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Landforms are the kinds of land a place has. Landforms include mountains, valleys, plateaus, plains, hills, volcanoes.
OROGENY Orogeny - the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within a time frame.

The physical manifestations of orogenesis, the process of orogeny, are orogenic belts or
orogens OROGENS - usually long, thin, arcuate tracts of rocks which have a pronounced linear structure resulting in terrains or blocks of deformed rocks, separated generally by dipping thrust faults.


orogen is different from a mountain range in that an orogen may be completely eroded away, and only recognizable by studying (old) rocks that bear the traces of the orogeny. of an orogen is accomplished in part by the tectonic processes of subduction, where a continent rides forcefully over an oceanic plate (noncollisional orogens), or convergence of two or more continents (collisional orogens).


I. MOUNTAINS Mountains cover: 54% of Asia 36% of North America 25% of Europe 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. 1 in 10 people live in mountainous regions. Mountains are generally given as heights above mean sea level. The Himalayas average 5 km above sea level, whilst the Andes average 4 km. The ANDES is the longest mountain range on land. Most other mountain ranges average 2-2.5 km. The highest mountain on Earth is EVEREST, 8,848 m, set in the world's most significant mountain range, the Himalaya. 22% of South America 17% of Australia 3% of Africa

KINDS OF MOUNTAINS 1. Folded Mountains or Complex Mountains Result from folding of sedimentary or lava beds or may result from variable resistance to erosion They are the largest and most complex mountain systems

Ex. Alps, Himalayas, and Appalachian mountains. 2. Volcanic Mountains Result from accumulation of lava and pyroclastics of volcanic events Molten rock, hurled into the air, cools rapidly and solidifies. The resulting particles are irregular in shape.

Ex. Mt. Apo, Mayon, Taal 3. Erosion Volcanic Mountains These are single mountains or a group of mountains that have been formed by erosion of streams.

Ex. Sierra Madre, Zambales Mountains 4. Fault-block mountains Formed by the displacement of a rock along a fault. Here the crust has been literally broken into hundreds of pieces, giving rise to nearly parallel mountain ranges.

Ex. Marinduque Mountains 5. Upwarped Mountains Produced in association with a broad arching of the crust or in some instances because of vertical displacement along high angle faults.

PHILIPPINE MOUNTAINS AND PEAKS The Philippine mountains are volcanic in origin and in general have moderate elevation. Situated in the tropical latitude, these mountains have tropical vegetation.

Top 10 Highest Mountain Peaks in the Philippines 1.) Mount Apo Davao/North Cotabato The HIGHEST MOUNTAIN in the Philippines. It is located between the provinces of Davao and North Cotabato. Considered a dormant volcano, has an elevation of 2,956 meters.

2.) Mount Dulang-Dulang Bukidnon The second highest peak in the Philippines.

Located in Mindanao, particularly in Kitanglad Range, Bukidnon. Has an elevation of 2,938 meters, only 18 meters short to Mount Apo. Filipino mountaineers nicknamed the mountain D2.

3.) Mount Pulag Benguet With an elevation of 2,922 Meters, Mount Pulag, which is located in Cordillera Range, Benguet and part of Cordillera Autonomous Region The 3rd highest point in the Philippines. Luzons highest peak

4.) Mount Kitanglad Bukidnon At 2,899 meters, Mount Kitanglad in Kitanglad Range, Bukidnon, is the 4th highest mountain in the beautiful archipelago of the Philippines. This mountain, declared an ASEAN Heritage Park in 2009, is a dormant volcano.

5.) Mount Kalatungan Bukidnon The 5th highest mountain in the Philippines is Mount Kalatunagan in Kalatungan Range located in Southern Philippines particularly in the province of Bukidnon in Mindanao. This mountain is potentially an active volcano. 2, 824 meters

6.) Mount Tabayoc Benguet Located in Cordillera Range, a mountain range in Northern Luzon. Second highest Mountain in Luzon This mountain has an elevation of 2,842 meters.

7.) Mount Ragang Lanao del Sur Located in Piapayungan Range Lanao del Sur. This province also contains the Philippine largest waterfall Maria Cristina Falls, a major source of electricity in the area. Has an elevation of 2,815 meters; only 9 meters shy to the 6 th highest mountain in the country. This mountain, which is an active volcano, is also known as Mount Piapayungan and Blue Mountain.

8.) Mount Maagnaw Bukidnon It has an elevation of 2,742 meters.

9.) Mount Singakalsa Benguet Also known as Mount Timbak is another high mountain located in the Cordillera Range, Benguet. With an elevation of 2,717 meters. 3rd highest mountain in Luzon

10.) Mount Amuyao Benguet With an elevation 2,689.

II. PLATEAUS Plateaus are landforms that have STEEP SIDES and a FLAT top. They may stretch for miles in every direction. Most plateau regions are the result of diastrophism. Some are the result of volcanism

Economic Importance of Plateaus: They can be dammed to impound the water in large reservoirs. The stored water can then be used for irrigation and for the generation of electricity

III. PLAINS A land surface that is comparatively flat and relatively close to sea level. Plains are flat sometimes grassy lands that stretch for miles and can be good habitats for animals like zebras, lions, and elephants, giraffes.

Importance of Plains: 1. Plains are easy to cultivate, easy to cross and move products across and easy to build on 2. It is on plains, large and small, that most of the worlds population, agriculture, cities, industries, commercial district and transportation centers are found. IV. VALLEYS V. HILLS landform that extend above the surrounding terrain, in a limited area Valleys are lowlands that lie between mountain ranges. They are often good places for communities because water runs down from the mountains and they have rich soil to grow crops.

VI. VOLCANOES Mountains or hills, usually in the shape of a cone, with holes through which lava, cinders, steam, sulfur gases, flow