Dr. Drew was the first person to
home on the campus of establish a blood plasma bank.
Bethune-Cookman College. On During World War II he
May 18, 1955, Mary McLeod established blood banks in
Bethune died of a heart attack. England, was appointed head of
The United States honors her the National Blood Bank
with a bronze sculpture of her program, and assisted the
likeness in Lincoln Park in American Red Cross project to
Washington, D.C. collect and store blood. Dr. Drew
was dropped from the American
Red Cross project because he
disagreed with the policy of
refusing the blood of African
American donors. He asserted
that there was no scientific
difference between the blood of
African Americans and European
Americans. He resigned from his
post with the National Blood
Bank program, furious at the

65
official government policy Malcolm X American last names originated
mandating that European (1925–1965) from the names of plantation
Americans’ and African owners. Soon Malcolm X became
Americans’ blood would only be Minister and Civil Rights Activist the spokesperson for the N.O.I. He
given to members of their was known nationwide for his
respective races. eloquent and passionate speeches.
He captivated large audiences with
In April 1950, Dr. Drew was
his honesty and messages of racial
seriously injured in a car accident
pride, economic development, self-
near Burlington, North Carolina.
defense, and ideas of opening and
He was bleeding very badly and
operating schools. He established
needed a blood transfusion. He
temples in cities across the country
was taken to the nearest hospital,
including Boston and Philadelphia.
which refused to give him
He started the newspaper
medical attention because he was
Muhammad Speaks, and in 1961 was
African American. The medical
named the first National Minister
genius that gave the world the
Malcolm X was born Malcolm of the N.O.I. In 1963 Malcolm X
gift of blood plasma died because
it was not given to him. Little in Omaha, Nebraska. When was ex-communicated from the
he was only six-years-old, when N.O.I. because of a dispute with
his father, a minister, was Elijah Muhammad. He then
Reflection murdered. After a childhood spent founded The Muslim Mosque, Inc.
Dr. Drew was so good at sports that in institutions and foster homes, In 1964, Malcolm X made a
he could have become a professional he ended up in New York City, pilgrimage, or journey, to Mecca—
athlete. Is there more than one where he began to lead a life of an obligation all Muslims must
occupation that you are interested in? crime. In 1946, he received a ten- complete if they are able to do so
year sentence for burglary. While in their lifetime. This experience
Why is it important to prepare in prison he began studying the was a turning point in his life. In
yourself for more than one type of teachings of Elijah Muhammad, Mecca he saw Muslims of all races
occupation? leader of the Nation of Islam in brotherhood. He then converted
If you were a relative of Dr. Drew, (N.O.I.), a Muslim religion. At to orthodox Islam. After returning
the same time, he educated to the United States, he changed
what action would you take against
himself by copying dictionaries his name to El Hajj Malik al-
the hospital that allowed him to die?
page-by-page and reading every Shabazz and founded the
Who are other African Americans who book he could obtain. The N.O.I. Organization for African American
have made contributions to medicine believed in God, justice, and Unity. He was shot by an assassin
and science? equality. They believed women while making a speech in New
should be respected and protected York City on February 21, 1965.
If you could invent something to im-
and that African teachers should
prove life for people, what would it be? teach African children. This Reflection
What are some of the jobs that help religious institution has grown to
What motivated Malcolm X to make a
to make life better for people? own over forty temples or
drastic change in his life?
mosques, has 250,000 members,
developed the Clara Muhammad How have Malcolm X’s teachings
Schools, secured farmland, and impacted the African American
operates stores and service community?
enterprises nationwide. Who has made a significant impact in
When released from prison in your life?
1952, Malcolm Little became a How has that person (or people)
minister, joined the Detroit affected you?
Temple of the N.O.I., and Have you had an important effect on
changed his last name to X. He anyone you know?
refused to use the name Little any
longer because most African How did you influence them?

66
Jesse Owens attend The Ohio State University.
It was there that he encountered Reflection
(1913–1980)
the cruelty of prejudice. In 1933, If you were famous, how could you
Olympic Gold Medalist the United States was struggling use your influence to promote the
to desegregate, which led to well-being of others?
many difficult experiences for
Jesse Owens proved that hard work
Jesse Owens. He was required to
live off campus with other pays off. What do you think his
African American athletes and motivation for training was?
when he traveled with the team, How courageous do you think he was
he was made to order carry out to compete in the Olympics during
or to eat at “blacks-only” the rise of the Nazis in Germany?
restaurants.
What role do you think Jesse Owens’s
In 1936, Jesse Owens qualified coach played in helping him reach his
for the Olympics by setting a
goals?
record in the 100-yard dash. He
went on to compete at the
Jesse Owens was born on Olympic Games in Berlin, where
September 12, 1913, in Oakville, he won four gold medals in the
Alabama. Born the youngest of 100-meter, 200-meter, long jump,
ten children, Jesse Owens grew and 400-meter relay. He was the
up much like other black kids of first American in the history of
his time. In 1922, he moved to Olympic Track and Field to win
Cleveland and attended Fairmont four medals in a single Olympics.
Junior High School, where he He did this while Adolph Hitler
started his track career. His was watching. Jesse Owens’s
parents were sharecroppers and success disproved Hitler’s theory
had little money to make ends that there is a supreme Aryan race
meet. Jesse Owens often and that blacks were an inferior
experienced mistreatment from race.
whites while growing up.
However, once he found track, Jesse Owens went on to receive
he realized he could change the the highest honor a civilian of
way people saw him, mainly for the United States could receive,
his talent and not for the color of which was given to him by
his skin. President Gerald R. Ford. This
award was the Medal of Freedom,
One day in gym class, the because he overcame segregation,
students were timed in the 60- racism, and bigotry to prove
yard dash. When Jesse Owens’s African Americans belonged to
coach, Charlie Riley, saw his the world of athletics. Several
natural talent, he immediately years later, on March 31, 1980,
invited him to run for the track Jesse Owens died in Tucson at the
team. Unfortunately, he was age of 66 from lung cancer.
unable to participate in after
school practices because of work.
So, Coach Riley offered to train
him in the mornings and Jesse
Owens agreed.
Throughout high school Jesse
Owens competed in track events
and broke records. Many schools
recruited him, but he chose to

67
Rosa Louise Parks racism, the belief that one race is The Montgomery Bus Boycott
(1913– ) superior to another race, and Mrs. Parks was not the first
therefore deserves better facilities. African American to be arrested
Pioneer Civil Rights Leader in Montgomery for refusing to
Public buses were divided into
two sections. The front section move to the back of the bus. In
was known as “for Whites only.” the previous year, three African
Only European Americans were American women—including
allowed to sit in this section. The two teenagers—were arrested for
“Colored section” for African the same reason. African
Americans began five to ten rows American leaders in
back from the front section. Montgomery were planning to
Whenever the buses were overcome segregation. One way
crowded, African Americans were they wanted to do this was to
forced to give up their seats in have every African American
the “Colored section” to boycott the buses. Since most of
European Americans and move the bus riders in the city were
further back on the bus. For African Americans, the leaders
In 1955, everyone in the African example, an elderly African felt the buses would go broke if
American community in American would have to give up they refused to let African
Montgomery, Alabama, knew her seat to a European American Americans and European
Mrs. Rosa Parks. She worked as a teenager. If she refused, she could Americans ride the bus as equals.
seamstress in a large department be arrested for breaking the Mrs. Parks was one of these
store. Her community work was segregation laws. leaders. The day she was arrested,
more important to her than her other African American leaders
work as a seamstress. She was one A Historical Day called a meeting at the Dexter
of the first women in On December 1, 1955, on her Avenue Baptist church. They
Montgomery to join the way home from work, Rosa decided to begin their refusal to
National Association for the Parks took the bus as usual. She ride the buses the next morning.
Advancement of Colored People sat down in the front row of the They knew Mrs. Parks had the
(NAACP) in 1943. She served as “Colored section.” As the bus courage to deal with the pressure
secretary for years and as youth became crowded, the driver of defying segregation and would
council advisor. She was a demanded that she give up her not give in even if her life was
community leader, and people seat to a European American man threatened. The next day the
admired her courage. and move to the back of the bus. Montgomery bus boycott began.
This was not the first time this
Segregation There was a young new minister
happened to Rosa Parks—the
In those days Alabama was legally in Montgomery in those days
same bus driver had kicked her
separated. That means African named Martin Luther King Jr.
off a bus twelve years earlier. Mrs.
Americans could not use the People in the community felt
Parks hated segregation. Along
same swimming pools, schools, that he was a special person and
with many other African
and other public facilities as asked him to lead the boycott. At
Americans, she refused to obey
European Americans because the first he was worried about the
many of its unfair rules. On this
law said so. There were also violence that might result from
day she refused to do what the
separate doors, toilets, and water the boycott. However, he quickly
bus driver demanded. The bus
fountains for African Americans made up his mind that it was
driver commanded her once
and European Americans in time to destroy segregation and
more to go to the back of the
places such as bus and train accepted the people’s call for him
bus. She stayed in her seat, looked
stations. The facilities African to be their leader.
straight ahead, and did not move
Americans used were not only an inch. The bus driver got angry The Montgomery bus boycott
separate from the ones European with her and called the police, lasted 381 days. For over a year,
Americans used, but were also who then arrested Mrs. Parks. the African Americans of
inferior. The reason for this was Montgomery, Alabama, stayed off

68
the buses. Some walked to work Medger Evers secretary, Medger Evers and his
while others rode bicycles or (1925–1963) family endured daily threats
shared car rides. It was very hard during their campaign for equal
for them, but they knew that Pioneer Civil Rights Leader rights.
what they were doing was very
On the night of June 12, 1963,
important for all African
Medger Evers was shot in the
Americans in the South. The
back as he arrived home. He is
boycott succeeded, and by the
survived by his wife and three
end of 1956, the Supreme Court
children. Since his death, Medger
said that Montgomery buses must
Evers’s name is hardly mentioned,
no longer be segregated.
although he was a pioneer in the
In 1987, Mrs. Parks co-founded Civil Rights Movement. His
the Rosa and Raymond Parks widow, Myrlie Evers, continues
Institute for Self-Development. to fight to make sure we know
This organization tries to her husband’s story.
encourage kids to reach their
goals through programs on many Medger Evers was a pioneer in
topics. Today, Mrs. Parks speaks the fight for civil rights. He Reflection
across the country to youth about helped to pave the way for Dr. Have you, or anyone you know, ever
the Civil Rights Movement. She Martin Luther King Jr. and been denied admission to an activity
is actively involved in the others. He was a determined man because of a group you belong to?
NAACP and the Southern who wanted to see African How did you react, or how would you
Christian Leadership Conference. Americans enjoy the same rights
react if faced with this situation?
Many have referred to her as “the and privileges that other people
first lady of civil rights.” living in the United States Are there any rules in your home or
enjoyed. school that you think should be
Medger Evers was born and changed or abolished? How could you
Reflection bring about change in a peaceful
raised in Mississippi. When he
How would you feel if there were still way?
was 21 years old, he married a
segregation laws today and your woman named Myrlie. Shortly What can be done so that more
cultural group was being thereafter, he went to work for an people can learn about Medger
discriminated against? What steps African American–owned firm,
Evers?
would you take to change the Magnolia Mutual Life Insurance
situation? Company. He moved to Mound
Bayou, a town in the Mississippi
Is there something in your school or
Delta founded by former
community that you feel needs enslaved Africans.
changing? How would you go about
changing it? Medger Evers was the first
African American to apply for
Have you ever had to go without admission to the University of
something or had to work very hard Mississippi. At the time he had
to prove that you were right? What two children and his family was
was the situation? Were you threatened constantly. He decided
successful? to file a lawsuit against the
university and approached the
NAACP in New York for legal
representation. The NAACP
persuaded him not to file a
lawsuit but to take the job as the
first field secretary for the
NAACP in Mississippi. As field

69
Activities African American Invention Word Find I
African American Invention Word Hint: Words can be found in all directions: forward, backward, diagonal, up and down.
Find I
R W I K D T Z M W D Q F O R R Z U D
U E A R H E A R H S O Q O E E R Y L
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity P Q N G O I B S I U A T C N F E J J
Solving Problems L A I E L N U G N M C O Y A R L L L
Completing a Project or B L P B P R I T N E P W M E I K G E
Task N F O E B R A N T I H O P L G N A V
Project Skill: Solving a Puzzle H X L R R I A E G H D W G C E I S O
J A I L N B D H K T P L N Y R R M T
African Americans invented S A J P Y E A D S C A T O R A P A S
many things we use today. See if H Q E H K E T G L L O B P F T S S C
you can find these 19 African R N Z O J B H Z Z K I L L T O N K C
American inventions hidden in O N M C I F F A R T N C C E R W X V
the puzzle. L S L A W N M O W E R N N V R A K L
C L O T H E S D R Y E R R E I L D O
BREADMAKER
R E K A M D A E R B W J M L P T P O
LAWN MOWER
CLOCK D C K U R B F M N D H J Q Q T T N Z
LAWN SPRINKLER T P Q Y E Y C H E T K N K S T B E N
CLOTHES DRYER R E D D A L E P A C S E E R I F J J
MAILBOX
DRY CLEANING
PAPER BAG
FIRE ESCAPE LADDER
PENCIL SHARPENER
FOLDING BED African American Invention Word
REFRIGERATOR Find II
FOUNTAIN PEN
SMOKE DETECTOR
GAS MASK Life Skills: Valuing Diversity
STOVE Solving Problems
HAIRBRUSH Completing a Project or
TRAFFIC LIGHT Task
IRONING TABLE Project Skill: Solving a Puzzle

Complete this advanced word


find of African American
inventions.
Hint: Words can be found in all directions:
forward, backward, diagonal, up, and down.

70
Word Find II. Here are some
other words hidden in the puzzle.
Can you find them?

ACHIEVED BINS SLUE OBITER


HABU INTERSESSIONS DARNS TRAP
REFLEXES ROSH MERE ENCLOSURES
ARCS CAPT SMEE OPTIMIZE
HESS JUNC DEARS ULULATING
REPLY SABBAT MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC FALLOW
AUCTIONEER CHIMER THIN PEWS
HOUSING LEAF DULY VERNACULARS
RESTRENGTHEN SHARD NEVADAN FRANCE
BELITTLER COMPLICATEDNESS TOPS PILFERER
IMAGES LEONE EBBING WHOA
RIMS SHUN NEWTONIAN FREE
BERG CONGREGATIONALISTS TORA PUNCHY
INKER MANGLE ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC WORK
ROSE
E R D U X B R X C I S L I S C H M C Z V B B B J H Y C R G S
N L E E D X Z E L A E S A Q O T O Y L P E R R E F C M E A C
R E E S V D W R M O P T E U Y M K Q A W Q E E L E T V E S R
C E S C T I E A N I R T S H P R E F R I G E R A T O R Z M A
N Y K N T R E E I E H I R L V V D D M Y Y S J U T D W I A Q
U R R A E R E H E M N C I W C S F H U X A Z W S S E S M S S
J I O F M L O N C G A C R E L K N I R P S N W A L B K I K L
X S L T W D O C G A A G Z P D R C Y N I D S V D M G C T W K
P I Z I C I A M A T L I E Y E A X E D A R N S R X N O P A Y
P M L V T E C E E R H L P S Z W W Z P M L O P Y E I L O V I
J R Z C E T T D R D D E A V M T S Y H L V I S C U D C P L S
I J U A R M N E S B O I N W O Y H C N U P S T L A L H I T I
N A D A V E N W D I U T O N N D L J O C M S O E P O O F A V
K I P M S R N G J E J L I G E M R Q Q Z I E R A C F A X W V
M F N S F Q G J E J K A U L R F O A E T C S A N X E B E I A
E N C L O S U R E S N O B A G A K W H B R R Q I L D E P I M
G O A K Z N E U F H O A M R T Z P R E S O E Z N P M L G O A
A O H W V I U K T H T W E S R I G H O R P T E G S Q I D G N
R Q X A R N L Y S G Q B C H L M N S I W H N D C F O T C W G
I I C O Q K S F N Y M C I O F K I G D C O I F R B F T O I L
M J S S I E B I R E F L E X E S B Q S J T D E I O I L B X E
S E S A A R N L K K P S P D A U B A H N O E T U W L E V S Q
M E R E G O R F Y Y V G S U T G E E W O G E N A A K R Q O I
A D O N R Q F R A N C E H L G O Z U M I R T N F B L Q I P E
A X G I O G A B R E P A P Y E N P F M G A H F U Q B L U S O
Y V E K T S X I X O D O A A Y M J S W I P V W Q H K A Q I M
Y T T H I N Z V Q C D E F D Y Y D O N D H U E U P S G S O T
T A V G N K A V K U U D A C M Z D P S V I H S O R J A E M S
B B I N S W C A W J A B T R B K E B N T C P V J D T W E A K
D V Z S R A L U C A N R E V S N X O A I M F D D Z M N R N Q

71
More Challenges Hunter-Gault, C. 1992. In My Myers, W. 1993. Malcolm X: By
Place. New York: Farrar Straus Any Means Necessary: A
Suggested Books Giroux. Biography. New York: Scholastic.
Archer, J. 1996. They Had a Jacobs, H. 2001. Incidents in the Parks, R. 1997. I Am Rosa Parks.
Dream:The Civil Rights Struggle, Life of a Slave Girl. New York: New York: Dial Books.
from Frederick Douglass to Marcus W. W. Norton.
Garvey to Martin Luther King, Parks, R., and J. Haskins. 1992.
and Malcolm X. New York: Keats, E. J. 1987. John Henry, An Rosa Parks: My Story. New York:
Puffin Books. American Legend. New York: Dial Books.
Knopf.
Bentley, J. 1997. Dear Friend: Porter, C. 1993. Addy Learns a
Thomas Garrett & William Still, Lawrence, J. 1993. Harriet and the Lesson: A School Story. New
Collaborators on the Underground Promised Land. New York: York: Scholastic.
Railroad. New York: Cobblehill Simon & Schuster.
Porter, C. 1993. Happy Birthday,
Books. Lawrence, J. 1993. The Great Addy! A Springtime Story.
Bloom, H. 1996. Alex Haley & Migration: An American Story. Middleton, Wis.: Pleasant
Malcolm X’s The Autobiography of New York: HarperCollins. Company Publications.
Malcolm X. New York: Chelsea MacKinnon, B. 1992. The Porter, C. 1993. Meet Addy, An
House Publishers. Meantime. American Girl. Middleton,Wis.:
Carson, B., and C. Murphy. 1990. Pleasant Company
Mahone-Lonesome, R. 1990.
Gifted Hands. Grand Rapids, Publications.
Charles Drew. New York:
Mich.: Zondervan Books. Chelsea House Publishers. Porter, C. 1994. Addy Saves the
Dingle, D. 1998. First in the Field: Day: A Summer Story.
Marlowe, S. 1996. Learning about
Baseball Hero Jackie Robinson. Middleton, Wis.: Pleasant
Dedication from the Life of
New York: Hyperion Books for Company Publications.
Frederick Douglass. New York:
Children. PowerKids Press. Porter, C. 1994. Changes for Addy.
Douglass, F. 1892. The Life and Middleton, Wis.: Pleasant
McAlpine, S. 1988. Old Satch
Times of Frederick Douglass. Company Publications.
Himself. Elizabethtown, Pa.:
Douglass, F. 1994. Escape from Continental Press. Potter, J. 1997. African Americans
Slavery: The Boyhood of Frederick Who Were First. New York:
McKissack, P. 1992. Sojourner
Douglass in His Own Words. Cobblehill Books.
Truth: Ain’t I a Woman? New
New York: Knopf, distributed York: Scholastic, Inc. Powledge, F. 1993. We Shall
by Random House. Overcome: Heroes of the Civil
Medearis, A. 1994. Dare to Dream:
Gorrell, G. 1997. North Star to Rights Movement. New York:
Coretta Scott King and the Civil
Freedom: The Story of the Scribner; Toronto: Maxwell
Rights Movement. New York:
Underground Railroad. New Macmillan Canada; New York:
Lodestar Books.
York: Delacorte Press. Maxwell Macmillan
Meltzer, M. 1987. Mary McLeod International.
Greenfield, E. 1995. Rosa Parks. Bethune:Voice of Black Hope.
New York: HarperCollins Sanford,W. 1993. Muhammad Ali.
New York: Puffin Books.
Publishers. New York: Crestwood House;
Meyer, L. 1998 Harriet Tubman: Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan
Haskins, J., and K. Benson. 1984. They Called Me Moses. Seattle, Canada; New York: Maxwell
Space Challenger: The Story of Wash.: Parenting Press. Macmillan International.
Guion Bluford: An Authorized
Miller, D. 1998. Frederick Douglass Senna, C. 1992. Colin Powell: A
Biography. Minneapolis, Minn.:
Carolrhoda Books. and the Fight for Freedom. New Man of War and Peace. New
York: Facts on File, c.1998. York: Walker.
Hopkinson, D. 1993. Sweet Clara
Mosher, K. 1996. Learning about Siegel, B. 1995. Marian Wright
and the Freedom Quilt. New
York: Knopf. Bravery from the Life of Harriet Edelman: The Making of a
Tubman. New York: PowerKids Crusader. New York: Simon &
Press. Schuster.

72
Stewart, J. 1996. 1001 Things Suggested Videos
Everyone Should Know about
African American History. New “The American Experience 6:
York: Doubleday. Malcolm X—Make It Plain.”
1994 (Mpi Home Video).
Tolan, M. 1991. Sojourner Truth:
The Courageous Former Slave “America’s Civil Rights
Who Led Others to Freedom. Movement.” (Teaching
Milwaukee, Wis.: G. Steven’s Tolerance)
Children’s Books. “Dateline Freedom: Civil Rights
Walker, M. 1992. Mississippi and the Press.” 1988 (Siena
Challenge. New York: Bradbury Library Company).
Press. “Eyes on the Prize: America’s
Yount, L. 1991. Black Scientists. Civil Rights Years.” 1995 (PBS
New York: Facts on File. Home Video).
“Free at Last: A History of the
Civil Rights Movement and
Those Who Died in the
Struggle” (Oxford University
Press).
“Goree: The Door of No
Return.” 1992 (Films for
Humanities and Sciences).
“I’ll Make Me a World 2:
Without Fear or Shame.” 1999
(PBS Video).
“Inventing the Future: African
American Contributions to
Scientific Discovery and
Invention.” 1994 (American
Chemical Society).
“The Journey of the African
American Athlete.” 1996
(Teacher’s Video Company).
“Last Breeze of Summer.” 1991
(Carousel Film and Video.
“The Morehouse Men.” 1995
(PBS Video).
“The Playing Field.” (United
Learning)

73
Reflections on What I Have Learned

Thank you for using this activity What I Know about African American Culture
guide to explore African
American culture. Now that you Today’s Date _________________
have completed the activities in
the guide, please complete the PART I. Match the following African Americans with their
What I Know about African accomplishments by putting the correct letter on the space following
American Culture worksheets. each number.
When you are finished, compare
your responses to those you gave
when you completed the 1. ___ Harriet Tubman a. “The Father of Blues”
worksheets at the beginning of
b. Traveled throughout the country
this guide. Did you get more 2. ___ Phillis Wheatley
answers correct the second time? speaking against slavery and for
3. ___ Carter G. Woodson women’s rights

Life Skills: Valuing Diversity c. Discovered the process for


Thinking Critically 4. ___ Sojourner Truth
separating plasma from blood and
Making Decisions
5. ___ Charles Richard Drew storing it until needed
Processing Information
Reasoning d. Would not give up her seat to a
6. ___ W. C. Handy
European American man on a
Montgomery bus in 1955
7. ___ George Washington Carver
e. “The Father of Black History”
8. ___ Malcolm X
f. Founded a school in 1904 that still
9. ___ Mary McLeod Bethune exists today

g. First African American to publish a


10. ___ Rosa Parks
book

h. Helped runaway slaves by use of


the Underground Railroad

i. Agricultural scientist who


produced over 300 products from
the peanut

j. Changed from an early life of


crime to a Muslim preacher

74
PART II. How would you PART III. Circle the correct 4. Which form of music was started
define the following? answer.
by African Americans?
1. A dashiki is a:
a) country
a) hairstyle
b) opera
Juneteenth: b) special dessert
c) jazz
c) loose-fitting garment
d) barber shop quartet
d) musical instrument

5. Which language is spoken in over


2. The term cornrow describes a:
800 countries of Africa?
a) style of clothing
a) Swahili
Kwanzaa: b) Christmas ornament
b) Tagalog
c) dish for dinner
c) French
d) hairstyle
d) Dutch

3. Which of the following foods was


Reflections
brought to the Americas by
Reflect on your new understanding of
Melanin: Africans?
African American culture by
a) apples answering the following questions:
b) rice What are three important things you
c) corn learned about African American
d) peanuts culture?
How can you use what you have
learned in your own life?
The Underground Railroad:

Gumbo:

75
How Can I Learn More?

Here are some suggestions for 1. Interview an African 2. Participate in an African


ways you can learn more about American adult. Select American program,
African American culture. someone you know, or ask a celebration, or event.
parent, teacher, minister, or Afterward, think about your
other adult to suggest an responses to the following
Life Skills: Valuing Diversity African American adult to questions.
Learning to Learn interview. Select from the
• How would you describe
Interacting Socially following questions or write
the program, celebration,
your own.
or event?
• What city and state were
• What did you find unique
you born in?
about this program,
• What type of community celebration, or event?
(farm, small town, big city)
• What did you like the
did you grow up in?
most about this program,
• What was it like growing celebration, or event?
up?
Here are some possible activities
• What were your favorite
games to play as a child?
you may consider:
• Participate in a Black History
• What was your favorite Month celebration.
toy?
• Participate in a Kwanzaa
• What was the best trip or celebration.
vacation you took? Why
was it so special? • Participate in an African
American community
• What was your favorite program.
subject or activity in
school? • Invite an African American to
your home for a meal or just to
• What is one childhood visit.
experience that stands out
in your mind? Why? • Watch a movie that focuses on
the life of African Americans
• What is one thing you are (e.g., Roots).
proud of as an African
American?

76
Puzzle Solutions

African American Invention Word Find I Solution

R + I + D T + M + + + F + R R + + +
+ E + R H E A + H + O + O E E R + +
P + N G O I B S + U + T + N F E + +
+ A I E L N U G N + C + + A R L + +
+ L P B P R I T N E + + + E I K G E
+ + O E B R A N T I + + + L G N A V
+ X + R R I A E G + D + + C E I S O
+ + I + N B D H K T + L + Y R R M T
+ A + P + E A + S C A + O R A P A S
H + E + K + + G + L O B + F T S S +
+ N + O + + + + + + I L L + O N K +
+ + M C I F F A R T + C C E R W + +
+ S L A W N M O W E R + N + + A + +
C L O T H E S D R Y E R + E + L + +
R E K A M D A E R B + + + + P + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
R E D D A L E P A C S E E R I F + +

(Over, Down, Direction)


BREADMAKER (10, 15, W) LIGHT (2, 5, NE)
CLOCK (13, 12, NW) MAILBOX (8, 1, SW)
CLOTHESDRYER (1, 14, E) PAPERBAG (1, 3, SE)
FIREESCAPELADDER (16, 18, W) PENCILSHARPENER (15, 15, NW)
FOLDINGBED (14, 10, NW) REFRIGERATOR (15, 1, S)
FOUNTAINPEN (12, 1, SW) RYCLEANER (14, 9, N)
GASMASK (17, 5, S) SMOKEDETECTOR (2, 13, NE)
HAIRBRUSH (1, 10, NE) STOVE (18, 9, N)
IRONINGTABLE (3, 1, SE) TRAFFIC (10, 12, W)
LAWNMOWER (3, 13 ,E)
LAWNSPRINKLER (16, 14, N)

77
African American Invention Word Find II Solution
+ M + + E + + + + + + O + + + + + + + B + + L F + + V F C N
+ + I R + + S S E H + B + + + + + + + + E A + O C E + R O E
E L E C T R O C A R D I O G R A P H I C W L E U R N + E M W
D M + N R + + B + + + T K + + U + + + N + C I N + + U E P T
+ R I + + O U + N + + E + C N P E W S + N + A T + + + J L O
+ H Y + + + P E + + + R + C O + G P + A + C R A T + + + I N
T + + C + + V H + + + + H + + L R A R + U + + I + L + + C I
+ + + + L A + + O + + Y + + + I C F S L + + + N M + E + A A
K R O W D E + + + T + + + + N + + + A M + + + P + S + R T N
R E + A D E A R S + O + + K + + + R + + A + + E + + + R E +
E L N + + + + N + + + G L + + + S + + + + S + N + + E L D +
E B + + + + + + I + + E R L A W N M O W E R K + + P + E N +
N A + + + + + + + N R + + A H + + + + + + R E + L + + O E H
O T D E V E I H C A G R D O P S + + + + + E V Y + F + N S O
I G + + + + + + + + O E A E E H + + + + + R O I M A G E S U
T N + + M + + + + T + E Z R B G I R O T C E T E D E K O M S
C I R E K A M D A E R B U I T G N C + + + F S S + L + W + I
U N N + D + N R + O + S + L M O N I + + + L N R + + S O + N
A O + K + U E G S + O + N + S I R I B + + I + O + E + L + G
+ R + + E G L H L L + + + O + + T A D B B P + S X + + L P +
+ I + + I R + Y C E + R E M I H C P + L E + + E + + + A + +
+ + + R + + + N U H S + + + + S + + O + O + L + + + P F + +
+ + F + + + E S + + + + + + + + S + + + + F + + T E + + G E
R E S T R E N G T H E N + + + + + E + + E + + + R + + + R E
R + + + + R + + + + + + + + + + + + S R + + + B A + + + E M
+ + + + A T A B B A S + + + + + + + + R + + A + P S + + B S
+ + + D + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + E G + + + + C + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + C A P T + + + + + R + +
T O P S + + + + + + + + + + U L U A T I N G N D R A H S A +
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + I + + + + + +

78
(Over, Down, Direction) PUNCHY (17, 3, SW) African American Musical
ACHIEVED (10, 14, W) REFLEXES (20, 25, NE) Word Scramble
ARCS (29, 29, NW) REFRIGERATOR (1, 25, NE)
REPLY (28, 10, SW) LOUS SOUL
AUCTIONEER (1, 19, N)
RESTRENGTHEN (1, 24, E) NLKROORLC ROCK N ROLL
BELITTLER (20, 1, SE)
RIMS (23, 6, SE) PSEGLO GOSPEL
BERG (29, 26, N)
ROSE (24, 18, S) ZAJZ JAZZ
BINS (21, 20, NE)
ROSH (11, 17, SW) POIHOH HIP HOP
BREADMAKER (12, 17, W)
SABBAT (11, 26, W) SCODI DISCO
CAPT (19, 28, E)
SHARD (28, 29, W) ELBSU BLUES
CHIMER (17, 21, W)
SHUN (11, 22, W) ISLAITUSPR SPIRITUALS
CLOCK (17, 8, NW)
SLUE (15, 19, NW) UFKN FUNK
COMPLICATEDNESS (29, 1, S)
SMEE (30, 26, N) OPBBE BEBOP
DARNS (4, 27, NE)
DEARS (5, 10, E) SMOKEDETECTOR (30, 16, W)
DRYCLEANING (1, 4, SE) STOVE (23, 17, N)
THIN (1, 7, NE)
Kwanzaa Word Scramble
DULY (5, 18, SE)
EBBING (21, 21, NW) TOPS (1, 29, E) ANI NIA
ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC (1, 3, E) TORA (15, 17, SE) JAOMU UMOJA
ENCLOSURES (7, 23, NE) TRAP (25, 23, S) MIJAU UJIMA
FALLOW (28, 22, N) ULUATING (15, 29, E) UUKBMA KUUMBA
FOLDINGBED (22, 23, NW) VERNACULARS (27, 1, SW) GUKUCHAJILIA KUJICHAGULIA
FOUNTAINPEN (24, 1, S) WHOA (16, 12, SW) AAAMJU UJAAMA
FRANCE (18, 8, NE) WORK (4, 9, W) IAMIN IMANI
FREE (28, 1, S)
GASMASK (17, 6, SE)
HABU (10, 2, SW)
HESS (10, 2, W)
HOUSING (30, 13, S)
IMAGES (24, 15, E)
INKER (2, 17, SE)
INTERSESSIONS (24, 30, NW)
IRONINGTABLE (2, 21, N)
JUNC (28, 5, NW)
LAWNMOWER (14, 12, E)
LAWNSPRINKLER (23, 1, SW)
LEAF (26, 17, N)
LEONE (28, 11, S)
MANGLE (5, 16, SE)
MERE (2, 4, NE)
MICROPHOTOGRAPHIC (2, 1, SE)
NEVADAN (9, 5, SW)
NEWTONIAN (30, 1, S)
OBITER (12, 1, S)
OPTIMIZE (19, 22, NW)
PAPERBAG (29, 20, SW)
PEWS (16, 5, E)
PILFERER (22, 20, N)

79
What I Know about PART II. PART III.
African American Culture Juneteenth: An African American A dashiki is a loose-fitting garment.
PART I. holiday recognized as the
The term cornrow describes a
H 1. Harriet Tubman Independence Day for African
hairstyle.
G 2. Phillis Wheatley Americans
E 3. Carter G. Woodson Which of the following foods was
Kwanzaa: An African American
B 4. Sojourner Truth brought to the Americas by
holiday celebrated the last week
C 5. Charles Richard Drew Africans? Peanuts
A 6. W.C. Handy of December to recognize African
American heritage Which form of music was started by
I 7. George Washington Carver
J 8. Malcom X African Americans? Jazz
Melanin: Tiny, black coloring that
F 9. Mary McLeod Bethune Which language is spoken in over 800
determines skin color
D 10. Rosa Parks
countries of Africa? Swahili
The Underground Railroad: A
system of roads and safe hiding
places used to help enslaved
Africans escape north to freedom

Gumbo: A spicy stew from Louisiana,


usually containing okra

80
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82