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# Examples of Inertia of Motion: 1) The passenger in a running bus tends to lean forward , when the bus stops suddenly:

When the bus is running, the whole body of the passenger is in the state of motion. When the bus stops suddenly, the lower part of the passengers body which is in contact with the bus, comes to rest. But the passengers upper portion remains in the state of motion due to the inertia of motion. This is the reason for the passenger to lean forward when the bus stops suddenly. 2) If a person throws a ball vertically upwards in a moving train, it comes back to his hand: The moment the ball was thrown, the ball was also in motion alone with the person who has thrown the ball and the train. This is due to inertia of motion. So when the ball remains in the air, both the person and the ball move ahead by the same distance. This makes the ball to come back to his hand on its return. 3) In a sports field, an athelete often runs before taking a long jump: The reason why an athlete runs before taking a long jump is that the athlete brings himself in the state of motion and so it becomes easier for him to take a long jump. 4) A person jumping out of a moving train, falls down: When the person is sitting inside a train, his complete body was in a state of motion with the train. The moment he jumps out of the moving train, his feet touches the ground, and the lower portion of his body comes to rest. But the upper portion remains in motion due to inertia of motion. That's why he falls in the direction of motion of the train. To avoid this, the person should run in the direction of motion of the train for some distance after he jumps out of the train. Then he will not fall down.

Examples of Inertia at Rest: 1. It is a common experience to have a jerk when a vehicle starts moving from its position of rest. Our body which is at rest inside the vehicle at rest, starts moving along with the vehicle, when it starts all of a sudden. Only the lower part of his body starts moving whereas the upper part of the body continues to be at rest because of Inertia of Rest. Inertia of Rest is the tendency of an object (or body) to continue its state of rest unless it is acted upon by an external force 2. Fruits fall down due to inertia of rest when the branches of a tree are shaken. Fruits and branches are both at rest, but when branches of trees are shaken, branches starts moving where as fruits remain its state of rest and so separated from the branches and fall down.

3. Dust particles on a carpet fall if we beat the carpet with a stick is another example for the inertia at rest. When we beat the carpet with a stick carpet starts moving, but the dust particles remains at its state of rest and separated from the carpet.

4. With a quick pull, a table cloth can be removed from a dining table without disturbing dishes on it due to the Inertia of rest. The inertia of rest of the dishes keeps them where they are.

Other examples 1. Suddenly accelerating during a car ride makes the driver and the riders feel pushed up against their seats. 2. Turning around a corner while driving makes the driver and the riders move quite counter-intuitively. For example, if a car turns right, every person in the car is pushed to left and vice versa. 3. We usually shake the bottle of ketchup or hit it in order to get that last bit of ketchup remaining in the bottle. 5. If a bus suddenly stops and you aren't holding onto a support, you will be pushed to the front of the bus. Your mass and the concept of inertia helps to explain such a phenomenon.

## Everyday Applications of Newton's First Law

1. Headrests are placed in cars to prevent whiplash injuries during rear-end collisions. 2. While riding a skateboard (or wagon or bicycle), you fly forward off the board when hitting a curb or rock or other object that abruptly halts the motion of the skateboard. 3. A pillion rider is hurled backwards when the motorcycle starts to move.
Positive Effects 1. Drying off umbrella by moving and stopping it quickly. 2. To tight the loose hammer Negative Effects 1. During a road accident, passengers are thrust forward when their car is suddenly stopped. 2. Passengers are hurled backwards when the vehicle starts to move and are hurled forward when it stops immediately. 3. A person with a heavier/ larger body will find it more difficult to stop his movement. 4. A heavier vehicle will take a long time to stop moving.